Publications by authors named "Drazen Cular"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Marathon shoes vs. track spikes: a crossover pilot study on metabolic demand at different speeds in experienced runners.

Res Sports Med 2021 May 14:1-8. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università Degli Studi Di Milano, Milan, Italy.

The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic cost (Cr) with marathon shoes (Adidas Adizero 3 [AA]) vs. track spikes (Nike Zoom Matumbo 3 [NZM]) on track. For this, five experienced runners were randomly assessed (NZM/AA) on a running track at 73% and 85% of best performance speed on 1500-m race. At first, speed (4.39 ± 0.53 m·s), Crs with AA and NZM resulted 3.63 ± 0.29 and 3.64 ± 0.43 J·kg·m (+0.3% with NZM, effect size [ES] small and = 0.951), respectively. Besides, at second speed (5.20 ± 0.18 m·s), Crs were 4.09 ± 0.28 and 4.07 ± 0.22 J·kg·m (-0.5% with NZM, ES small and = 0.919) with AA and NZM, respectively. It resulted in an increased Cr (+12.2%) between s1 and s2 with both shoe conditions (ES large and = 0.009 and 0.011 with AA and NZM, respectively). There is a pattern yet to be confirmed for track spikes to become more beneficial at higher speeds (when duty factor becomes lower and therefore grip on track is crucial).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1929225DOI Listing
May 2021

External Responsiveness of the SuperOp Device to Assess Recovery After Exercise: A Pilot Study.

Front Sports Act Living 2020 14;2:67. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Post-exercise recovery is a complex process involving a return of performance and a physiological or perceptual feeling close to pre-exercise . The hypothesis of this study is that the device investigated here is effective in evaluating the recovery state of professional cyclists in order to plan effective training. Ten professional male cyclists belonging to the same team were enrolled in this study. Participants performed a 7-day exercise program [D1, D4, and D7: low-intensity training; D2 and D5: passive recovery; D3: oxygen consumption (VO) test (for mechanical power assessment only); and D6: constant load test]. During the week of monitoring, each morning before getting up, the device assessed each participant's so-called Organic Readiness {OR [arbitrary unit (a.u.)]}, based on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), features of past exercise session, and following self-perceived condition. Based on its readings and algorithm, the device graphically displayed four different colors/values, indicating general exercise recommendations: green/3 = "you can train hard," yellow/2 = "you can train averagely," orange/1 = "you can train lightly," or red/0 = "you should recover passively." During the week of research, morning OR values and Bonferroni comparisons showed significant differences between days and, namely, values (1) D2 (after low intensity training) was higher than D4 (after VO test; = 0.033 and = 1.296) and (2) D3 and D6 (after passive recovery) were higher than D4 (after VO test; = 0.006 and = 2.519) and D5 (after low intensity training; = 0.033 and = 1.341). The receiver operating characteristic analysis area under curve (AUC) recorded a result of 0.727 and could differentiate between D3 and D4 with a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. Preliminarily, the device investigated is a sufficiently effective and sensitive/specific device to assess the recovery state of athletes in order to plan effective training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739672PMC
July 2020

Validity and Reliability of Isometric-Bench for Knee Isometric Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 17;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Science, University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

There is a strong need for a new, probably cheaper, smaller, and more portable isometric dynamometer. With this aim, we investigated the concurrent validity and reliability of a low-cost portable dynamometer to measure the isometric strength of the lower limb. Seventeen young participants (age 16.47 ± 0.51 years) were randomly assessed on three different days for knee flexion and extension isometric forces with two different devices: a commonly used isokinetic dynamometer (ISOC) and a portable isometric dynamometer prototype (ISOM). No significant differences were observed between the ISOC and the ISOM (all comparisons > 0.05). Test-retest comparison showed the ISOM to have high reliability (ICC 0.879-0.990). This study showed that measurements with the ISOM could be performed without systematic bias and with high reliability. The ISOM is a device that is able to assess knee isometric strength with excellent concurrent validity and reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345336PMC
June 2020

