Publications by authors named "Duantida Songdej"

32 Publications

Age as a major factor associated with zinc and copper deficiencies in pediatric thalassemia.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 8;68:126817. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Patients with thalassemia encounter increased consumption of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from chronic hemolysis and increased excretion from iron chelation. Iron-enriched diet restriction may result in low Zn and Cu intakes. Recent data on Zn and Cu status among Thai pediatric patients with thalassemia are lacking. This study aimed to identify frequencies and determine risk factors of Zn and Cu deficiencies among patients with thalassemia.

Methods: Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) receiving iron chelation ≥12 months and nonTDT (NTDT) aged 2-20 years were recruited. Serum Zn and Cu were measured. Dietary intakes were ascertained by interviews.

Results: A total of 209 patients (TDT = 126, NTDT = 83) were enrolled. Zn deficiency seemed to be associated with disease severity as median (IQR) Zn level of TDT was lower than that of NTDT [77 (69-85) vs. 80 (72-88) mcg/dL, p = 0.05], while higher frequency of Zn deficiency was identified in the former (24 % vs. 14 %). In TDT, Zn deficiency was associated with patients >10 years (OR 4.6; 95 %CI 1.1-6.4, p = 0.03), which likely resulted from combined low dietary Zn intake, prolonged exposures to hemolysis and iron chelators. Frequencies of Cu deficiency were similarly low in TDT and NTDT (8% and 7%) with comparable median (IQR) Cu levels of 103 (90-124) and 110 (92-132) mcg/dL, respectively (p = 0.13). Cu levels were inversely associated with age (r=-0.65 and r=-0.62 in TDT and NTDT, respectively; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Compared with younger patients, Zn and Cu deficiencies were more common among patients with thalassemia >10 years. Age was a major factor associated with both Zn and Cu deficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126817DOI Listing
July 2021

Reactivation of a developmentally silenced embryonic globin gene.

Nat Commun 2021 07 21;12(1):4439. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The α- and β-globin loci harbor developmentally expressed genes, which are silenced throughout post-natal life. Reactivation of these genes may offer therapeutic approaches for the hemoglobinopathies, the most common single gene disorders. Here, we address mechanisms regulating the embryonically expressed α-like globin, termed ζ-globin. We show that in embryonic erythroid cells, the ζ-gene lies within a ~65 kb sub-TAD (topologically associating domain) of open, acetylated chromatin and interacts with the α-globin super-enhancer. By contrast, in adult erythroid cells, the ζ-gene is packaged within a small (~10 kb) sub-domain of hypoacetylated, facultative heterochromatin within the acetylated sub-TAD and that it no longer interacts with its enhancers. The ζ-gene can be partially re-activated by acetylation and inhibition of histone de-acetylases. In addition to suggesting therapies for severe α-thalassemia, these findings illustrate the general principles by which reactivation of developmental genes may rescue abnormalities arising from mutations in their adult paralogues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24402-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295333PMC
July 2021

Wild-type HIV infection after treatment with lentiviral gene therapy for β-thalassemia.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(13):2701-2706

bluebird bio, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Betibeglogene autotemcel (beti-cel) gene therapy (GT) for patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia uses autologous CD34+ cells transduced with BB305 lentiviral vector (LVV), which encodes a modified β-globin gene. BB305 LVV also contains select HIV sequences for viral packaging, reverse transcription, and integration. This case report describes a patient successfully treated with beti-cel in a phase 1/2 study (HGB-204; #NCT01745120) and subsequently diagnosed with wild-type (WT) HIV infection. From 3.5 to 21 months postinfusion, the patient stopped chronic red blood cell transfusions; total hemoglobin (Hb) and GT-derived HbAT87Q levels were 6.6 to 9.5 and 2.8 to 3.8 g/dL, respectively. At 21 months postinfusion, the patient resumed transfusions for anemia that coincided with an HIV-1 infection diagnosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays detected no replication-competent lentivirus. Next-generation sequencing confirmed WT HIV sequences. Six months after starting antiretroviral therapy, total Hb and HbAT87Q levels recovered to 8.6 and 3.6 g/dL, respectively, and 3.5 years postinfusion, 13.4 months had elapsed since the patient's last transfusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of WT HIV infection in an LVV-based GT recipient and demonstrates persistent long-term hematopoiesis after treatment with beti-cel and the ability to differentiate between WT HIV and BB305-derived sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288666PMC
July 2021

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations in malaria endemic area of Thailand by multiplexed high-resolution melting curve analysis.

Malar J 2021 Apr 20;20(1):194. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Tropical Medicine and Genetics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common enzymopathy in humans, is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas where malaria is endemic. Anti-malarial drugs, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, can cause haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals. Hence, G6PD testing is recommended before radical treatment against vivax malaria. Phenotypic assays have been widely used for screening G6PD deficiency, but in heterozygous females, the random lyonization causes difficulty in interpreting the results. Over 200 G6PD variants have been identified, which form genotypes associated with differences in the degree of G6PD deficiency and vulnerability to haemolysis. This study aimed to assess the frequency of G6PD mutations using a newly developed molecular genotyping test.

Methods: A multiplexed high-resolution melting (HRM) assay was developed to detect eight G6PD mutations, in which four mutations can be tested simultaneously. Validation of the method was performed using 70 G6PD-deficient samples. The test was then applied to screen 725 blood samples from people living along the Thai-Myanmar border. The enzyme activity of these samples was also determined using water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-8) assay. Then, the correlation between genotype and enzyme activity was analysed.

