Publications by authors named "Duc Anh Dang"

44 Publications

Global burden of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2021 Mar 1;18(3):e1003550. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Global Health Protection, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Influenza illness burden is substantial, particularly among young children, older adults, and those with underlying conditions. Initiatives are underway to develop better global estimates for influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the role of influenza viruses in severe respiratory disease and hospitalizations among adults, particularly in lower-income settings.

Methods And Findings: We aggregated published data from a systematic review and unpublished data from surveillance platforms to generate global meta-analytic estimates for the proportion of acute respiratory hospitalizations associated with influenza viruses among adults. We searched 9 online databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Global Health, LILACS, WHOLIS, and CNKI; 1 January 1996-31 December 2016) to identify observational studies of influenza-associated hospitalizations in adults, and assessed eligible papers for bias using a simplified Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational data. We applied meta-analytic proportions to global estimates of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and hospitalizations from the Global Burden of Disease study in adults ≥20 years and by age groups (20-64 years and ≥65 years) to obtain the number of influenza-associated LRI episodes and hospitalizations for 2016. Data from 63 sources showed that influenza was associated with 14.1% (95% CI 12.1%-16.5%) of acute respiratory hospitalizations among all adults, with no significant differences by age group. The 63 data sources represent published observational studies (n = 28) and unpublished surveillance data (n = 35), from all World Health Organization regions (Africa, n = 8; Americas, n = 11; Eastern Mediterranean, n = 7; Europe, n = 8; Southeast Asia, n = 11; Western Pacific, n = 18). Data quality for published data sources was predominantly moderate or high (75%, n = 56/75). We estimate 32,126,000 (95% CI 20,484,000-46,129,000) influenza-associated LRI episodes and 5,678,000 (95% CI 3,205,000-9,432,000) LRI hospitalizations occur each year among adults. While adults <65 years contribute most influenza-associated LRI hospitalizations and episodes (3,464,000 [95% CI 1,885,000-5,978,000] LRI hospitalizations and 31,087,000 [95% CI 19,987,000-44,444,000] LRI episodes), hospitalization rates were highest in those ≥65 years (437/100,000 person-years [95% CI 265-612/100,000 person-years]). For this analysis, published articles were limited in their inclusion of stratified testing data by year and age group. Lack of information regarding influenza vaccination of the study population was also a limitation across both types of data sources.

Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we estimated that influenza viruses are associated with over 5 million hospitalizations worldwide per year. Inclusion of both published and unpublished findings allowed for increased power to generate stratified estimates, and improved representation from lower-income countries. Together, the available data demonstrate the importance of influenza viruses as a cause of severe disease and hospitalizations in younger and older adults worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959367PMC
March 2021

What are the most effective community-based antimicrobial stewardship interventions in low- and middle-income countries? A narrative review.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

The Marie Bashir Institute, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global issue and antimicrobial stewardship is central to tackling its emergence. The burden of AMR disproportionately impacts low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where capacity for surveillance and management of resistant pathogens is least developed. Poorly regulated antibiotic consumption in the community is a major driver of AMR, especially in LMICs, yet community-based interventions are neglected in stewardship research, which is often undertaken in high-income settings and/or in hospitals. We reviewed the evidence available to researchers and policymakers testing or implementing community-based antimicrobial stewardship strategies in LMICs. We critically appraise that evidence, deliver recommendations and identify outstanding areas of research need. We find that multifaceted, education-focused interventions are likely most effective in our setting. We also confirm that the quality and quantity of community-based stewardship intervention research is limited, with research on microbiological, clinical and economic sustainability most urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa556DOI Listing
January 2021

Prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in conjunctival flora and association with nasopharyngeal carriage among children in a Vietnamese community.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 11;11(1):337. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

Conjunctival pneumococcal serotypes among members of a community have not been investigated well. We determined the prevalence and association of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and conjunctiva among children in a community before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. In October 2016, conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children (< 24 months old) and nasopharyngeal swabs from mothers in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Quantitative lytA PCR and DNA microarray were performed to detect and serotype S. pneumoniae. The association between S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and conjunctiva was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression model. Among 698 children, 62 (8.9%, 95% CI 6.9-11.2%) were positive for S. pneumoniae in the conjunctiva. Non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae were most commonly identified, followed by serotypes 6A, 6B, and 14. Nasopharyngeal and conjunctival detection were positively associated (aOR 47.30, 95% CI 24.07-92.97). Low birth-weight, day-care attendance, and recent eye symptoms were independently associated with S. pneumoniae detection in the conjunctiva (aOR 11.14, 95% CI 3.76-32.98, aOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.45-3.31, and aOR 3.59, 95% CI 2.21-5.84, respectively). Serotypes and genotypes in the conjunctiva and nasopharynx matched in 87% of the children. Three mothers' nasopharyngeal pneumococcal samples had matched serotype and genotype with their child's in the conjunctiva and nasopharynx. S. pneumoniae presence in nasopharynx and conjunctiva were strongly associated. The high concordance of serotypes suggests nasopharyngeal carriage may be a source of transmission to the conjunctiva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79175-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801475PMC
January 2021

The first 100 days of SARS-CoV-2 control in Vietnam.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK.