Height-based model for the categorization of athletes in combat sports.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Apr 7;21(4):471-480. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Reducing bodyweight within a short-time participating in kicking combat sports can adversely affect health. This study's aim creating an improved model to categorize athletes in kicking combat sports. The investigation focused on 795 athletes (11-24 years), participating in the Croatian National Taekwondo Championship. The sample included athletes from both sexes (371 males), cadets ( = 325), juniors ( = 247) and seniors ( = 223). Data were collected during the preparatory period and prior to the athletes competing, using a bioelectrical impedance analysis device. According to current categorization rules, athletes are categorized by arbitrarily determined ranges in bodyweight, whereas, in this current study, the authors have devised an improved model, based on body height and the analysis of data collected. The difference in coefficients between the official model and the proposed, improved categorization method in terms of body height (2.70 and 0.71, respectively), showed that the improved model homogenized athletes almost four times more than the official model, reducing the maximal difference in body height from 29 to 9 cm within specific categories. Proposed, improved model had same number of categories as the official structure and directly homogenized differences in height within a category up to a 3-cm maximum for the middle categories and a 9-cm on the periphery of the bands. We expect this improved combat sports categorization model will indirectly reduce differences between other longitudinal body dimensions within categories (thus making match results less predictable) as well as reduce bodyweight manipulation potentially endangering athletes' health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1744735DOI Listing
April 2021

The Psychophysiological Effects of Different Tempo Music on Endurance Versus High-Intensity Performances.

Front Psychol 2020 5;11:74. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Faculty of Psychology, eCampus University, Novedrate, Italy.

The use of music during training represents a special paradigm for trainers to stimulate people undertaking different types of exercise. However, the relationship between the tempo of music and perception of effort during different metabolic demands is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine whether high intensity exercise is more sensitive to the beneficial effects of music than endurance exercise. This study assessed 19 active women (age 26.4 ± 2.6 years) during endurance (walking for 10' at 6.5 km/h on a treadmill) and high intensity (80% on 1-RM) exercise under four different randomly assigned conditions: no music (NM), with music at 90-110 bpm (LOW), with music at 130-150 bpm (MED), and with music at 170-190 bpm (HIGH). During each trial, heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. Repeated analysis of variance measures was used to detect any differences between the four conditions during high intensity and low intensity exercise. RPE showed more substantial changes during the endurance exercises (11%), than during high intensity exercise (6.5%), between HIGH and NM conditions. The metabolic demand during the walking exercise increased between NM and HIGH bpm conditions. This study indicates the benefits of music under stress conditions as well as during endurance and high intensity training. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of music are more likely to be seen in endurance exercise. Consequently, music may be considered an important tool to stimulate people engaging in low intensity physical exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013107PMC
February 2020

Validity and Reliability of a New Specific Parkour Test: Physiological and Performance Responses.

Front Physiol 2019 30;10:1362. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Main aim of this study was examining validity and reliability of using a new specific Parkour repeated sprint ability test (SPRSA) for assessing repeated sprint ability while facing obstacles and establishing between-day reliability and sensitivity of SPRSA related to its physiological and performance responses. Thirteen high-level traceurs (three females) performed in random order and twice eight tests for assessing a total of 23 variables: SPRSA (a typical maximal-speed shuttle run interspersed with four Parkour competition-common fundamentals) and seven established fitness tests, core stability, hand-grip, vertical-jump, long-jump, pull-up, 300-m shuttle run (as a field test for anaerobic capacity), and Leger test. Except for muscular elasticity index of vertical jump test (intra-class Correlation Coefficient model 3,1 [ICC,] = 0.54 []), fitness tests' ICC,s resulted (ICC,: 0.93-1.00). SPRSA total time and time of its fastest sprint (SPRSA peak time) were significantly correlated with the majority of core stability (: -0.79 to 0.59; < 0.01-0.05), jumping (: -0.78 to 0.67; < 0.01-0.05), pull-up tests (: -0.86; < 0.01), 300-m shuttle run test total time (: 0.77-0.82; < 0.01), and Leger test-estimated VO max (: -0.78; < 0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 23 variables led to extraction of four significant components (each due to different variables' combinations), which explained 90.2% of 23 variables' total variance. SPRSA (i.e., total and peak time) showed high reliability (ICC,: 0.991-0.998 and standard-error-of-measurement %: 0.07-0.32). Finally, SPRSA showed high sensitivity (smallest-worthwhile-change %: 0.29-0.68). Considering its excellent logical and strong ecological validity, SPRSA may serve as a valid specific field test for Parkour sport. In addition, thanks to its high reliability and sensitivity, this test is suitable for monitoring, evaluating, and programming training processes for Parkour practitioners in repeated sprint ability involving crossing obstacles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831735PMC
October 2019