Results: The sensitivity of the multiplexed HRM assay for detecting G6PD mutations was 100 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 94.87-100 %] with specificity of 100 % (95 % CI: 87.66-100 %). The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the studied population as revealed by phenotypic WST-8 assay was 20.55 % (149/725). In contrast, by the multiplexed HRM assay, 27.17 % (197/725) of subjects were shown to have G6PD mutations. The mutations detected in this study included four single variants, G6PD Mahidol (187/197), G6PD Canton (4/197), G6PD Viangchan (3/197) and G6PD Chinese-5 (1/197), and two double mutations, G6PD Mahidol + Canton (1/197) and G6PD Chinese-4 + Viangchan (1/197). A broad range of G6PD enzyme activities were observed in individuals carrying G6PD Mahidol, especially in females.

Conclusions: The multiplexed HRM-based assay is sensitive and reliable for detecting G6PD mutations. This genotyping assay can facilitate the detection of heterozygotes, which could be useful as a supplementary approach for high-throughput screening of G6PD deficiency in malaria endemic areas before the administration of primaquine and tafenoquine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03731-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056697PMC
April 2021

The integrity and stability of specimens under different storage conditions for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening using WST-8.

Acta Trop 2021 May 16;217:105864. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Molecular Tropical Medicine and Genetics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 Thailand. Electronic address:

Accurate measurement of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is critical for malaria treatment as misclassification of G6PD deficiency could cause serious harm to patients. G6PD activity should be assessed in blood samples on the day of collection. Otherwise, specimens should be stored under suitable conditions to prevent loss of G6PD activity. Here, we assessed stability and integrity of G6PD testing in samples from normal controls, heterozygous females, and G6PD deficient individuals using water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-8) assay. Specimens were stored as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) whole blood and dried blood spots (DBS) at various temperatures (37 °C, room temperature, 4 °C and -20 °C) and under different humidity conditions (with and without desiccant). G6PD normal samples were stable for up to 1 year when stored at -20 °C under controlled conditions, with 85% and 91% G6PD activity in EDTA whole blood and DBS in the presence of desiccant, respectively. Specimens from heterozygous females showed greater G6PD activity when stored as DBS, with 85% enzyme activity after 1 year of storage at -20 °C under controlled conditions in the presence of desiccant. G6PD deficient samples rapidly lost enzyme activity in all storage conditions tested. However, the reduction in G6PD enzyme activity in G6PD deficient samples did not interfere with G6PD classification. Samples stored under suitable conditions for G6PD testing will allow accurate measurement of enzyme activity, prevent misclassification of G6PD deficiency and enable safe and effective use of antimalarial drugs such as primaquine and tafenoquine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105864DOI Listing
May 2021

No differences in hemostatic and endothelial activations between haploidentical and matched-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia disease.

Thromb J 2020 Sep 4;18(1):21. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok, Thailand.

Hemostatic changes and endothelial activations have been recognized in β-thalassemic patients after matched-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but there are limited studies for haploidentical HSCT. This report demonstrates that the levels of hemostatic and endothelial markers, including thrombin antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor antigen and thrombomodulin levels, were not significantly different between haploidentical and matched-donor HSCT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12959-020-00232-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739460PMC
September 2020

Production and characterization of haploidentical CD19 CAR T cells: Validated to induce a continuous complete remission in a patient with relapsed refractory B-cell ALL.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2020 Sep 24. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to design and manufacture CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells for clinical use in Thailand, as a model for how this technology can be directly applied at individual institutions treating high-risk leukemia patients.

Methods: We constructed second-generation CAR T cells expressing CD19 scFV-CD28-CD3ζ with different lengths of the spacer region: full, intermediate, and short length, by using a lentiviral vector. We wanted to determine whether the difference in length of the spacer would affect the cytotoxic potential of the CD19 CAR T cells against the leukemic cells.

Results: We found that all constructs of CD19 CAR T cells exhibited a similar level of cytotoxicity against several human lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. For the clinical application, we chose the intermediate length spacer construct CD19 CAR T cells, hypothesizing that the highest transduction efficiency coupled with a slower initial proliferation in vitro might lead to effective leukemic cell kill, yet a lower probability for serious clinical side effects. We then tested the clinical efficacy of our CD19 CAR T cells in one patient with refractory/relapsed acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. This patient indeed had minimal clinical side effects after the CAR T-cell infusion, and he remains in an unmaintained, ongoing complete remission 10+ months after his T-cell treatment.

Conclusion: Our CD19 CAR T cells demonstrated efficacies in acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia, and will be used to establish an immunotherapeutic program for high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Thailand. We propose that this approach can be used as a model for how this new exciting technology can be applied directly at individual institutions that treat (a large number of) patients with high-risk leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13474DOI Listing
September 2020

Carboplatin-based regimen in pediatric intracranial germ-cell tumors (IC-GCTs): effectiveness and ototoxicity.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Mar 30;7(2):202-210. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Induction chemotherapy with carboplatin followed by radiotherapy has been used for many years for treating intracranial germ-cell tumors (IC-GCTs) in Thailand. The objective of this study was to assess treatment outcomes, focusing on survival and ototoxicity.

