Publications by authors named "Dustin Chapman"

3 Publications

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Attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls.

Schizophr Res 2011 Apr 8;127(1-3):151-6. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

University of Texas at Tyler, Department of Psychology, 3900 University Blvd., Tyler, TX 75799, United States.

Deficits in emotion perception are common in people with schizophrenia and current research has focused on improving these deficits. In our previous research, we demonstrated that directing attention to salient facial features via attention shaping can improve these deficits among inpatients. In this study, we examined the efficacy of an enhanced attention shaping program that contains 192 emotional expressions from which 25 are randomly presented for training. We extended our previous work by using repeated administrations of the shaping intervention and testing its effect in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls. Fifteen participants with schizophrenia and fourteen college student controls with emotion perception deficits were randomly assigned to 1, 3 or 5 sessions of attention shaping. Participants completed 2 outcome measures of emotion perception, the FEIT and BLERT, not presented during the training, and underwent eye tracking at pre and post-tests. All conditions and groups improved, but the largest improvements on the BLERT and FEIT were found for persons assigned to the 5 session condition. Performance on the shaping program was positively correlated with the two outcome measures of emotion perception. There was less support for changes in visual scanning of faces as there was a relative reduction in total scanning time from pre-test to post-test. Results are interpreted in terms of the efficacy of attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.05.011DOI Listing
April 2011

Perceptions of hostility by persons with and without persecutory delusions.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2009 Jan;14(1):30-52

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799, USA.

Introduction: Current models of paranoia propose that ambiguous situations, in which cues regarding the intentions of others are lacking, may be perceived as hostile by persons with persecutory delusions (PD). Thus, a social-cognitive bias for the perception of hostility may be present. In this study, the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) was used to present situations that are ambiguous regarding the intentions of others. It was predicted that on the AIHQ, persons with PD would show greater levels of perceived hostility, blame, and aggression than both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric controls.

Methods: The sample comprised 32 persons with PD, 28 persons without PD (psychiatric controls), and 50 healthy participants (nonpsychiatric controls). Participants completed the AIHQ along with measures of paranoia, attributional style, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and public self-consciousness.

Results: As predicted, the group with PD showed greater perceptions of hostility, blame, and aggression scores for ambiguous situations on the AIHQ. Also, the AIHQ Hostility bias score was predictive of paranoid ideation.

Conclusions: Persons with PD showed a social-cognitive bias for perceiving hostility in ambiguous situations. The bias appears to be specific as it was not found in the psychiatric or nonpsychiatric control groups. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546800902732970DOI Listing
January 2009