The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: A Reliable, Valid, and Useful Tool to Assess Aerobic Capacity in Female Basketball Players.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2020 Mar 14;91(1):83-91. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

University of Niš.

: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability, validity, and usefulness of 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15) in female basketball players. : Nineteen female basketball players (17.82 ± 1.94 yr, 175.4 ± 7.3 cm, 67.9 ± 7.7 kg) competing in the National Croatian League performed one trial of a continuous treadmill running test and two trials of the 30-15. The 30-15 involves 30-s runs across a 40-m course interspersed with 15 s of walking, with running speed increasing every 45 s. The continuous treadmill running test was used as the criterion for validation. : to reliability across test-retest trials were observed for maximal oxygen uptake (VOmax) (CV = 4.9%, ICC = 0.85), the 30-15 end-running velocity (V) (CV = 6.0%, ICC = 0.85), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) (CV = 4.8%, ICC = 0.96). Criterion validity was supported for the 30-15 with to relationships with VOmax (0.69), V (0.74), and HRmax (0.73) attained during the continuous treadmill running test. The typical error (TE) of the 30-15 was greater than the smallest worthwhile change for VOmax (1.16 > 0.42 ml/kg/min), V (0.56 > 0.20 km/h), and HRmax (2.15 > 1.89 bpm) adjudging usefulness of the test as . The TE of 0.56 km/h (90% CI = 0.44-0.77 km/h) demonstrates changes in the performance of one to two stages (0.5-1.0 km/h) are meaningful. : The 30-15 possesses acceptable reliability and validity to assess maximal aerobic fitness capacity in female basketball players. While the usefulness of the 30-15 was , meaningful changes in performance consisted of only one to two stages. The present findings support the 30-15 as a practical testing option for basketball practitioners to assess fitness capacities in female players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2019.1648743DOI Listing
March 2020

Validity and Reliability of a Light-Based Electronic Target for Testing Response Time in Fencers.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Sep;35(9):2636-2644

Department of Psychology, eCampus University, Novedrate, Italy.

Abstract: De Giorgio, A, Iuliano, E, Turner, A, Millevolte, C, Cular, D, Ardigò, LP, and Padulo, J. Validity and reliability of a light-based electronic target for testing response time in fencers. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2636-2644, 2021-Response time (RT) is a fencing fundamental sensorimotor skill. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a light-based electronic target in fencers, designed to measure and train this entity. Ninety-five fencers (M = 53; F = 42) were tested in regard to their RT, using a light-based electronic target, for 3 different attack types: simple attack, the lunge, and an attack after a 1.5-m thrust. All subjects were divided into elite vs. novice fencers. Elite fencers had national and international rankings, and were again divided with regard to used weapon: épéeists (n = 32; M = 19; F = 13) and foilists (n = 30; M = 13; F = 17). Measurement was evaluated for validity/reliability, sensitivity/specificity, and correlation. Reliability was high for all attack types (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.94-0.96). Lower RTs were found in males for 2 attack types with good sensitivity (81-93%)/specificity (50-91%) for all attack types. Elite fencers responded faster than novice fencers for all attack types (p < 0.001), whereas elite males were faster than females for 2 attack types (p < 0.01). Lower RTs in females correlated with level for one attack type (r = 0.797, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the light-based electronic target system was found to be highly reliable and therefore could be used by fencing athletes as a further measure of performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003160DOI Listing
September 2021

Validity and reliability of a standalone low-end 50-Hz GNSS receiver during running.