Methods: The outcomes of all patients with IC-GCT treated at Ramathibodi Hospital and the Prasat Neurological Institute between 2000 and 2017 were reviewed and analyzed, including all patient characteristics and treatment modalities. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and factors affecting survival were compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Fifty-three patients age 1-14 years (median, 11 years) were included in this study. The median follow-up time was 63 months. The 5-year EFS and OS rates were 94.3% and 96.2% for all patients, respectively. No statistical difference in OS or EFS was observed between the data of recipients in the carboplatin-based and historical cisplatin-based therapies in our institutes. Concerning radiotherapy, omission of radiotherapy or focal irradiation results in worse long-term survival outcomes, but reduction in dose of radiotherapy to less than 40 Gy did not cause any negative impact on survival rates. Furthermore, carboplatin was associated with lower rates of hearing loss than cisplatin (5.7% vs 87.5%).

Conclusions: Induction chemotherapy with carboplatin-based regimens was associated with excellent survival rates and low ototoxicity in patients with IC-GCT. Radiotherapy should be given to all patients with a minimal volume equivalent to whole-ventricular radiotherapy, during which doses of lower than 40 Gy can be effectively used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npz043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318857PMC
March 2020

PROC Promoter Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Low Protein C Activity But Not Increased Risk of Thromboembolism in Pediatric Population.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2020 Jan-Dec;26:1076029620935206

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Protein C (PC) deficiency, caused by mutations of the gene, is a common inherited risk factor of thromboembolism (TE) among Thai people. This study aimed to investigate the association of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; -1654 C/T, -1641 A/G, -1461A/T) at the promoter region with PC activity and the risk of developing TE. A total of 216 patient s with TE, diagnosed at aged 0 to 20 years, and 102 healthy adults were enrolled. The SNPs were identified by Sanger sequencing. Protein C activity was measured using an automated functional clotting assay. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association of SNPs with PC activity and the risk of TE. Patients and controls with homozygous TAA (119.6% ± 26.1%) and CGT haplotypes (102.7% ± 22.6%) had significantly lower PC activity than those with a homozygous CAA haplotype (140.4% ± 44.9%); .027 and .016, respectively. However, none of these haplotypes increased the risk of TE. This study suggested that the 3 promoter SNPs were shown to be associated with lower PC activity but did not increase the risk of TE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029620935206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427014PMC
April 2021

UNC0638 induces high levels of fetal hemoglobin expression in β-thalassemia/HbE erythroid progenitor cells.

Ann Hematol 2020 Sep 21;99(9):2027-2036. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Thalassemia Research Center, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, 25/25 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.

Increased expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) improves the clinical severity of β-thalassemia patients. EHMT1/2 histone methyltransferases are epigenetic modifying enzymes that are responsible for catalyzing addition of the repressive histone mark H3K9me2 at silenced genes, including the γ-globin genes. UNC0638, a chemical inhibitor of EHMT1/2, has been shown to induce HbF expression in human erythroid progenitor cell cultures. Here, we report the HbF-inducing activity of UNC0638 in erythroid progenitor cells from β-thalassemia/HbE patients. UNC0638 treatment led to significant increases in γ-globin mRNA, HbF expression, and HbF-containing cells in the absence of significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, UNC0638 showed additive effects on HbF induction in combination with the immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide and the DNMT1 inhibitor decitabine. These studies provide a scientific proof of concept that a small molecule targeting EHMT1/2 epigenetic enzymes, used alone or in combination with pomalidomide or decitabine, is a potential therapeutic approach for HbF induction. Further development of structural analogs of UNC0638 with similar biological effects but improved pharmacokinetic properties may lead to promising therapies and possible clinical application for the treatment of β-thalassemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04136-wDOI Listing
September 2020

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Severe Thalassemia Patients from Haploidentical Donors Using a Novel Conditioning Regimen.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 11;26(6):1106-1112. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Patients with severe thalassemia commonly have a survival that is significantly shorter than that of the general population. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is the only established treatment that is potentially curative, but it is limited by the availability of donors and the medical condition of the patient. To expand the donor pool to include haploidentical related donors, we introduced a program consisting of a pharmacologic pretransplant immune suppression phase (PTIS) and 2 courses of dexamethasone and fludarabine, followed by pretransplant conditioning with fludarabine-i.v. busulfan and post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. We transplanted 83 consecutive transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia (median age, 12 years; range, 1 to 28 years) with a minimum follow-up of 6 months (median, 15 months; range, 7 to 53 months); the 3-year projected overall and event-free survival is over 96%, and there have been no secondary graft failures. Of the first 31 patients, we had 2 graft failures, both of them occurring in patients with extremely high titers of anti-donor-specific HLA antibodies (anti-DSAs), but after adjusting the PTIS to include bortezomib and rituximab for patients with high titers of anti-DSAs and using pharmacologic dose guidance for busulfan, we had no graft failures in the last 52 patients. Six (7%) of 83 patients developed severe GVHD. We conclude that this is a safe and efficacious approach to allogeneic SCT in thalassemia, yielding results comparable to those available for patients with fully matched donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.002DOI Listing
June 2020

The Effect of Blood Transfusion on Growth of Patients with Hb E/β-Thalassemia.