Background: One hundred days after SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Vietnam on January 23rd, 270 cases were confirmed, with no deaths. We describe the control measures used by the Government and their relationship with imported and domestically-acquired case numbers, with the aim of identifying the measures associated with successful SARS-CoV-2 control.

Methods: Clinical and demographic data on the first 270 SARS-CoV-2 infected cases and the timing and nature of Government control measures, including numbers of tests and quarantined individuals, were analysed. Apple and Google mobility data provided proxies for population movement. Serial intervals were calculated from 33 infector-infectee pairs and used to estimate the proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission events and time-varying reproduction numbers.

Results: A national lockdown was implemented between April 1st and 22nd. Around 200 000 people were quarantined and 266 122 RT-PCR tests conducted. Population mobility decreased progressively before lockdown. 60% (163/270) of cases were imported; 43% (89/208) of resolved infections remained asymptomatic for the duration of infection. The serial interval was 3·24 days, and 27·5% (95% confidence interval, 15·7%-40·0%) of transmissions occurred pre-symptomatically. Limited transmission amounted to a maximum reproduction number of 1·15 (95% confidence interval, 0·37-2·36). No community transmission has been detected since April 15th.

Conclusions: Vietnam has controlled SARS-CoV-2 spread through the early introduction of mass communication, meticulous contact-tracing with strict quarantine, and international travel restrictions. The value of these interventions is supported by the high proportion of asymptomatic and imported cases, and evidence for substantial pre-symptomatic transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454342PMC
August 2020

Socio-demographic factors of cesarean births in Nha Trang city, Vietnam: a community-based survey.

Trop Med Health 2020 10;48:57. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523 Japan.

Background: The cesarean section rate in Vietnam has been increasing especially in urban area. However, limited evidence identified regarding socio-demographic factors of the cesarean section birth. The objective of this study was to determine the current cesarean birth rate and the associated socio-demographic factors among mothers in Nha Trang city, south-central Vietnam.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November in 2016 as part of a carriage survey conducted in 27 communes of Nha Trang city. From each commune, 120 mothers and their children less than 2 years old were randomly selected. Mothers were asked to answer standardized questions regarding socio-demographic information and mode of birth. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to examine associations between socio-demographic variables and mode of birth.

Results: Of 3148 participants, the number of cesarean births was 1396 (44.3 %). Older maternal age (≥ 30 years old), having another child going to school or kindergarten, monthly income more than 644 USD, gestational weeks at birth over 42 weeks, and low (< 2500 g) or high (≥ 3500 g) birth weight were associated with higher likelihood of cesarean births.

Conclusion: The CS rate obtained in this study was more than twice of what is recommended by the World Health Organization, which is consistent with the previous nation-wide study in Viet Nam. Further monitoring is suggested to examine the non-medical reason for the increased CS rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00239-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350841PMC
July 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Shedding by Travelers, Vietnam, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 07 21;26(7):1624-1626. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

We analyzed 2 clusters of 12 patients in Vietnam with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during January-February 2020. Analysis indicated virus transmission from a traveler from China. One asymptomatic patient demonstrated virus shedding, indicating potential virus transmission in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323563PMC
July 2020

Evolutionary dynamics of influenza B strains detected from paediatric acute respiratory infections in central Vietnam.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 07 24;81:104264. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

Influenza virus B belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae with segmented negative-sense RNA genomes. Since 1970s, influenza B has diverged intoVictoria and Yamagata, which differs in antigenic and evolutionary characteristics. Yet, molecular-epidemiological information of influenza B from developing nations is limited. In central Vietnam, influenza A subtype-specific circulation pattern and clinical characteristics were previously described. However, molecular evolutionary characteristics of influenza B has not been discussed to date. We utilized the influenza B positives obtained from paediatric ARI surveillance during 2007-2013. Influenza B HA and NA genes were amplified, sequenced, and phylogenetic/molecular evolutionary analysis was performed using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian MCMC. Phylodynamics analysis was performed with Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP). Furthermore, we performed selection pressure analysis and estimated N-glycosylation sites. In the current study, overall positive rate for influenza B was 3.0%, and Victoria lineage immediately became predominant in post-A/H1N1pdm09 period. The noticeable shift in Victoria lineage WHO Group occurred. With respect to the evolutionary rate (substitutions/site/year), Victoria lineage HA gene was evolving faster than Yamagata lineage (2.43 × 10 vs 2.00 × 10). Furthermore, the evolutionary rate of Victoria Group 5 was greater than Group 1. BSP presented the rapid growth in Effective Population Size (EPS) of Victoria lineage occurred soon after the 1st A/H1N1pdm09 case was detected whereas the EPS of Yamagata lineage was stable for both genes. N-glycosylation pattern between lineages and among WHO Groups were slightly different, and HA gene had a total of 6 amino acid substitutions under positive section pressure (4 for Victoria and 2 for Yamagata). The current results highlight the importance of Victoria lineage in post-A/H1N1pdm09 period. Difference in evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics may indicate lineage and WHO Group-specific evolutionary dynamics. It is necessary to further continue the molecular-epidemiological surveillance in local setting to gain a better understanding of local evolutionary characteristics of influenza B strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104264DOI Listing
July 2020

Reasons for Increased Caesarean Section Rate in Vietnam: A Qualitative Study among Vietnamese Mothers and Health Care Professionals.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Feb 21;8(1). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.