Biol Sport 2019 Mar 5;36(1):75-80. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

The aim of the investigation was to verify the validity and reliability of a low-end 50-Hz Global Navigation Satellite System receiver (GNSSr) for different soccer-specific run distances and average speed assessments. Six soccer players were assessed on two different days while performing eight different running paths with changes of direction for a final total of 44 runs. During the runs, each participant was equipped with the GNSSr, while the time for each single run was recorded using a photocell gate. Reference vs. receiver assessment correspondences for distance and average speed were evaluated by calculating the standard error of the estimate (SEE), coefficient of variation (CV), and mean bias. Residual vs. predicted value comparison was performed by means of Bland-Altman plots. Finally, calculating the intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC) assessed the test-retest reliability of the measurement. Receiver distance assessment showed an SEE of 0.52 m (0.73%), and mean bias of 0.06 m. Receiver average speed assessment showed an SEE of 0.02 m·s (0.74%) and mean bias of 0.001 m·s. The Bland-Altman plot showed a small difference between the two assessments with the 95% limits of agreement=±1.08 m/0.046 m·s. Receiver distance/speed assessment was found to be reliable, with ICC=0.999. In spite of its low cost, the new low-end GNSSr provides valid and reliable assessments of distance and average speed for young adults performing several standardized running actions of differing lengths within delimited setup spaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2019.79974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413575PMC
March 2019

The Effect of Heart Rate on Jump-Shot Accuracy of Adolescent Basketball Players.

Front Physiol 2018 3;9:1065. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel.

Basketball is a team sport, where fundamental skills - fundamentals - are key determinants for success. Jump-shot (JS) is a basketball fundamental used frequently during game. It is interesting to spread light on the relationship between effort intensity and JS ability. Study aim was to investigate different heart rates (HRs) effect on JS accuracy (JS%) in 22 male youth (15.7 ± 0.9 years) players. Experimental sessions consisted of 10 JSs from five spots 5 m from basket at three different HRs: rest (0HR) and after warm-up (50% [50HR] and 80% maximal HR [80HR]). Analysis of variance showed differences in JS% over sessions (42.27 ± 14.78% at 0HR, 38.18 ± 10.53% at 50HR, and 30.00 ± 16.62% at 80HR; = 0.018). Least significant difference test did not show any significant difference between 50HR and 0HR JS% ( = 0.343), while 80HR elicited significantly lower values with respect to both 0HR ( = 0.006) and 50HR ( = 0.049). Study provided practical indications on maintaining high JS%: preliminary warm-up (even if injury-protecting) does not improve JS%, because between 50HR and 0HR difference was not significant; and 80HR significantly decreases JS%. Therefore, to maximize JS scoring players have to rest as much as possible during game-play pauses, and coaches should manage timeouts and substitutions accordingly, especially during final minutes of close games.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085478PMC
August 2018

Reliability, Sensitivity, and Minimal Detectable Change of a New Specific Climbing Test for Assessing Asymmetry in Reach Technique.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb;35(2):527-534

University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia.