Hemoglobin 2019 Jul - Sep;43(4-5):264-272. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

A retrospective evaluation of growth in 112 patients (68 males, 44 females) with Hb E (: c.79G>A)/β-thalassemia (β-thal), classified as 88 transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and 24 non transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), is reported. Patients with TDT have received regular transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) 15 mL/kg every 4 weeks to maintain pre transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) levels of at least 9.0 g/dL and were categorized according to age at initiation of regular RBC transfusion as subgroup 1, <4 years; subgroup 2, 4-10 years, and subgroup 3, >10 years. Iron chelation was initiated at the mean age of 7 years. The results revealed that patients in subgroups 1 and 2, receiving RBC transfusions at a young age (2.9 and 6.9 years, respectively), had normal prepubertal growth at enrollment and last follow-up. Patients in subgroup 3, with the lowest initial height Z-score of -2.10, were able to achieve comparable final adult height as those in subgroups 1 and 2. The mean final height of 21 males and 13 females with TDT at the ages of 18.9 and 18.7 years was 168.1 and 157.7 cm, respectively, which did not significantly differ from their midparental height and those with NTDT. Early initiation of optimal transfusion and iron chelation promoted normal prepubertal growth. However, delayed initiation of transfusion at age 12 years impaired prepubertal growth but they could achieve normal final adult height.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2019.1692863DOI Listing
May 2020

Long-Term Outcomes of Modified St Jude Children's Research Hospital Total Therapy XIIIB and XV Protocols for Thai Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 08 19;19(8):497-505. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: We studied long-term outcomes and prognostic features of Thai children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with modified St Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) protocols.

Patients And Methods: Pediatric patients newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were included. From 1997 to 2003, the first group received modified Total Therapy XIIIB (previous protocol). From 2004 to 2014, the latter had modified Total Therapy XV (current protocol).

Results: In 250 patients, the event-free survival rates (± standard error) of the previous protocol (n = 95) were 82.8 ± 3.9%, 81.7 ± 4.0%, and 81.7 ± 4.0% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; current protocol event-free survival rates (n = 155) were 84 ± 3.0%, 80.8 ± 3.4%, and 80.8 ± 3.4%, respectively. Previous protocol overall survival rates for the same years were 89.2 ± 3.2%, 84.8 ± 3.8%, and 84.8 ± 3.8%, and for the current protocol were 90 ± 2.5%, 86.9 ± 3.2%, and 83.7 ± 4.4%. Previous protocol relapses were 10.5% (10 patients), with 7 having isolated hematologic and 3 isolated/combined central nervous system relapses. Current protocol relapses were 9.7% (15 patients), with 7 having isolated hematologic, 6 isolated/combined central nervous system, and 2 extramedullary relapses. Patients with leukocyte counts over 100 × 10/L and who had disease classified as high risk had worse event-free survival using the previous protocol. However, only initial leukocyte counts of ≥ 100 × 10/L predicted adverse outcomes under the current protocol. Minimal residual disease positivity was a prognostic factor of worse overall survival only for previous protocol patients.

Conclusion: Favorable outcomes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurred using adapted SJCRH protocols, perhaps because of multidisciplinary care teams and improved parent advocacy. Inferior outcomes might be prevented by addressing predictive factors to ameliorate monitoring and care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.04.006DOI Listing
August 2019

Increased endothelial activation in α-thalassemia disease.

Ann Hematol 2019 Jul 5;98(7):1593-1602. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

One complication of thalassemia is thromboembolism (TE), which is caused by an abnormal red blood cell surface, as well as endothelial and platelet activation. These findings are commonly observed in severe β-thalassemia. However, limited information on α-thalassemia exists. This study enrolled subjects with deletional and non-deletional α-thalassemia and normal controls (NC). Plasma and serum of subjects were tested for endothelial activation markers including thrombomodulin (TM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and von Willebrand factor antigen as well as platelet activation markers including thromboxane B2 and platelet factor 4. A total of 179 subjects were enrolled: 29 in the deletional group (mean age 13.3 ± 4.4 years), 31 in the non-deletional group (mean age 12.9 ± 4.8 years), and 119 in the NC group (mean age 13.6 ± 3.0 years). Twenty nine percent of subjects in the non-deletional group received regular red blood cell transfusion and iron chelator administration. Serum ferritin level was higher in the non-deletional group than that in the deletional group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that VCAM-1 and TM levels were increased significantly in α-thalassemia compared with NC group (816.8 ± 131.0 vs 593.9 ± 49.0 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P < 0.001 respectively). VCAM-1 and TM levels in the non-deletional group were significantly higher than that in the deletional group. The present study demonstrated endothelial activation in children with α-thalassemia disease, especially those in the non-deletional group, which might be one risk factor for TE in α-thalassemia disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03672-4DOI Listing
July 2019

Pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Characteristics, stratification, and treatment at a single institute in Thailand.

Pediatr Int 2019 Jan;61(1):49-57

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: In the modern era of chemotherapy, the outcome of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) continues to improve internationally. Limited data such as information on epidemiology and survival, however, are available in Asian countries.

Methods: Children (≤15 years old) diagnosed with histologically proven NHL from 1998 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: In total, 114 patients were enrolled; they were predominantly male (65.8%) and had advanced disease (stage III, IV; 71.9%). Of these, 22.8% had Burkitt lymphoma, 20.2% had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 21.1% had lymphoblastic lymphoma, 20.2% had large cell lymphoma, and 15.8% had peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Twenty-nine patients died, especially of uncontrolled disease (62.1%) and infection (20.7%). During a median follow up of 78.4 months, Kaplan-Meier 5 year event-free and overall survival rates were 71.5% ± 4.3% and 74.8% ± 4.1%, respectively, regardless of subtype. B symptoms (i.e. systemic symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss that can be associated with both Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and advanced disease had a significant negative impact on 5 year survival. No other prognostic factor was found, but survival tended to have a negative correlation with age.