The Caesarean section rate in urban Vietnam is 43% in 2014, which is more than twice the recommended rate (10%-15%) by the World Health Organization. This qualitative study aims to identify the perceptions of pregnant mothers and health care professionals on the medical and social factors related to the increased Caesarean section rate in Vietnam. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted among pregnant mothers and healthcare professionals at two public hospitals in Nha Trang city. A content analysis was adopted in order to identify social and medical factors. As a result, 29 pregnant women and 19 health care professionals were invited to participate in the qualitative interviews. Private interviews were conducted with 10 women who wished to have a Caesarean section, and the others participated in focus group interviews. The main themes of the social factors were 'request for Caesarean section,' 'mental strain of obstetricians,' and 'decision-making process.' To conclude, this qualitative study suggests that there were unnecessary caesarean sections without a clear medical indication, which were requested by women and family members. Psychological fear occurred among women and family, and doctors were the main determinants for driving the requests for Caesarean section, which implies that education and emotional encouragement is necessary by midwives. In addition, a multi-faced approach including a mandatory reporting system in clinical fields and involving family members in antenatal education is important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8010041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151040PMC
February 2020

Epidemiological and comparative genomic analysis of Bacillus anthracis isolated from northern Vietnam.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(2):e0228116. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Veterinary Science, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

To understand the epidemiological and genetic background of anthrax cases occurring in Vietnam from 2011 to 2015, we surveilled and genetically analyzed Bacillus anthracis isolated in the north of the country. Epidemiological surveillance showed that most human cutaneous anthrax cases occurred in association with animal dissection. Whole-genome sequences were obtained from six B. anthracis strains from human patients with cutaneous anthrax in the endemic area. Comparative genomic analysis showed that the genetic homogeneity among Vietnamese B. anthracis strains was very high. All Vietnamese B. anthracis strains belonged to the canSNP lineage of A.Br.011/009, which mostly consists of strains of the trans-Eurasian (TEA) group, including the most closely related strain, Carbosap. To clarify the genetic diversity of Vietnamese strains and strains belonging to A.Br.011/009 and A.Br.008/011 canSNP lineages, we applied a reference genome-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene-by-gene genomic analysis (whole-genome MLST) strategy. The phylogeny from core genome SNPs revealed that the Vietnamese strains were positioned close to each other; moreover, several SNPs specific to Vietnamese B. anthracis were identified. Whole-genome MLST analysis revealed the differences in the number of SNPs between Vietnamese strains, which could enable discrimination at the strain level.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228116PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034820PMC
April 2020

Long-term surveillance needed to detect Zika virus outbreaks in endemic regions.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 02;20(2):168-169

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Tropical and Emerging Virus Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30677-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Cholera in selected countries in Asia.

Vaccine 2020 02 17;38 Suppl 1:A18-A24. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Institute of Child Health and Human Development, University of the Philippines Manila-National Institutes of Health, Philippines.

Introduction: Although the current pandemic of cholera originated in Asia, reports of cholera cases and outbreaks in the region are sparse. To provide a sub-regional assessment of cholera in South and Southeast Asia, we collated published and unpublished data from existing surveillance systems from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

Methods: Data from existing country surveillance systems on diarrhea, acute watery diarrhea, suspected cholera and/or confirmed cholera in nine selected Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) from 2011 to 2015 (or 2016, when available) were collated. We reviewed annual cholera reports from WHO and searched PubMed and/or ProMED to complement data, where information is not completely available.

Results: From 2011 to 2016, confirmed cholera cases were identified in at least one year of the 5- or 6-year period in the countries included. Surveillance for cholera exists in most countries, but cases are not always reported. India reported the most number of confirmed cases with a mean of 5964 cases annually. The mean number of cases per year in the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nepal and Thailand were 760, 592, 285, 264, 148 and 88, respectively. Cambodia and Vietnam reported 51 and 3 confirmed cholera cases in 2011, with no subsequent reported cases.

Discussion And Conclusion: We present consolidated results of available surveillance in nine Asian countries and supplemented these with publication searches. There is paucity of readily accessible data on cholera in these countries. We highlight the continuing existence of the disease even in areas with improved sanitation and access to safe drinking water. Continued vigilance and improved surveillance in countries should be strongly encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.07.035DOI Listing
February 2020

Infant contact in day-care centres in Vietnam: A cross-sectional study to understand infant infection risk.

Wellcome Open Res 2019 11;4:75. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

: Infant contact information (skin-to-skin contact between infants and others) is important to understand transmission patterns. A few studies have investigated infant contact patterns by asking the mother/guardian to record all contacts a child makes in one day. However, this approach does not capture contact behaviour in day-care. Our study describes the frequency and nature of physical contacts of infants in day-care to understand infant infection risk in day-care in Nha Trang, Vietnam. : This cross-sectional study enrolled infants aged <12 months, attending 10 randomly selected day-care centres in Nha Trang. Physical contacts of each infant for one day at the day-care centre were observed. The mean number of infants' contacts and factors associated with contact numbers were assessed using negative binomial regression. : In total 14 infants, aged 6-11 months, were enrolled, and a total of 96 contacts were recorded. The mean number of contacts an infant made in one day was 6.9. Infants who walked independently (age-adjusted rate ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.68) and those cared for in a larger group (1.99, 1.42-2.79) had more contacts at day-care. About 50% of infants made contact with at least one person from a commune different from the infant's, and 50% made contact with at least one other infant at day-care. : This study found that day-care attendance may be one factor that increases contact rates of infants in Nha Trang and diversifies those contacts in terms of age and geographical spread. In this study, day-care attendance not only increased contact rates beyond those usually experienced by young children cared for at home but specifically increased contact rates with other children and adults from other communes. Day-care may play a key role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens like to infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15238.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544129PMC
June 2019