Abstract: Čular, D, Dhahbi, W, Kolak, I, Iacono, AD, Bešlija, T, Laffaye, G, and Padulo, J. Reliability, sensitivity, and minimal detectable change of a new specific climbing test for assessing asymmetry in reach technique. J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 527-534, 2021-The aims of this study were to establish intertrial and intersession reliability, sensitivity, and minimal detectable change of a new climbing test specifically for assessing asymmetry in reach technique (TEST). Twenty-four young climbers (16 males and 8 females) participated in this study. The protocol consisted of performing, in counterbalanced random order, 3 tests; TEST, maximum handgrip force, and squat on the bench, in 2 sessions (with 3 trials for each session). TEST performance was expressed as: TEST performance for left hand (TESTL), TEST performance for right hand (TESTR), and absolute symmetry index (ASI). For intertrial and intersession reliability assessment, TESTL and TESTR showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged: 0.96-1.00; SEM% ranged: 0.07-1.23; and coefficient of variation-CV%: 1.28-2.53). In addition, SEMs were smaller than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) values (SWC% = 1.07 and 0.99 for TESTL and TESTR, respectively), and the minimal detectable change (MDC95) for both sides was small (<4.36 cm). An exception was ASI, which showed low absolute reliability and marginal sensitivity (SEM% = 15.13 > SWC% = 8.40 and CV% = 41.98). Pairwise test comparisons revealed no difference between sides. Considering the high reliability and the satisfactory sensitivity, TEST can be used to define individual asymmetry in the performance of the reach technique to the left or the right body side in climbers. However, interpreting data using the ASI index requires caution because it had poor absolute reliability and marginal sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002694DOI Listing
February 2021

Validity and Reliability of the 30-s Continuous Jump for Anaerobic Power and Capacity Assessment in Combat Sport.

Front Physiol 2018 15;9:543. Epub 2018 May 15.

Faculty of kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Cycling test such Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) is used to measure anaerobic power (AP), but not anaerobic capacity (AC, i.e., the metabolic energy demand). However, in sports that do not involve cycling movements (Karate), the continuous jump for 30 s (vertical jumps for 30 s) has been extensively used to measure anaerobic performance in all young athletes. Limited information's are available concerning its validity and reliability especially in children. As such, the current study aimed to test validity and reliability of a continuous jumps test (the CJ30s), using WAnT as a reference. Thirteen female Karate kids (age: 11.07 ± 1.32 years; mass: 41.76 ± 15.32 kg; height: 152 ± 11.52 cm; training experience: 4.38 ± 2.14 years) were tested on three separate sessions. The first and second sessions were used to assess the reliability using Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of CJ30s, whereas on the third session WAnT was administered. Following CJ30s and WAnT, we assessed AP (1/CJ30s, as jump height [JH], fatigue index [FI], and blood lactate [BL]; 2/WAnT, as mechanical power [P], FI, and BL) and AC as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Large/highly significant correlations were found between CJ30s and WAnT EPOCs ( = 0.730, = 0.003), and BLs ( = 0.713, = 0.009). Moderate/significant correlations were found between CJ30s and WAnT FIs ( = 0.640, = 0.014), CJ30s first four jumps mean JH and WAnT peak P ( = 0.572, = 0.032), and CJ30s mean JH and WAnT mean P ( = 0.589, = 0.021). CJ30s showed excellent and moderate reliability (ICC) for AP (maximal JH 0.884, mean JH 0.742, FI 0.657, BL 0.653) and AC (EPOC 0.788), respectively. Correlations observed especially in terms of AC between CJ30s and WAnT provide evidence that former may adequately assess anaerobic performance for the young combat athlete. CJ30 is a reliable test and allow an easy assessment of AP and AC in karate children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962763PMC
May 2018

Reliability of Urinary Dehydration Markers in Elite Youth Boxers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018 Mar 6;13(3):374-381. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Purpose: To determine the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive urinary dehydration markers in field-based settings on a day-to-day basis in elite adolescent amateur boxers.

Methods: Sixty-nine urine samples were collected daily from 23 athletes (17.3 ± 1.9 y) during their weight-stable phase and analyzed by field and laboratory measures of hydration status. Urine osmolality (U), urine specific gravity (U), total protein content (T), and body-mass stability were evaluated to determine fluid balance and hydration status. Overall macronutrient and water intake were determined using dietary records. According to their anthropometric characteristics, athletes were assigned into 2 groups: lightweight (L) and heavyweight (H) boxers.