Conclusions: Pediatric NHL is aggressive, with a high prevalence of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The present treatment stratification seems to be effective compared with that used in developed countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13739DOI Listing
January 2019

Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent in a thalassemia-prevalent area.

Pediatr Int 2019 Mar 10;61(3):240-245. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret-He), a direct measure of the hemoglobin (Hb) in the young red blood cells, has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) but may have some limitations in thalassemia trait. This study evaluated the differences in Ret-He in school-aged children, and assessed the diagnostic value of Ret-He in identifying IDA in a thalassemia-prevalent area.

Methods: Blood samples underwent complete blood count analysis, including Ret-He, ferritin, serum iron and total iron binding capacity. Blood samples also underwent Hb typing and a molecular study for α-thalassemia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the predictive capacity of Ret-He in the diagnosis of IDA. ID was defined as serum ferritin <30 ng/mL and/or transferrin saturation (TSAT) <16%; IDA was defined as serum ferritin <12 ng/mL and/or TSAT <16% with low Hb for age. Normal healthy children (normal controls: NC) had normal iron study, without the thalassemia trait.

Results: Ninety-eight children with a mean age of 12.9 ± 0.6 years were included. Ret-He in the thalassemia trait group (26.7 ± 2.4 pg), ID group (29.0 ± 2.9 pg), IDA group (25.4 ± 2.7 pg), ID + thalassemia trait group (26.6 ± 2.8 pg), and the IDA + thalassemia trait group (24.6 ± 2.3 pg) was significantly lower than in the NC group (30.8 ± 1.7 pg; P < 0.001, 0.01, 0.006, 0.002 and <0.001, respectively). Ret-He had an area under the curve of 0.904 in diagnostic ability for IDA, while a cut-off ≤27 pg had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 81%.

Conclusion: Ret-He was lowest in subjects with IDA + thalassemia trait. A Ret-He cut-off ≤27 pg was suggestive of IDA in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13775DOI Listing
March 2019

Skewed X chromosome inactivation in girls and female adolescents with autoimmune thyroid disease.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 12 17;89(6):863-869. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) was associated with female predominance in adult autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD). In normal females, skewed XCI is increased with age. Whether early-onset skewed XCI is associated with childhood ATD remains unknown. This study aimed to determine XCI skewing in paediatric ATD.

Design, Patients And Measurements: Ninety-one female ATD patients, aged 3-20 years and 57 age-matched, female controls were enrolled. XCI was analysed by enzymatic digestion of DNA with methylation-sensitive enzymes followed by PCR of the polymorphic CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene. Skewed XCI was defined as having 80% or greater of the cells preferentially inactivated on the same X chromosome. XCI pattern of the enrolled patients and parental origin of the skewed XCI were determined.

Results: After exclusion of samples with homozygous CAG repeats, skewed XCI was analysed in 83 patients (57 Graves' disease and 26 Hashimoto thyroiditis) and 52 controls. There was an increased frequency of skewed XCI in ATD patients as compared with the controls (23% vs 8%, P = 0.022). Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis had greater frequency of skewed XCI than patients with Graves' disease (38% vs 16%, P = 0.023). There were no differences in clinical parameters between patients with skewed and random XCI. Analysis of 7 patients with skewed XCI showed a preferential inactivation of paternal X chromosome in 6 patients (86%).

Conclusions: Frequency of skewed XCI was increased in childhood ATD. This observation suggests a possible association of skewed XCI in the development of paediatric ATD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13857DOI Listing
December 2018

Preventable Severe Thalassemia among Children.

Hemoglobin 2018 May 12;42(3):148-153. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

a Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand.

This retrospective study analyzed 27 children with preventable severe thalassemia born to 24 at-risk couples between 1997 and 2017. The couples were categorized into two groups: the prenatal diagnosis (PND) group (n = 8) and the non PND group (n = 16). In the PND group, following comprehensive counseling on having a fetus with thalassemia, six couples decided to continue the pregnancy (n = 6). Termination of the two remaining fetuses was excluded as the thalassemia status was reported at a gestational age of 24 weeks. In the non PND group, medical errors were found in the misdiagnosis of couples as non thalassemia carriers (n = 4) and not offering PND to couples with known thalassemia carrier status when attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) (n = 2). Additionally, parental ignorance was found in parents experiencing their own thalassemia, or that of their spouse or child (n = 6). The remaining couples (n = 4) with known carrier status either directly refused PND or were ineligible for it. A total of five divorces (5/24 = 20.8%) occurred in the PND (n = 2) and the non PND (n = 3) groups. Knowledge, beliefs, religion, experience of thalassemia, as well as the sex of the at-risk fetus all influenced parental decisions. Therefore, both medical personnel and parents are key in preventing new cases of thalassemia. Parents should be aware of the consequences of having children with severe thalassemia, while medical personnel should provide accurate carrier detection and PND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2018.1502196DOI Listing
May 2018

An international registry of survivors with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome.

Blood 2017 03 5;129(10):1251-1259. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Medical Research Council Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; and.

Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome (BHFS) resulting from α-thalassemia is considered a universally fatal disorder. However, over the last 3 decades, improvements in intrauterine interventions and perinatal intensive care have resulted in increasing numbers of BHFS survivors. We have initiated an international registry containing information on 69 patients, of which 31 are previously unpublished. In this perspective, we analyze the available clinical information to document the natural history of BHFS. In the future, once we have accrued sufficient cases, we aim to build on this study and provide information to allow counseling of at-risk couples. To date, 39 patients have survived beyond the age of 5 years, 18 of whom are now older than 10 years. Based on the available cases, we find evidence to suggest that intrauterine therapy provides benefits during the perinatal and neonatal period; however, it may not provide additional benefits to long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Growth retardation is a major adverse long-term outcome among BHFS patients with ∼40% being severely affected in terms of weight and ∼50% in terms of height. There is also an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay as we find 20% (11/55) of BHFS survivors suffer from a serious delay of ≥6 months. Most patients in the registry require lifelong transfusion and often have associated congenital abnormalities and comorbidities. This perspective is a first step in gathering information to allow provision of informed counseling on the predicted outcomes of affected babies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-08-697110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5345731PMC
March 2017

Safety profile of a liquid formulation of deferiprone in young children with transfusion-induced iron overload: a 1-year experience.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Jan 29:1-5. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

a Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital , Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Background: Data on the use of deferiprone in young children with iron overload are limited.

Objective: To study the safety profile of a liquid formulation of deferiprone in chelating young children with transfusion-induced iron overload.

Patients And Methods: A daily dose of 50-100 mg/kg BW in three divided doses of oral deferiprone was given to young patients who had received at least ten packed red cell transfusions and achieved a serum ferritin level >1000 μg/L during a 12-month period from 2011 to 2012.

Results: Nine children (four males) diagnosed with various types of thalassaemia (n = 8) and hereditary spherocytosis (n = 1) were enrolled. Their mean (SD) age was 4.5 (1.9) years. The patients received 15-20 ml/kg BW of packed red cell transfusions every 4-8 weeks from a mean (SD) age of 2.1 (1.7) years to maintain a pre-transfusion haematocrit at 27%. A mean (SD) total of packed red cells of 5132 (2725) ml were given within a mean (SD) duration of 2.4 (1.1) years before the study. During the 1-year study period, they received a mean (SD) total of packed red cells of 2194 (680) ml or 138 (50) ml/kg BW with a mean (SD) daily iron load of 0.29 (0.12) mg/kg BW. The pre-treatment geometric mean of serum ferritin of 1863.8 μg/L decreased to 1279.7 μg/L after 1 year of treatment (P = 0.05). All patients tolerated the liquid formulation well and did not experience any gastro-intestinal discomfort, nausea or vomiting.

Conclusion: The liquid formulation of deferiprone is safe in young children with transfusion-induced iron overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2015.1109272DOI Listing
January 2016

Safety profile of a liquid formulation of deferiprone in young children with transfusion-induced iron overload: a 1-year experience.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Aug;36(3):209-13

a Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital , Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Background: Data on the use of deferiprone in young children with iron overload are limited.

Objective: To study the safety profile of a liquid formulation of deferiprone in chelating young children with transfusion-induced iron overload.

Patients And Methods: A daily dose of 50-100 mg/kg BW in three divided doses of oral deferiprone was given to young patients who had received at least ten packed red cell transfusions and achieved a serum ferritin level >1000 μg/L during a 12-month period from 2011 to 2012.

Results: Nine children (four males) diagnosed with various types of thalassaemia (n = 8) and hereditary spherocytosis (n = 1) were enrolled. Their mean (SD) age was 4.5 (1.9) years. The patients received 15-20 ml/kg BW of packed red cell transfusions every 4-8 weeks from a mean (SD) age of 2.1 (1.7) years to maintain a pre-transfusion haematocrit at 27%. A mean (SD) total of packed red cells of 5132 (2725) ml were given within a mean (SD) duration of 2.4 (1.1) years before the study. During the 1-year study period, they received a mean (SD) total of packed red cells of 2194 (680) ml or 138 (50) ml/kg BW with a mean (SD) daily iron load of 0.29 (0.12) mg/kg BW. The pre-treatment geometric mean of serum ferritin of 1863.8 μg/L decreased to 1279.7 μg/L after 1 year of treatment (P = 0.05). All patients tolerated the liquid formulation well and did not experience any gastro-intestinal discomfort, nausea or vomiting.

Conclusion: The liquid formulation of deferiprone is safe in young children with transfusion-induced iron overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000040DOI Listing
August 2016

Comparative outcome of Thai pediatric osteosarcoma treated with two protocols: the role of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) in a single institute experience.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(22):9823-9

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand E-mail :

Background: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is recognized as an efficient component of therapy against pediatric osteosarcoma in combination with other drugs such as cisplatin (CDP), carboplatin (CBDCA), doxorubicin (ADM), etoposide (VP-16) and ifosfamide (IFO).

Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HD-MTX/CDP/DOX/VP-16/IFO [MTX(+)] protocol comparable to CDP/ADM/CBDCA/IFO [MTX(-)] for treating childhood osteosarcoma at Ramathibodi Hospital (1999-2014).

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of osteosarcoma patients aged less than 18 years treated with two chemotherapeutic regimens between 1999 and 2014. A total of 45 patients received the MTX(-) and 21 the MTX(+) protocol.