Sero-Prevalence Surveillance to Predict Vaccine-Preventable Disease Outbreaks; A Lesson from the 2014 Measles Epidemic in Northern Vietnam.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 24;6(3):ofz030. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: During the first half of 2014, a severe outbreak of measles occurred in northern Vietnam, causing 15 033 confirmed cases and 146 deaths.

Methods: To evaluate the population-level seroprevalence of protection against measles in the period before the outbreak, we made use of an existing age-stratified serum bank, collected over the year before the outbreak, between November 2012 and December 2013, from 4 sites across the country (Hanoi, Hue, Dak Lak, and Ho Chi Minh City). Data from the UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Clustered Surveys (MICS), carried out in Vietnam during the first quarter of 2014, were used to assess the vaccine coverage in 6 ecological regions of Vietnam.

Results: Results revealed a large discrepancy between levels of protection, as estimated from the serology and vaccine coverage estimated by UNICEF's MICS. Variation in seroprevalence across locations and age groups corresponded with reported numbers of measles cases, most of which were among the 0-2-year-old age group and in the northern part of the country.

Conclusions: Our study presents a strong case in favor of a serosurveillance sentinel network that could be used to proactively tune vaccination policies and other public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405937PMC
March 2019

Asthma, Rhinoconjunctivitis, Eczema, and the Association with Perinatal Anthropometric Factors in Vietnamese Children.

Sci Rep 2019 02 25;9(1):2655. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Few studies have investigated possible causative and protective factors associated with allergic diseases in resource-limited countries, Southeast Asia. We estimated the current prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema among 6-year-old children, and identified anthropometric factors associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, in South-Central Vietnam. A birth cohort study recruited 1,999 children born at a provincial hospital in Nha Trang, Vietnam between May 2009 and May 2010. A 6-year follow-up survey was conducted where clinical, familial, and environmental information was collected by interviewing caregivers using a standardized form based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, Phase Three Core and Environmental Questionnaire for 6-7-year-old children. The odds ratios of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema for anthropometric factors were estimated using logistic regression analysis. In total, 1202 children participated in the follow-up survey. The proportions of children who had current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-6.5%), 11.5% (9.7-13.4%), and 6.7% (5.3-8.2%), respectively. Low birthweight (adjusted odds ratio 5.12, 95% CI 1.92-13.64) was independently associated with increased risk of eczema. Further studies are necessary to understand the involved mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39658-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389945PMC
February 2019

Influenza B associated paediatric acute respiratory infection hospitalization in central vietnam.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 05 28;13(3):248-261. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Influenza B is one of the major etiologies for acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children worldwide; however, its clinical-epidemiological information is limited. We aimed to investigate the hospitalization incidence and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of influenza B-associated paediatric ARIs in central Vietnam.

Methods: We collected clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal swabs from ARI children hospitalized at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam from February 2007 through June 2013. Nasopharyngeal samples were screened for 13 respiratory viruses using Multiplex-PCRs. Influenza B-confirmed cases were genotyped by Haemagglutinin gene sequencing. We analyzed the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of influenza B Lineages (Victoria/Yamagata) and WHO Groups.

Results: In the pre-A/H1N1pdm09 period, influenza B-associated ARI hospitalization incidence among children under five was low, ranging between 14.7 and 80.7 per 100 000 population. The incidence increased to between 51.4 and 330 in the post-A/H1N1pdm09. Influenza B ARI cases were slightly older with milder symptoms. Both Victoria and Yamagata lineages were detected before the A/H1N1pdm09 outbreak; however, Victoria lineage became predominant in 2010-2013 (84% Victoria vs 16% Yamagata). Victoria and Yamagata lineages did not differ in demographic and clinical characteristics. In Victoria lineage, Group1 ARI cases were clinically more severe compared to Group5, presenting a greater proportion of wheeze, tachypnea, and lower respiratory tract infection.

Conclusions: The current results highlight the increased incidence of influenza B-related ARI hospitalization among children in central Vietnam in the post-A/H1N1pdm09 era. Furthermore, the difference in clinical severity between Victoria lineage Group1 and 5 implies the importance of influenza B genetic variation on clinical presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468073PMC
May 2019

Clinical manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome: A review of our experience in Vietnam.