Results: Data presented on U demonstrated a uniform increment by 11.2% ± 12.8% (L) and 19.9% ± 22.7% (H) (P < .001) over the course of the study, even during the weight-stable phase (body mass, ICC = .99) and ad libitum fluid intake (42 ± 4 mL · kg · d). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .52 to .55 for U and .38 to .52 for U, further indicating inconsistency of the urinary dehydration markers. Poor correlations were found between U and T metabolites (r = .27, P = .211).

Conclusions: Urinary dehydration markers (both U and U) exhibit high variability and seem to be unreliable diagnostic tools to track actual body-weight loss in real-life settings. The ad libitum fluid intake was apparently inadequate to match acute fluid loss during and after intense preparation. The applicability of a single-time-point hydration-status assessment concept may preclude accurate assessment of actual body-weight deficits in youth boxers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0621DOI Listing
March 2018

Game Profile-Based Training in Soccer: A New Field Approach.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 Dec;31(12):3333-3342

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Dello Iacono, A, Martone, D, Cular, D, Milic, M, and Padulo, J. Game profile-based training in soccer: a new field approach. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3333-3342, 2017-The aim of the study was to profile and compare the time-motion, physiological, and neuromuscular responses of both National Youth League (NYL) and UEFA Youth League (UYL) matches with those of an experimental game profile-based training (GPBT) protocol. Time-motion traits and physiological, perceptual, and neuromuscular responses were investigated in 24 male soccer players across 14 matches and 6 GPBT training sessions, for a total of 420 samples. The GPBT had a greater influence on time-motion traits and perceptual responses than the NYL and UYL matches (all p < 0.001). No significant GPBT vs. match differences were found for mean heart rate or blood lactate (F = 1.228, p = 0.304, and F = 0.978, p = 0.385, respectively). Finally, the GPBT protocol led to greater impairment of the neuromuscular explosive performances when compared with those of the postmatch scores (squat jump: F = 19.991, p < 0.001; countermovement jump: F = 61.703, p < 0.001). Results identified the GPBT protocol as characterized by relatively greater high-intensity workloads than official NYL and UYL matches, requiring increased demanding efforts. In light of these outcomes, the GPBT protocol can be considered an advantageous training method for elite soccer players, capable of stimulating the physical effort and physiological capabilities required during a match. This approach is favorable when designing a training intervention according to the principle of sport specificity, as it is based on the specific metabolic demands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001768DOI Listing
December 2017

The effects of basic fitness parameters on the implementation of specific military activities.

Coll Antropol 2014 Dec;38 Suppl 2:165-71

The aim of this study was to determine whether basic fitness parameters have the impact on the specific military activity such as walking 18 km with 25 kg of load. The members of Croatian Armed Forces (30 soldiers) were tested before the beginning of the training program. The study has included variables for the assessment of muscular endurance: push-ups in 2 minutes, sit-ups in 2 minutes, maximum number of pull-ups before dropping from the bar, bench press with 70% of body weight-max number of repetitions, max number of squats for 60 seconds, then the variables for the assessment of aerobic capacity: the 3200m run and relative oxygen uptake using the direct method of measurement on a treadmill as well as the variable for the assessment of body fat (body fat %). As the criterion variable, it was used the 18 km walking with 25 kg of load. The results of the regression analysis have shown statistically significant relation of predictor variables with the criterion variable. The two variables, 3200m run and RVO2 had a significant Beta coefficient. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that great cardio-respiratory endurance has a much larger impact on the walking length of 18 km with a load of 25 kg than other fitness parameters.
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December 2014

Effects of two different 5 weeks training programs on the physical fitness of military recruits.

Coll Antropol 2014 Dec;38 Suppl 2:157-64

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of programmed continuous endurance and relative strength training (CERS) with the basic military physical readiness training (BMPR) on the physical readiness. Croatian military recruits (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were divided in the CERS (N = 48) and BMPR (N = 76) groups. Training sessions were conducted three times a week for a total of 5 weeks. The t-test determined positive training effects for both training programs. Significant positive changes in BMPR group were measured in almost all measured variables. In CERS group, besides the 20 m dash run, statistically significant positive changes were not determined in standing horizontal jump, pull-ups and sit and reach test. The positive training effects in both training groups were achieved because of the low initial physical readiness level of the recruits and a short training period in which the statistically significant differences between programs could not be achieved.
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December 2014

Predictors of fitness status on success in Taekwondo.

