Publications by authors named "Dupe S Ademola-Popoola"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcome of vision screening by community health workers at immunization outlets in Nigeria to support access to early visual evaluation in children aged 0-2 years.

Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):77-85. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Purpose: Routine eye examination in early life is not the practice in most resource-limited countries. Delay in the presentation for eye problems is typical. Community health officers are often consulted by caregivers for all health problems during routine immunization and well-baby clinics in primary healthcare for children aged 0-2 years. This study evaluated the value and limitation of interview, Bruckner red reflex test, and instrument vision screener by noneye care middle-level staff of rural and urban well-baby immunization clinics, in early detection and referral for childhood eye disorders.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Middle-level community health workers (CHWs) working at well-baby/immunization clinics were trained to perform vision screening using interview of caregivers, red reflex eye examination with ophthalmoscope, and instrument vision screener (Welch Allyn SPOT™ Vision Screener) without mydriatic drugs during routine immunization of children aged 0-2 years. IRB approval was obtained.

Results: Over a 6-month period in 2017, the CHWs screened 5609 children. Overall, 628 (11.2%) patients were referred to the tertiary child eye care unit. Referred cases included cataract, glaucoma, congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction, ophthalmia neonatorum, retinoblastoma, and significant refractive errors. Referral from the interview of mothers was enhanced if specific questions to elicit visual function were asked. Bruckner red reflex test was more effective than instrument vision screener in the detection of cataract and life-threatening diseases such as retinoblastoma. Instrument vision screener was preferred by parents and better at detecting amblyopic risk factors.

Conclusion: Preschool vision screening during routine immunization by primary healthcare workers in resource-limited settings was effective. Whenever instrument vision screener does not give any recommendation during screening, consider vision- or life-threatening pathology and refer.
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October 2020

Travel burden and clinical presentation of retinoblastoma: analysis of 1024 patients from 43 African countries and 518 patients from 40 European countries.

Br J Ophthalmol 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Pediatric Oncology Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: The travel distance from home to a treatment centre, which may impact the stage at diagnosis, has not been investigated for retinoblastoma, the most common childhood eye cancer. We aimed to investigate the travel burden and its impact on clinical presentation in a large sample of patients with retinoblastoma from Africa and Europe.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis including 518 treatment-naïve patients with retinoblastoma residing in 40 European countries and 1024 treatment-naïve patients with retinoblastoma residing in 43 African countries.

Results: Capture rate was 42.2% of expected patients from Africa and 108.8% from Europe. African patients were older (95% CI -12.4 to -5.4, p<0.001), had fewer cases of familial retinoblastoma (95% CI 2.0 to 5.3, p<0.001) and presented with more advanced disease (95% CI 6.0 to 9.8, p<0.001); 43.4% and 15.4% of Africans had extraocular retinoblastoma and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, respectively, compared to 2.9% and 1.0% of the Europeans. To reach a retinoblastoma centre, European patients travelled 421.8 km compared to Africans who travelled 185.7 km (p<0.001). On regression analysis, lower-national income level, African residence and older age (p<0.001), but not travel distance (p=0.19), were risk factors for advanced disease.

Conclusions: Fewer than half the expected number of patients with retinoblastoma presented to African referral centres in 2017, suggesting poor awareness or other barriers to access. Despite the relatively shorter distance travelled by African patients, they presented with later-stage disease. Health education about retinoblastoma is needed for carers and health workers in Africa in order to increase capture rate and promote early referral.
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September 2020

Global Retinoblastoma Presentation and Analysis by National Income Level.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):685-695

Imam Hussein Cancer Center, Karbala, Iraq.

Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale.

Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.

Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.
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May 2020

Contemporary management of retinoblastoma in the context of a low-resource country.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2019 Apr-Jun;26(2):69-79

Retinoblastoma Unit, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust; Department of Paediatrics, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common ocular cancer, and it typically presents before the age of 5 years in over 90% of cases. In high resource countries, RB patients tend to survive and retain their sight. This is not the case in low-resource countries because of late presentation and delayed intervention arising mostly from sociocultural and socioeconomic challenges. RB has no gender or racial predilection; the incidence is estimated as 1:16,000-1:18,000 live-births or 11/1 million children under 5 years. Most of the world's RB cases are found in Asia and Africa while most RB treatment centres are in America and Europe. RB is easy to detect by caregivers as a glowing white 'cat eye reflex' at night or when captured on camera. Health workers at primary care level can detect RB in early life if red reflex test and/or squint (Hirschberg) tests are deployed as part of wellness checks done especially during routine immunisation and well-baby clinics in the first 24 months of life. In most cases of RB, biopsies for histological confirmation are not required for diagnosis and treatment decisions to be made. Clinical information, ophthalmic evaluation and imaging modalities are typically used. There have been significant changes in the management of RB using various treatment modalities such as enucleation with orbital implant, use of chemotherapy delivered through intravenous, intravitreal, periocular and intra-arterial routes and targeted treatment with laser, cryotherapy and brachytherapy. Algorithm for management and development of the national RB program within the context of a low-resource country is presented from review of data extracted from Mendeley library, PubMed library, Google Scholar and One Network; full-text articles were mostly retrieved through the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
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June 2019

Epidemiology of ROP update - Africa is the new frontier.