Vaccine 2019 01 30;37(1):202-209. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Electronic address:

Rubella vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the incidence of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in developed countries. However, CRS prevalence is still rising in developing countries where rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) are not included in the immunization program and even in some countries where a part of the population lacks immunity to rubella despite the presence of RCV in the regular immunization program. This review aimed to summarize the clinical features of CRS using data from our studies conducted between 2011 and 2015 in Vietnam, wherein we examined clinical manifestations in Vietnamese children with CRS who were born after the large rubella outbreak of 2011; a series of studies dealing with CRS in North America and Europe after the 1960s epidemic; and those from countries before introduction of RCVs. This review shows that children with CRS have a variety of disabilities such as hearing, visual, developmental, behavioral, cardiac, and endocrine impairments, which have variable severity and may appear in different combinations. Some of these impairments can appear or worsen later in the lives of these children. Physicians should thus complete pediatric, cardiac, auditory, ophthalmologic, and neurologic examinations along with laboratory diagnostic testing soon after birth. These assessments should be repeated during follow-up if congenital rubella infection is suspected in a neonate. Timely intervention for cardiac defects can be lifesaving. Early introduction and continuation of speech, occupational, physical, and behavior therapies and training with appropriate medical interventions by a multidisciplinary team approach are required to maximize quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.046DOI Listing
January 2019

Viral Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Infants Increase the Risk of Respiratory Readmission.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 12;37(12):1217-1222

From the Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

Background: Respiratory viruses cause acute respiratory illness (ARI) in early childhood, but their effect on subsequent ARI admissions is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the association between initial ARI admission because of viruses including human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and the risk of ARI readmission in children.

Methods: Clinical information and nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from children <2 years old at their initial ARI admission in Nha Trang, Vietnam, from January 2007 to April 2012. The incidence of ARI readmission during the follow-up period (initial admission to 5 years of age) was compared between children with and without 1 of 13 respiratory viruses (influenza virus A, influenza virus B, RSV, hMPV, parainfluenza virus-1, parainfluenza virus-2, parainfluenza virus-3 and parainfluenza virus-4, HRV, human coronavirus-229E, human coronavirus-OC43, HAdV and human bocavirus) at initial admission.

Results: A total of 1941 children were enrolled in the study. Viruses were detected in 1254 (64.6%) children at enrollment; HRV, RSV, HAdV and hMPV were detected in 499 (25.7%), 439 (22.6%), 156 (8.0%) and 47 (2.4%) children, respectively. During the follow-up period (4572.7 person-years), 277 children were readmitted with ARI. Virus-related ARI initial admission was associated with an increased risk of ARI readmission for children who were initially admitted before 6 months of age (adjusted rate ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5). HAdV (4.6; 1.8-11.9), hMPV (20.4; 6.2-66.9) and HRV (1.6; 1.0-2.4) were independently associated with the outcome. These associations were not observed for children whose initial admission occurred after 6 months of age.

Conclusions: HAdV-, hMPV- and HRV-related initial ARI admissions, when occurring during early infancy, increased the risk of subsequent ARI-related readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001998DOI Listing
December 2018

Burden of hospitalized childhood community-acquired pneumonia: A retrospective cross-sectional study in Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 01 10;14(1):95-105. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

h GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Background: Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income).

Methods: Over a one or two-year period, children <5 years hospitalized with CAP were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Cases were matched to standardized definitions of suspected (S-CAP), confirmed (C-CAP), or bacterial CAP (B-CAP) used in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy study (COMPAS). Median total direct medical costs of CAP-related hospitalizations were calculated.

Results: Vietnam (three centers): 7591 CAP episodes were identified with 4.3% (95% confidence interval 4.2;4.4) S-CAP, 3.3% (3.2;3.4) C-CAP and 1.4% (1.3;1.4) B-CAP episodes of all-cause hospitalization in children aged <5 years. The B-CAP case fatality rate (CFR) was 1.3%. Malaysia (two centers): 1027 CAP episodes were identified with 2.7% (2.6;2.9); 2.6% (2.4;2.8); 0.04% (0.04;0.1) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. One child with B-CAP died. Indonesia (one center): 960 CAP episodes identified with 18.0% (17.0;19.1); 16.8% (15.8;17.9); 0.3% (0.2;0.4) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. The B-CAP CFR was 20%. Korea (three centers): 3151 CAP episodes were identified with 21.1% (20.4;21.7); 11.8% (11.2;12.3); 2.4% (2.1;2.7) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. There were no deaths.

Costs: CAP-related hospitalization costs were highest for B-CAP episodes: 145.00 (Vietnam) to 1013.3 USD (Korea) per episode.

Conclusion: CAP hospitalization causes an important health and cost burden in all four countries studied (NMRR-12-50-10793).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1375073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791577PMC
January 2018

Dengue vaccine supplies under endemic and epidemic conditions in three dengue-endemic countries: Colombia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Vaccine 2017 12 27;35(50):6957-6966. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in Colombia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unlike other infectious diseases, dengue vaccines had not been available for a long time, causing difficulties to control the disease. However, the first live attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) became available in 2016 and has been already licensed in some dengue-endemic countries. Because several second-generation dengue vaccines are also in the pipeline, it is critical to understand the efficient allocation of dengue vaccines considering the geographical variation of the disease.

Methods: The Climate Risk Factor (CRF) index was created using the climate and non-climate factors in the three countries. A random-coefficient negative binomial model was chosen to validate the relationship between the CRF index and dengue incidence proxy. Given the statistical significance of the CRF index, high risk areas for dengue fever were identified at the 5 km by 5 km resolution and used to estimate vaccination coverage rates and the number of doses required for various types of vaccination scenarios by country.