Coll Antropol 2013 Dec;37(4):1267-74

Ministry of science education and sports of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia.

The aim of this research was to determine the order and importance of particular fitness status variables impact on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives included analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a subject sample which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples using a dependent variable of the instructor's accomplished results. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated, in percentage value (%), the impact of 8 motor and functional abilities: specific strength (STR), flexibility (FLX), specific endurance (END), speed (SPE), balance (BAL), coordination (COO), agility (AGI) and accuracy (ACC). The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IIr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analyzed disciplines of both systems. According to the obtained results, speed and specific endurance were ranked as the abilities which are most important for success in the sparring discipline in both competition systems (WTF and ITF), whose instructors also expressed a higher level of agreement in relation of speed and success in the technical disciplines.
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December 2013

Quantitative sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in children aged 11 to 14 years.

Coll Antropol 2013 May;37 Suppl 2:147-51

University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia.

Sex is one of major factors of individual variability. In kinesiology, we explore and record changes brought on by growth and development, so we will use a sample of 1020 subjects, at the age of powerful changes caused by sexual maturation, to investigate differences in morphological characteristics of children and to determine the significance of differences based on sex. The aim of this transversal research was to determine the sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in 5th and 8th grade students of elementary school as well as structural differences between the sexes. Differential sex differences in the structure of morphological parameters surely exist, and in their basis lies in a different temporal, or periodical onset of development phases, while multivariate analysis of variance for each age removes any doubt about these differences being more than obvious. Differences in the structure of discriminant function in children aged 11 are conditioned primarily by diverse structuring of transverse dimensions, in a way that boys are distinctly superior in knee diameter, and girls in bicristal diameter. As early as the age of 11, it can clearly be recognized that pre-puberty had already progressed in girls, which is then followed by puberty. At the age of 12 girls are already experiencing a puberty spurt, which is manifested in further development of bicristal diameter and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton, particularly of lower extremities. Thirteen year old boys are on the verge of a puberty spurt, which is manifested through the development of longitudinal dimensionality, and to a lesser extent, of transverse dimensionality of the skeleton. Secondary discriminant distinctiveness can be observed continuously across all variables assessing the dimension of deposition of fat reserves, and also, absolute values of measures of subcutaneous fat tissue are more prominent in female students. It is indicative that subcutaneous fat deposits are still secondary determinants in distinguishing groups of children according to sex, in a way that this dimension is continuously expressed more perceptibly in girls.
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May 2013

Anthropological analysis of taekwondo--new methodological approach.

Coll Antropol 2013 May;37 Suppl 2:9-18

University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia.

The aim of this research is to determine the order and importance of impacts of particular anthropological characteristics and technical and tactical competence on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives include analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a sample of respondents which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples (OST-USP-VRH) using the dependant variable of accomplished results of the instructor. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated the impact in percentage value (%) of motor and functional skills (MOTFS), morphological characteristics (MORF), psychological profile of an athlete (PSIH), athletic intelligence (INTE) and technical and tactical competence - (TE-TA) on success in taekwondo. The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IHr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analysed disciplines of both systems. Top instructors assigned the highest portion of impact on success to the motor and functional skills (MOTFS) variable: WTF-SPB=29.1, ITF-SPB=29.2, WTF-THN=35.0, ITF-THN=32.0). Statistically significant differences in opinions of instructors of different styles and disciplines were not recorded in any of the analysed variables. The only exception is the psychological profile of an athlete variable, which WTF instructors of sparring (AM=23.7%), on a significance level of p<0.01, evaluate as having a statistically significantly higher impact on success in tackwondo than WTF instructors of the technical discipline of patterns (15.4%).
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May 2013
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