Results: Overall limb-salvage and amputation rate were 12.9% and 77.7%, respectively. Kaplan- Meier analysis results for 3-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) regardless of treatment regimens were 43.4±6.0% and 53.2±6.1% respectively. The 3-year DFS and OS were improved significantly with the MTX(+) protocol compared to MTX(-) protocol (p=0.010 and p=0.009, log rank test) [69.8±10.5%, 79.8±9.1% for MTX(+) and 31.1±6.9%, 42.2±7.4% for MTX(-) protocol, respectively]. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma treated with the MTX(+) protocol had statistically significant higher 3-year DFS and OS than those treated with the MTX(-) protocol (66.7±13.6% and 15.0±8.0% for 3-year DFS, p=0.010, 73.3±13.2% and 20±8.9% for 3-year OS, p=0.006, respectively). The independent risk factors for having inferior 3-year DFS and OS were poor histological response (tumor necrosis <90%) and treatment with the MTX(-) protocol. The multivariate analysis identified only the treatment with the MTX(-) protocol as an independent predictor of inferior OS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.53 (95% confidence interval of 1.2-10.41, p=0.022).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the tolerability, feasibility and efficacy of the HDMTX-based regimen improving the survival rate in pediatric osteosarcoma cases, in line with reports from developed countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.22.9823DOI Listing
August 2015

Combined chelation therapy with daily oral deferiprone and twice-weekly subcutaneous infusion of desferrioxamine in children with β-thalassemia: 3-year experience.

Acta Haematol 2015 11;133(2):226-36. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To study the efficacy of combined treatment with oral and subcutaneous iron chelators.

Material And Methods: 50-100 mg/kg/day of oral deferiprone (DFP) combined with 40 mg/kg/dose s.c. desferrioxamine (DFO) twice weekly were given to transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia children.

Results: Enrolled patients (9 with β-thalassemia major and 33 with β-thalassemia hemoglobin E), ranging from 3 to 18 years in age, were divided into 3 groups; group 1 ferritin ≥1,000-2,500 ng/ml (n = 10), group 2 ferritin >2,500-4,000 ng/ml (n = 23) and group 3 ferritin >4,000 ng/ml (n = 9). Of the 42 patients, 28 reached the 36-month follow-up. Ten patients whose ferritin declined <15% while receiving 100 mg/kg/day of DFP were considered nonresponders. The median age and previous transfusion duration before enrollment were significantly higher in nonresponders than responders (p = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). The responders exhibited a significant fall in median ferritin levels from 2,954.6 to 936.6 ng/ml (p < 0.001). Time to a significant decrease in serum ferritin among responders was 6 months. In 13 patients, 16 episodes of adverse events occurred: hemophagocytosis with cytopenia (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 2), thrombocytopenia (n = 2), elevated alanine aminotransferase (n = 5), elevated serum creatinine (n = 1), proteinuria (n = 1) and gastrointestinal discomfort (n = 4).

Conclusion: Combination therapy with daily oral DFP and subcutaneous DFO twice weekly is a safe and effective alternative to chelation monotherapy in β-thalassemia children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000363210DOI Listing
April 2015

Outcomes of thalassemia patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by using a standard myeloablative versus a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen according to a new risk stratification.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Dec 23;20(12):2066-71. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Improving outcomes among class 3 thalassemia patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains a challenge. Before HSCT, patients who were ≥ 7 years old and had a liver size ≥ 5 cm constitute what the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research defined as a very high-risk subset of a conventional high-risk class 3 group (here referred to as class 3 HR). We performed HSCT in 98 patients with related and unrelated donor stem cells. Seventy-six of the patients with age < 10 years received the more conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (cyclophosphamide, busulfan, ± fludarabine); the remaining 22 patients with age ≥ 10 years and hepatomegaly (class 3 HR), and in several instances additional comorbidity problems, underwent HSCT with a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen (fludarabine and busulfan). We then compared the outcomes between these 2 groups (MAC versus RTC). Event-free survival (86% versus 90%) and overall survival (95% versus 90%) were not significantly different between the respective groups; however, there was a higher incidence of serious treatment-related complications in the MAC group, and although we experienced 6 graft failures in the MAC group (8%), there were none in the RTC group. Based on these results, we suggest that (1) class 3 HR thalassemia patients can safely receive HSCT with our novel RTC regimen and achieve the same excellent outcome as low/standard-risk thalassemia patients who received the standard MAC regimen, and further, (2) that this novel RTC approach should be tested in the low/standard-risk patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538782PMC
December 2014

Mutations in Kruppel-like factor 1 cause transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia and persistence of embryonic globin gene expression.

Blood 2014 Mar 17;123(10):1586-95. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatrics & Thalassemia Centre.

In this study, we report on 8 compound heterozygotes for mutations in the key erythroid transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 1 in patients who presented with severe, transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia. In most cases, the red cells were hypochromic and microcytic, consistent with abnormalities in hemoglobin synthesis. In addition, in many cases, the red cells resembled those seen in patients with membrane defects or enzymopathies, known as chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Analysis of RNA and protein in primary erythroid cells from these individuals provided evidence of abnormal globin synthesis, with persistent expression of fetal hemoglobin and, most remarkably, expression of large quantities of embryonic globins in postnatal life. The red cell membranes were abnormal, most notably expressing reduced amounts of CD44 and, consequently, manifesting the rare In(Lu) blood group. Finally, all tested patients showed abnormally low levels of the red cell enzyme pyruvate kinase, a known cause of CNSHA. These patients define a new type of severe, transfusion-dependent CNSHA caused by mutations in a trans-acting factor (Krüppel-like factor 1) and reveal an important pathway regulating embryonic globin gene expression in adult humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-09-526087DOI Listing
March 2014

Intramuscular anti-D in chronic immune thrombocytopenia children with severe thrombocytopenia.