Results And Conclusions: Based upon a three-dose scheme, the estimated number of vaccines required for routine vaccination targeting 9 years old ranged from 1 to 2.6 million doses across the countries during the first year of introduction. A one-off catch-up campaign targeting the age group of 10-17 year olds would require 8 to 18 million additional doses. Routine vaccination (with or without a catch-up campaign) covered 63%, 90%, and 91% of the targeted age group populations in Colombia, Thailand, and Vietnam respectively. Given that many dengue-endemic countries face limited resources and that the costs for mass vaccination campaigns may not be trivial, the findings of this study can guide the decision makers in the three countries regarding the efficient distribution of vaccines by identifying populations at high risk at 5 km by 5 km resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.10.070DOI Listing
December 2017

A multi-country study of the economic burden of dengue fever: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 30;11(10):e0006037. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. The first dengue vaccine has already been licensed in six countries. Given the growing interests in the effective use of the vaccine, it is critical to understand the economic burden of dengue fever to guide decision-makers in setting health policy priorities.

Methods/principal Findings: A standardized cost-of-illness study was conducted in three dengue endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. In order to capture all costs during the entire period of illness, patients were tested with rapid diagnostic tests on the first day of their clinical visits, and multiple interviews were scheduled until the patients recovered from the current illness. Various cost items were collected such as direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and non-out-of-pocket costs. In addition, socio-economic factors affecting disease severity were also identified by adopting a logit model. We found that total cost per episode ranges from $141 to $385 for inpatient and from $40 to $158 outpatient, with Colombia having the highest and Thailand having the lowest. The percentage of the private economic burden of dengue fever was highest in the low-income group and lowest in the high-income group. The logit analyses showed that early treatment, higher education, and better knowledge of dengue disease would reduce the probability of developing more severe illness.

Conclusions/significance: The cost of dengue fever is substantial in the three dengue endemic countries. Our study findings can be used to consider accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public and private sector programs and prioritize alternative health interventions among competing health problems. In addition, a community would be better off by propagating the socio-economic factors identified in this study, which may prevent its members from developing severe illness in the long run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5679658PMC
October 2017

Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Vietnam.

Lancet Infect Dis 2017 08;17(8):805-806

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Tropical and Emerging Virus Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30412-7DOI Listing
August 2017

Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study.

Authors:
Ting Shi David A McAllister Katherine L O'Brien Eric A F Simoes Shabir A Madhi Bradford D Gessner Fernando P Polack Evelyn Balsells Sozinho Acacio Claudia Aguayo Issifou Alassani Asad Ali Martin Antonio Shally Awasthi Juliet O Awori Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner Henry C Baggett Vicky L Baillie Angel Balmaseda Alfredo Barahona Sudha Basnet Quique Bassat Wilma Basualdo Godfrey Bigogo Louis Bont Robert F Breiman W Abdullah Brooks Shobha Broor Nigel Bruce Dana Bruden Philippe Buchy Stuart Campbell Phyllis Carosone-Link Mandeep Chadha James Chipeta Monidarin Chou Wilfrido Clara Cheryl Cohen Elizabeth de Cuellar Duc-Anh Dang Budragchaagiin Dash-Yandag Maria Deloria-Knoll Mukesh Dherani Tekchheng Eap Bernard E Ebruke Marcela Echavarria Carla Cecília de Freitas Lázaro Emediato Rodrigo A Fasce Daniel R Feikin Luzhao Feng Angela Gentile Aubree Gordon Doli Goswami Sophie Goyet Michelle Groome Natasha Halasa Siddhivinayak Hirve Nusrat Homaira Stephen R C Howie Jorge Jara Imane Jroundi Cissy B Kartasasmita Najwa Khuri-Bulos Karen L Kotloff Anand Krishnan Romina Libster Olga Lopez Marilla G Lucero Florencia Lucion Socorro P Lupisan Debora N Marcone John P McCracken Mario Mejia Jennifer C Moisi Joel M Montgomery David P Moore Cinta Moraleda Jocelyn Moyes Patrick Munywoki Kuswandewi Mutyara Mark P Nicol D James Nokes Pagbajabyn Nymadawa Maria Tereza da Costa Oliveira Histoshi Oshitani Nitin Pandey Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà Lia N Phillips Valentina Sanchez Picot Mustafizur Rahman Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo Zeba A Rasmussen Barbara A Rath Annick Robinson Candice Romero Graciela Russomando Vahid Salimi Pongpun Sawatwong Nienke Scheltema Brunhilde Schweiger J Anthony G Scott Phil Seidenberg Kunling Shen Rosalyn Singleton Viviana Sotomayor Tor A Strand Agustinus Sutanto Mariam Sylla Milagritos D Tapia Somsak Thamthitiwat Elizabeth D Thomas Rafal Tokarz Claudia Turner Marietjie Venter Sunthareeya Waicharoen Jianwei Wang Wanitda Watthanaworawit Lay-Myint Yoshida Hongjie Yu Heather J Zar Harry Campbell Harish Nair

Lancet 2017 Sep 7;390(10098):946-958. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background: We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing countries. With a considerably expanded dataset from a large international collaboration, we aimed to estimate the global incidence, hospital admission rate, and mortality from RSV-ALRI episodes in young children in 2015.