Semin Perinatol 2019 10 11;43(6):317-322. Epub 2019 May 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Several epidemics of blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have been described, with the most recent (the third) occurring in middle income countries in Latin America and Eastern Europe initially, and more recently in the more advanced economies in Asia. In these settings, which are characterized by variation in the quality of neonatal care and inadequate coverage of ROP screening and treatment, larger, more mature infants are affected as well as extremely preterm infants. In 2010 the annual incidence of blindness and visual impairment from ROP globally was estimated to be 32,300, with the lowest incidence in sub-Saharan countries. However, ROP is likely to become an increasingly important cause of blindness in children in sub-Saharan Africa as neonatal care expands unless policies and programmes for control are included at the outset.
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October 2019

Comparison of ocular biometry measurements by applanation and immersion A-scan techniques.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2015 Sep-Dec;27(3-4):110-4. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Purpose: The study compared ocular biometry values using applanation and immersion techniques to determine the most applicable method for our tertiary training centre where personnel with different levels of experience and expertise in biometry take measurements used in calculation of required intraocular lens before cataract surgery.

Methods: The study was a prospective cross-sectional comparative study of different techniques of ocular biometry from diagnostic equipment (biometry probe 10 MHz Sonomed(®) A-scan (PACSCAN 300A, USA). Measurement variables were obtained among children and adults undergoing cataract surgery. Scleral (Prager) shell was used for the immersion technique followed by the contact technique by the same examiner.

Results: The biometry values of 92 eyes of 92 adult were taken. Their ages ranged from 18 to 95 years with a mean of 64.7 (SD ± 12.9) years. There were 55 (59.8%) males and 37 (40.2%) females, with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Average axial length (22.0-24.4 mm) eyes were the most common eyes measured in 75 (81.5%) of the cases. The means of the axial lengths biometry values with immersion and contact technique were 23.66(±1.36) and 23.46 mm (±1.46); the axial length differences was 0.2 ± 0.26 mm (range 0.0-0.94 mm) and statistically significant (95% CI of the Difference 0.15 to 0.26, p = 0.000). The Standard deviation SD (mm) of Individual Eye Axial Length showed a mean of 0.03 ± 0.04 (0.0-0.3) mm for immersion and for contact technique 0.14 ± 0.12(0.0-0.6)mm.

Conclusion: There was a significant difference in ocular biometry measurement with the contact and immersion ultrasound techniques. The immersion technique had better repeatability, thus it is ideal in a training hospital setting in a typical in sub-Saharan Africa who have limited resources to employ a dedicated person to do biometry; and where the different operators of A-scan machines have different levels of experience and expertise.
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May 2016

Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria.

Ann Afr Med 2011 Apr-Jun;10(2):155-64

Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis.

Result: The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder.

Conclusion: Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.
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October 2011

Psychosocial characteristics of totally blind people in a nigerian city.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2010 Oct;17(4):335-42

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Purpose: To characterize the demographic and psychosocial problems of a group of blind people as a way of attracting more attention to and providing data that can improve the psychosocial care of the visually impaired.

Materials And Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a population of totally blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria using a self-report questionnaire (SRQ). The questionnaire was verbally administered by the study personnel in the local language. Simple frequency tables were obtained and the Chi-square test was performed to determine significant differences between variables. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Sixty one blind patients consented to participate. Most participants were engaged in street begging for their livelihood. Most subjects desired a job change, signifying dissatisfaction with the present occupation. Up to 80% of the cohort was married and had spouses who were also blind in at least one eye. Approximately two-thirds had five or more children and majority lived with family members who were responsible for taking care of their personal hygiene, cooking and mobility. The majority developed blindness in childhood and 16% had a family history of blindness and 77% had never used conventional eye care, with corneal disease being the most frequent cause of blindness. Many feared that their children may also become blind. Thirty-one (51%) scored ≥5 on SRQ and were classified as probable cases of psychological disorder.

Conclusion: Blindness in a majority of cases that started in childhood was probably preventable. Inaccessibility to or failure of the formal rehabilitation and social welfare systems may have caused this psychosocial dilemma. The high level of social and family interaction provides opportunity for organized preventive ophthalmology, community health care services and psychosocial care.
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October 2010

Retinoblastoma--a clinico-pathological study in Ilorin, Nigeria.

Afr J Health Sci 2006 Jan-Jun;13(1-2):117-23

Departments of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara-State, Nigeria.

Retinoblastoma is the commonest childhood primary malignant intraocular neoplasm that is often characterized by spontaneous regression. They display photoreceptor differentiation. This study provides the clinical presentations and histological profiles of retinoblastoma in Ilorin, Kwara-State, in the North Central geo-political zone of Nigeria. A retrospective study of clinically and histologically verified retinoblastoma at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara-State, Nigeria from January 1989 to December 2000 was undertaken. The clinical and histological features were analyzed using the patient's case folder and surgical pathology records. There were 20 patients, 9 males and 11 females (M:F ratio 1: 1.2), age range from 5 (1/2) months to 6 years with 23 eyeball tumours histologically confirmed retinoblastoma during the study period. Proptosis with chemosis was the most common clinical presentation (84.6 %). Bilaterality was 15 % in this study. Enucleation and Exenteration combined with chemotherapy were offered to 15 (75 %) and 5 (25 %) patients respectively. A poorly differentiated type with extensive areas of tumour necrosis was the commonest histological pattern. Thirteen (65 %) of the patients died before completing the course of chemotherapy.
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December 2008