Publications by authors named "Durga Sivanesan"

11 Publications

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Tuberculosis and impaired IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity in humans homozygous for a common missense variant.

Sci Immunol 2018 12;3(30)

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Inherited IL-12Rβ1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls ( = 8.37 × 10; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aau8714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341984PMC
December 2018

IL23R (Interleukin 23 Receptor) Variants Protective against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) Display Loss of Function due to Impaired Protein Stability and Intracellular Trafficking.

J Biol Chem 2016 Apr 17;291(16):8673-85. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

From the Department of Biochemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada,

Genome-wide association studies as well as murine models have shown that the interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R) pathway plays a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, and type 1 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies and targeted re-sequencing studies have revealed the presence of multiple potentially causal variants of the IL23R. Specifically the G149R, V362I, and R381Q IL23Rα chain variants are linked to protection against the development of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in humans. Moreover, the exact mechanism of action of these receptor variants has not been elucidated. We show that all three of these IL23Rα variants cause a reduction in IL23 receptor activation-mediated phosphorylation of the signal-transducing activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylation of signal transducing activator of transcription 4 (STAT4). The reduction in signaling is due to lower levels of cell surface receptor expression. For G149R, the receptor retention in the endoplasmic reticulum is due to an impairment of receptor maturation, whereas the R381Q and V362I variants have reduced protein stability. Finally, we demonstrate that the endogenous expression of IL23Rα protein from V362I and R381Q variants in human lymphoblastoid cell lines exhibited lower expression levels relative to susceptibility alleles. Our results suggest a convergent cause of IL23Rα variant protection against chronic inflammatory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.715870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861437PMC
April 2016

An infrared reporter to detect spatiotemporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions.

Nat Methods 2014 Jun 20;11(6):641-4. Epub 2014 Apr 20.

Département de Biochimie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

We report a protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) based on the engineered Deinococcus radiodurans infrared fluorescent protein IFP1.4. Unlike previous fluorescent protein PCAs, the IFP PCA is reversible, allowing analysis of spatiotemporal dynamics of hormone-induced signaling complexes in living yeast and mammalian cells at nanometer resolution. The inherently low background of infrared fluorescence permitted detection of subcellular reorganization of a signaling complex expressed at low abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2934DOI Listing
June 2014

The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

PLoS One 2014 21;9(2):e89092. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Research Center, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada ; Département de Microbiologie, Infectiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089092PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931659PMC
January 2015

Type IV secretion system core component VirB8 from Brucella binds to the globular domain of VirB5 and to a periplasmic domain of VirB6.

Biochemistry 2012 May 26;51(18):3881-90. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Type IV secretion systems are macromolecular assemblies in the cell envelopes of bacteria that function in macromolecular translocation. Structural biology approaches have provided insights into the interaction of core complex components, but information about proteins that undergo transient interactions with membrane components has not been forthcoming. We have pursued an unbiased approach using peptide arrays and phage display to identify interaction partners and interaction domains of type IV secretion system assembly factor VirB8. These approaches identified the globular domain from the VirB5 protein to interact with VirB8. This interaction was confirmed in cross-linking, pull-down, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based interaction assays. In addition, using phage display analysis, we identified different regions of VirB6 as potential interaction partners of VirB8. Using a FRET-based interaction assay, we provide the first direct experimental evidence of the interaction of a VirB6 periplasmic domain with VirB8. These results will allow us to conduct directed structural biological work and structure-function analyses aimed at defining the molecular details and biological significance of these interactions with VirB8 in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi300298vDOI Listing
May 2012

The dimer interface of Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB8 is important for type IV secretion system function, stability, and association of VirB2 with the core complex.

J Bacteriol 2011 May 11;193(9):2097-106. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.