Methods: We estimated the incidence and hospital admission rate of RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI) in children younger than 5 years stratified by age and World Bank income regions from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2016, and unpublished data from 76 high quality population-based studies. We estimated the RSV-ALRI incidence for 132 developing countries using a risk factor-based model and 2015 population estimates. We estimated the in-hospital RSV-ALRI mortality by combining in-hospital case fatality ratios with hospital admission estimates from hospital-based (published and unpublished) studies. We also estimated overall RSV-ALRI mortality by identifying studies reporting monthly data for ALRI mortality in the community and RSV activity.

Findings: We estimated that globally in 2015, 33·1 million (uncertainty range [UR] 21·6-50·3) episodes of RSV-ALRI, resulted in about 3·2 million (2·7-3·8) hospital admissions, and 59 600 (48 000-74 500) in-hospital deaths in children younger than 5 years. In children younger than 6 months, 1·4 million (UR 1·2-1·7) hospital admissions, and 27 300 (UR 20 700-36 200) in-hospital deaths were due to RSV-ALRI. We also estimated that the overall RSV-ALRI mortality could be as high as 118 200 (UR 94 600-149 400). Incidence and mortality varied substantially from year to year in any given population.

Interpretation: Globally, RSV is a common cause of childhood ALRI and a major cause of hospital admissions in young children, resulting in a substantial burden on health-care services. About 45% of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to RSV-ALRI occur in children younger than 6 months. An effective maternal RSV vaccine or monoclonal antibody could have a substantial effect on disease burden in this age group.

Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30938-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5592248PMC
September 2017

Sensory defects and developmental delay among children with congenital rubella syndrome.

Sci Rep 2017 04 13;7:46483. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

This study investigated the features of developmental difficulties combined with sensory defects in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Following a large rubella outbreak in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in 2011, we enrolled 41 children with CRS from September 2011 through May 2013. Fourteen participants died and six became untraceable by October 2013; the remaining 21 children were followed up from 2013 to 2015. Thirteen and seven participants had hearing and functional ophthalmological impairment, respectively. Developmental difficulties were suspected in 19 (95%) children who failed in at least one area of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and/or Denver II in 2013 and/or 2015. Developmental difficulties were frequently identified in the ASQ communication domain (n = 14 in 2013) and Denver II language area (n = 13 in 2013). Seven (41%) participants were suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2013 by the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. In 2015, proportions of children failing the problem-solving (62%) and personal-social (62%) domains had increased and two of 13 were diagnosed with ASD by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition. Developmental difficulties were suspected in most children with CRS, including autism largely combined with sensory dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep46483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390269PMC
April 2017

The Effect of Maternal Pertussis Immunization on Infant Vaccine Responses to a Booster Pertussis-Containing Vaccine in Vietnam.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 Dec;63(suppl 4):S197-S204

Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Background:  Maternal vaccination with an acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in a growing number of industrialized countries, to protect young infants from disease. Little is known on the effect of this strategy in low- and middle-income countries. Following a previous report on the effect of adding a pertussis and diphtheria component to the tetanus vaccination program in pregnant women in Vietnam, we report on infant immune responses to a booster aP vaccine dose in this randomized controlled clinical trial.

Methods:  Thirty infants of Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis)-vaccinated pregnant women and 37 infants of women vaccinated with a tetanus-only vaccine received a fourth aP-containing vaccine dose in the second year of life. Blood was taken 1 month after the fourth infant dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT), and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results:  One month after the booster dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the Tdap group for anti-TT IgG (P < .001) only. Anti-DT IgG, anti-PT IgG, anti-Prn IgG, and anti-FHA IgG antibody titers were comparable for both groups. A rise in antibody concentrations was elicited for all (except DT) antigens after boosting.

Conclusions:  The present results indicate that the blunting of infant pertussis responses induced by maternal immunization, measured after a primary series of aP vaccines, was resolved with the booster aP vaccine dose. These results add to the evidence for national and international decision makers on maternal immunization as a vaccination strategy for protection of young infants against infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5106623PMC
December 2016

Molecular evolution of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A genotype NA1 and ON1 attachment glycoprotein (G) gene in central Vietnam.

Infect Genet Evol 2016 11 14;45:437-446. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

We performed molecular evolutionary analyses of the G gene C-terminal 3rd hypervariable region of RSV-A genotypes NA1 and ON1 strains from the paediatric acute respiratory infection patients in central Vietnam during the 2010-2012 study period. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and pairwise distances (p-distances) were calculated. Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) was constructed to analyze the time-trend relative genetic diversity of central Vietnam RSV-A strains. We also estimated the N-glycosylation sites within G gene hypervariable region. Amino acid substitutions under positive and negative selection pressure were examined using Conservative Single Likelihood Ancestor Counting (SLAC), Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL), Internal Fixed Effects Likelihood (IFEL) and Mixed Effects Model for Episodic Diversifying Selection (MEME) models. The majority of central Vietnam ON1 strains detected in 2012 were classified into lineage 1 with few positively selected substitutions. As for the Vietnamese NA1 strains, four lineages were circulating during the study period with a few positive selection sites. Shifting patterns of the predominantly circulating NA1 lineage were observed in each year during the investigation period. Median p-distance of central Vietnam NA1 strains was wider (p-distance=0.028) than that of ON1 (p-distance=0.012). The molecular evolutionary rate of central Vietnam ON1 strains was estimated to be 2.55×10 (substitutions/site/year) and was faster than NA1 (7.12×10 (substitutions/site/year)). Interestingly, the evolutionary rates of both genotypes ON1 and NA1 strains from central Vietnam were faster than the global strains respectively. Furthermore, the shifts of N-glycosylation pattern within the G gene 3rd hypervariable region of Vietnamese NA1 strains were observed in each year. BSP analysis indicated the rapid growth of RSV-A effective population size in early 2012. These results suggested that the molecular evolution of RSV-A G gene detected in central Vietnam was fast with unique evolutionary dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.10.010DOI Listing
November 2016

Cost of rotavirus diarrhea for programmatic evaluation of vaccination in Vietnam.