Pediatr Int 2013 Dec;55(6):e146-8

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Nine patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia and platelet counts <20 × 10(9) /L, with a median age of 7.8 (3.8-15.5) years, received three phases of 10 mcg/kg/dose of intramuscular anti-D. Phase 1 was anti-D daily for 5 days, followed by phase 2, anti-D weekly for 12 weeks and withheld when platelet counts ≥ 20 × 10(9) /L, and then phase 3 was anti-D once every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. According to the International Working Group criteria, in phase 1, 66.7% of patients responded to the treatment. In phases 2 and 3, 11.1% (0-41.7%) and 7.7% (0-33.3%) of total episodes of follow up, respectively, responded to the treatment. Therefore, intramuscular anti-D given at a dose of 10 mcg/kg for 5 days is an alternative method to raise platelet counts in chronic immune thrombocytopenia children with severe thrombocytopenia where the intravenous form of anti-D is not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.12179DOI Listing
December 2013

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with severe aplastic anemia.

J Med Assoc Thai 2013 Jan;96 Suppl 1:S18-24

Division ofHematology-Oncology, Department ofPediatrics, Faculty ofMedicine, Srinakharinwirot University Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.

Objective: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for severe aplastic anemia (SAA). This is a single institutional review to study the feasibility of using allo-SCT for Thai children with SAA.

Material And Method: Nine children with SAA (7 matched-sibling donor-SCT, 1 matched-unrelated donor-SCT and 1 haploidentical-SCT) underwent allo-SCT between October 2002 and September 2010. Cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin (CY/ATG) were used as conditioning regimen for 4 patients with matched-sibling donor-SCT CY/ATG and fludarabine were used for 3 patients with matched-sibling donor-SCT and one patient with haplo-identical SCT. One matched-unrelated donor-SCT received CY/ATG and total body irradiation.

Results: Eight of 9 patients (89%) achieved neutrophil engraftment within 13.5 days (range 6.0-22.0). One matched-sibling donor-SCT recipient who failed to achieve engraftment died from acute renal failure and gram-negative sepsis on day 21 post allo-SCT. One matched-sibling donor-SCT case developed late graft failure on day 72 and died from invasive fungal infection. For graft versus host disease (GVHD), a haplo-identical-SCT patient died from steroid refractory grade IV acute GVHD. At last follow-up, six patients (67%) alive at a median follow-up time of 76.4 months (range 2.3-88.8). Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 5 year was 63% and 65%, respectively.

Conclusion: Allo-SCT is a feasible curative treatment for children with SAA in Thailand. Graft failure and severe GVHD in alternative donors SCT are responsible for major causes of death. OS and EFS probabilities are stable after the first year post transplant.
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January 2013

Pretransplant immunosuppression followed by reduced-toxicity conditioning and stem cell transplantation in high-risk thalassemia: a safe approach to disease control.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013 Aug 3;19(8):1259-62. Epub 2013 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Patients with class 3 thalassemia with high-risk features for adverse events after high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are difficult to treat, tending to either suffer serious toxicity or fail to establish stable graft function. We performed HSCT in 18 such patients age ≥7 years and hepatomegaly using a novel approach with pretransplant immunosuppression followed by a myeloablative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen (fludarabine and i.v. busulfan [Flu-IV Bu]) and then HSCT. The median patient age was 14 years (range, 10 to 18 years). Before the Flu-IV Bu + antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen, all patients received 1 to 2 cycles of pretransplant immunosuppression with fludarabine and dexamethasone. Thirteen patients received a related donor graft, and 5 received an unrelated donor graft. An initial prompt engraftment of donor cells with full donor chimerism was observed in all 18 patients, but 2 patients developed secondary mixed chimerism that necessitated withdrawal of immunosuppression to achieve full donor chimerism. Two patients (11%) had acute grade III-IV graft-versus-host disease, and 5 patients had limited chronic graft-versus-host disease. The only treatment-related mortality was from infection, and with a median follow-up of 42 months (range, 4 to 75), the 5-year overall survival and thalassemia-free survival were 89%. We conclude that this novel sequential immunoablative pretransplantation conditioning program is safe and effective for patients with high-risk class 3 thalassemia exhibiting additional comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.04.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4429773PMC
August 2013

Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in pediatric solid tumors: the role of glutathione S-transferases and megalin genetic polymorphisms.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013 May;35(4):e138-43

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, an important dose-limiting side effect, has proven high interindividual variability. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are isoenzymes involved in cellular detoxification processes. Megalin has been demonstrated to bind aminoglycosides, known to be similar to cisplatin for their ototoxicity. The GSTs and megalin expression is genetically polymorphic, which might be responsible for the variability in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The genotyping of GSTM1, GSTT1 polymorphisms, and 2 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at megalin genes, rs2075252 and rs2228171, were performed in 68 children diagnosed with solid tumors who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After the end of treatment, audiometry demonstrated hearing loss in 79.4% of patients according to Brock classification. The cumulative cisplatin dose >400 mg/m is associated with increased risk of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity [odds ratio (OR), 17.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.09-98.62]. GSTT1 wild genotype and C-allele of rs2228171 SNPs of megalin gene occurred with higher frequency in patients with ototoxicity (P=0.023; OR, 10; 95% CI, 1.80-56.00 and P=0.034; OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.22-5.82, respectively). In conclusion, our results suggested that GSTT1 wild genotype and C-allele of rs2228171 SNPs might be risk factors for ototoxicity. The cumulative cisplatin dose <400 mg/m should be beneficial in order to ameliorate ototoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e3182707fc5DOI Listing
May 2013
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