Type IV secretion systems are virulence factors used by many gram-negative bacteria to translocate macromolecules across the cell envelope. VirB8 is an essential inner membrane component of type IV secretion systems, and it is believed to form a homodimer. In the absence of VirB8, the levels of several other VirB proteins were reduced (VirB1, VirB3, VirB4, VirB5, VirB6, VirB7, and VirB11) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, underlining its importance for complex stability. To assess the importance of dimerization, we changed residues at the predicted dimer interface (V97, A100, Q93, and E94) in order to strengthen or to abolish dimerization. We verified the impact of the changes on dimerization in vitro with purified V97 variants, followed by analysis of the in vivo consequences in a complemented virB8 deletion strain. Dimer formation was observed in vivo after the introduction of a cysteine residue at the predicted interface (V97C), and this variant supported DNA transfer, but the formation of elongated T pili was not detected by the standard pilus isolation technique. Variants with changes at V97 and A100 that weaken dimerization did not support type IV secretion system functions. The T-pilus component VirB2 cofractionated with high-molecular-mass core protein complexes extracted from the membranes, and the presence of VirB8 as well as its dimer interface were important for this association. We conclude that the VirB8 dimer interface is required for T4SS function, for the stabilization of many VirB proteins, and for targeting of VirB2 to the T-pilus assembly site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00907-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3133091PMC
May 2011

An in vivo high-throughput screening approach targeting the type IV secretion system component VirB8 identified inhibitors of Brucella abortus 2308 proliferation.

Infect Immun 2011 Mar 20;79(3):1033-43. Epub 2010 Dec 20.

McMaster University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine and Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 5C2, Canada.

As bacterial pathogens develop resistance against most currently used antibiotics, novel alternatives for treatment of microbial infectious diseases are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions in order to disarm pathogens represents a promising alternative to classical antibiotic therapy. Type IV secretion systems, which are multiprotein complexes in the cell envelope that translocate effectors into host cells, are critical bacterial virulence factors in many pathogens and excellent targets for such "antivirulence" drugs. The VirB8 protein from the mammalian pathogen Brucella was chosen as a specific target, since it is an essential type IV secretion system component, it participates in multiple protein-protein interactions, and it is essential for the assembly of this translocation machinery. The bacterial two-hybrid system was adapted to assay VirB8 interactions, and a high-throughput screen identified specific small-molecule inhibitors. VirB8 interaction inhibitors also reduced the levels of VirB8 and of other VirB proteins, and many of them inhibited virB gene transcription in Brucella abortus 2308, suggesting that targeting of the secretion system has complex regulatory effects in vivo. One compound strongly inhibited the intracellular proliferation of B. abortus 2308 in a J774 macrophage infection model. The results presented here show that in vivo screens with the bacterial two-hybrid assay are suited to the identification of inhibitors of Brucella type IV secretion system function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00993-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067494PMC
March 2011

Quantitative analysis of VirB8-VirB9-VirB10 interactions provides a dynamic model of type IV secretion system core complex assembly.

Biochemistry 2010 Jun;49(21):4483-93

Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.

Type IV secretion systems are multiprotein complexes that translocate macromolecules across the bacterial cell envelope. The type IV secretion system in Brucella species encodes 12 VirB proteins that permit this pathogen to translocate effectors into mammalian cells, where they contribute to its survival inside the host. The "core" complex proteins are conserved in all type IV secretion systems, and they are believed to form the channel for substrate translocation. We have investigated the in vitro interactions between the soluble periplasmic domains of three of these VirB components, VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, circular dichroism, and surface plasmon resonance techniques. The in vitro experiments helped in the quantification of the self-association and binary interactions of VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10. Individually, distinct binding properties were revealed that may explain their biological functions, and collectively, we provide direct evidence of the in vitro formation of the VirB8-VirB9-VirB10 ternary complex. To assess the dynamics of these interactions in a simplified in vivo model of complex assembly, we applied the bacterial two-hybrid system in studying interactions between the full-length proteins. This approach demonstrated that VirB9 stimulates the self-association of VirB8 but inhibits VirB10-VirB10 and VirB8-VirB10 interaction. Analysis of a dimerization site variant of VirB8 (VirB8(M102R)) suggested that the interactions with VirB9 and VirB10 are independent of its self-association, which stabilizes VirB8 in this model assay. We propose a dynamic model for secretion system assembly in which VirB8 plays a role as an assembly factor that is not closely associated with the functional core complex comprising VirB9 and VirB10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi902201yDOI Listing
June 2010

Dimerization and interactions of Brucella suis VirB8 with VirB4 and VirB10 are required for its biological activity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 May 28;103(19):7252-7. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1.