BMC Public Health 2016 08 11;16(1):777. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Rotavirus is the most common etiology of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and clinic visits in Vietnamese children < 5 years old. To estimate the economic burden of rotavirus-associated formal healthcare encounters, an economic study was conducted.

Methods: A cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Data were collected from children below the age of five years who presented to a clinic or hospital with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Patient-specific information on resource use and cost was obtained through caregiver interviews and medical chart review. Costs are presented in 2014 US dollar ($).

Results: A total of 557 children with symptoms of AGE were enrolled from March through June 2009, with mean age of 16.5 months. Of the 340 outpatients and 217 admitted patients enrolled, 41 % tested rotavirus positive. It was found that, from a societal perspective, the mean total cost of AGE was $175. Costs of patients with and without rotavirus were $217 and $158, respectively. From multiple regression analysis, it was found that rotavirus infection, patient age and receiving oral rehydration solution before visiting health facility had significant effect on the costs.

Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrated substantial economic burden of AGE including rotavirus disease. They were significantly greater than the previously reported cost estimates in Vietnam. These updated costs of illness result in more favorable vaccine cost-effectiveness than in previous economic evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3458-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982427PMC
August 2016

Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in reference hospitals across Viet Nam.

BMC Microbiol 2016 07 28;16(1):167. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

MIVEGEC (IRD 224-CNRS 5290-Université de Montpellier), Centre IRD, Montpellier, France.

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tuberculosis (TB) pathogen, despite a low level of genetic diversity, has revealed a high variety of biological and epidemiological characteristics linked to their lineages, such as transmissibility, fitness and propensity to acquire drug resistance. This has important implications for the epidemiology of TB. We conducted this first countrywide cross-sectional study to identify the prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages and to assess their epidemiological associations and their relation to drug resistance. The study was conducted among isolates acquired in reference hospitals across Vietnam. Isolates with drug susceptibility testing profiles were identified for their lineages by spoligotyping. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of M. tuberculosis lineages with location, age and sex of the patients and drug resistance levels.

Results: Results showed that the most prevalent lineage was Beijing (55.4 %), followed by EAI (27.5 %), T (6.4 %), LAM (1.3 %), Haarlem (1 %) and Zero type (0.3 %). The proportion of Beijing isolates in the North (70.4 %) and the South (68 %) was higher than in the Centre (28 %) (OR = 1.7 [95 % CI: 1.4-2.0], p < 0.0001), whereas the proportion of EAI isolates in the North (7.1 %) and the South (17 %) was much lower compared with the Centre (59 %) (OR = 0.5 [95 % CI: 0.4-0.6], p < 0.0001). Overall, Beijing isolates were the most likely to be drug-resistant and EAI isolates were the least likely to be drug-resistant, except in the South of Vietnam where EAI is also highly drug-resistant. The proportion of Beijing isolates was significantly higher (p < 0.01), and the proportion of EAI isolates was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in younger patients. The proportion of drug-resistance was higher in isolates collected from male patients and from patients in the middle age groups.

Conclusions: The findings suggest ongoing replacement of EAI lineage, which is mainly more drug-susceptible with highly drug-resistant Beijing lineage in all studied regions of Vietnam. Male patients of working ages should be the focus for better control to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0784-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964266PMC
July 2016

Association of RSV-A ON1 genotype with Increased Pediatric Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Vietnam.

Sci Rep 2016 06 16;6:27856. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

Since the initial discovery of RSV-A ON1 in Canada in 2010, ON1 has been reported worldwide, yet information regarding its clinical impact and severity has been controversial. To investigate the clinical relevance of RSV-A ON1,acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases enrolled to our population-based prospective pediatric ARI surveillance at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Central Vietnam from January 2010 through December 2012 were studied. Clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Multiplex PCR assays were performed for screening 13 respiratory viruses. RSV-positive samples were further tested for subgroups (A/B) and genotypes information by sequencing the G-glycoprotein 2nd hypervariable region. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of RSV-A ON1. A total of 1854 ARI cases were enrolled and 426 (23.0%) of them were RSV-positive. During the study period, RSV-A and B had been co-circulating. NA1 was the predominant RSV-A genotype until the appearance of ON1 in 2012. RSV-related ARI hospitalization incidence significantly increased after the emergence of ON1. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that risk of lower respiratory tract infection was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.37-3.72) times, and radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.01-3.87) times greater in ON1 compared to NA1 cases. Our result suggested that ON1 ARI cases were clinically more severe than NA1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910061PMC
June 2016

Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 ;12(1):150-8

d National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology ; Hanoi , Vietnam.

Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1060380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002053PMC
December 2016

Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 May 16;92(5):972-978. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426587PMC
May 2015