VirB8-like proteins are essential components of type IV secretion systems, bacterial virulence factors that mediate the translocation of effector molecules from many bacterial pathogens into eukaryotic cells. Based on cell biological, genetic, and x-ray crystallographic data, VirB8 was proposed to undergo multiple protein-protein interactions to mediate assembly of the translocation machinery. Here we report the results of a structure-function analysis of the periplasmic domain of VirB8 from the mammalian pathogen Brucella suis, which identifies amino acid residues required for three protein-protein interactions. VirB8 variants changed at residues proposed to be involved in dimerization, and protein-protein interactions were purified and characterized in vitro and in vivo. Changes at M102, Y105, and E214 affected the self-association as measured by analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. The interaction with B. suis VirB10 was reduced by changes at T201, and change at R230 inhibited the interaction with VirB4 in vitro. The in vivo functionality of VirB8 variants was determined by complementation of growth in macrophages by a B. suis virB8 mutant and by using a heterologous assay of type IV secretion system assembly in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Changes at Y105, T201, R230, and at several other residues impaired the in vivo function of VirB8, suggesting that we have identified interaction sites of relevance in the natural biological context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0600862103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1464329PMC
May 2006

The putative lytic transglycosylase VirB1 from Brucella suis interacts with the type IV secretion system core components VirB8, VirB9 and VirB11.

Microbiology (Reading) 2005 Nov;151(Pt 11):3469-3482

McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON, Canada LS8 4K1.

VirB1-like proteins are believed to act as lytic transglycosylases, which facilitate the assembly of type IV secretion systems via localized lysis of the peptidoglycan. This paper presents the biochemical analysis of interactions of purified Brucella suis VirB1 with core components of the type IV secretion system. Genes encoding VirB1, VirB8, VirB9, VirB10 and VirB11 were cloned into expression vectors; the affinity-tagged proteins were purified from Escherichia coli, and analyses by gel filtration chromatography showed that they form monomers or homo-multimers. Analysis of protein-protein interactions by affinity precipitation revealed that VirB1 bound to VirB9 and VirB11. The results of bicistron expression experiments followed by gel filtration further supported the VirB1-VirB9 interaction. Peptide array mapping identified regions of VirB1 that interact with VirB8, VirB9 and VirB11 and underscored the importance of the C-terminus, especially for the VirB1-VirB9 interaction. The binding sites were localized on a structure model of VirB1, suggesting that different portions of VirB1 may interact with other VirB proteins during assembly of the type IV secretion machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.28326-0DOI Listing
November 2005

Identification of the VirB4-VirB8-VirB5-VirB2 pilus assembly sequence of type IV secretion systems.

J Biol Chem 2005 Jul 18;280(28):26349-59. Epub 2005 May 18.

Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario LS8 4K1, Canada.

Type IV secretion systems mediate the translocation of virulence factors (proteins and/or DNA) from Gram-negative bacteria into eukaryotic cells. A complex of 11 conserved proteins (VirB1-VirB11) spans the inner and the outer membrane and assembles extracellular T-pili in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here we report a sequence of protein interactions required for the formation of complexes between VirB2 and VirB5, which precedes their incorporation into pili. The NTPase Walker A active site of the inner membrane protein VirB4 is required for virulence, but an active site VirB4 variant stabilized VirB3 and VirB8 and enabled T-pilus formation. Analysis of VirB protein complexes extracted from the membranes with mild detergent revealed that VirB2-VirB5 complex formation depended on VirB4, which identified a novel T-pilus assembly step. Bicistron expression demonstrated direct interaction of VirB4 with VirB8, and analyses with purified proteins showed that VirB5 bound to VirB8 and VirB10. VirB4 therefore localizes at the basis of a trans-envelope interaction sequence, and by stabilization of VirB8 it mediates the incorporation of VirB5 and VirB2 into extracellular pili.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M502347200DOI Listing
July 2005