Publications by authors named "Dragan M Markovic"

14 Publications

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Treatment of pediatric vascular injuries: the experience of a single non-pediatric referral center.

Int Angiol 2019 Jun 15;38(3):250-255. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Pediatric peripheral vascular trauma carries significant risk of complications including limb loss and long-term invalidity. Mechanisms and types of morphological lesions are very diverse. The objectives of this study are to present the experience of a single vascular center in the surgical approach to pediatric vascular injuries, and to analyze the main challenges related to this clinical entity.

Methods: Over a period of 25 years, 17 pediatric peripheral vascular injuries were treated in our institution. Patient's age ranged between one day (newborn) and 15 years (mean: 10.7 years). There were five injuries of upper and 12 injuries of the lower extremity. Preoperative diagnosis was established by clinical examination (N.=4), ultrasonography (N.=1) and angiography (N.=12). Blunt trauma mainly caused arterial thrombosis while penetrating trauma caused arterial laceration or complete transection. Five patients had associated orthopedic injuries (29,4%). There were two posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms and two arterio-venous fistulas.

Results: There was no perioperative mortality. Vascular reconstructions included arterial suture (N.=4), thrombectomy + patch angioplasty (N.=1), termino-terminal anastomosis (N.=3), venous anatomic bypass (N.=6), PTFE graft reconstruction (N.=2), and venous extra-anatomic reconstruction (N.=1). Two patients had associated venous injury demanding both arterial and venous reconstruction. In the only case of war trauma treatment ended with limb loss. Other reconstructions presented good early and long-term patency.

Conclusions: Pediatric vascular injuries are extremely challenging issues. Treatment includes broad spectrum of different types of vascular reconstructions. It should be performed by vascular surgeon trained in open vascular treatment or pediatric surgeon with significant experience in vascular surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.19.04124-5DOI Listing
June 2019

Does the in-situ technique provide better long-term patency of femoro-distal bypass reconstruction?

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2019 Feb 26;60(1):146-147. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.18.10622-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Graft replacement as a method in treatment of symptomatic carotid in stent restenosis.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2017 Feb;58(1):133-135

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09175-XDOI Listing
February 2017

Accumulation of Mn and Pb in linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) bark and wood.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2013 Jan 19;20(1):136-45. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

The Faculty of Applied Ecology, Singidunum University, Lazarevački drum 13, Belgrade, Serbia.

As an indicator of environmental pollution, we collected tree rings and bark of linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) from four sampling locations in Serbia. Mn and Pb were determined with a spectrochemical method that has an argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply as excitation source. Increased concentrations of Mn in linden tree rings and bark were found at the Debeli Lug location, where the Mn transfer factors were largest. The availability of Mn in soil and tree rings was greatly influenced by pH. Since 1950, Mn level decreased more noticeably on acidic soils. Higher concentrations of Pb were found in linden tree rings and bark at the locations Fruška Gora and Zemun. Proximity of the road to Novi Sad at both sites may be a possible reason for this. The Pb transfer factor was highest at Fruška Gora. The ratio of bioavailable elements in soil for Mn and Pb were also calculated. Close correlations between Mn and Pb concentrations in linden tree rings and the ratio of bioavailable elements in soil were seen at all four locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1024-8DOI Listing
January 2013

[Comparative analysis of conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy--prospective randomized study].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2008 Nov-Dec;136(11-12):590-7

Introduction: Studies completed in the last decade of the 20th century showed benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of stroke in patients with a high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

Objective: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was the comparison of early and long-term results between the conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy, and literature review.

Method: By the method of random choice, 103 patients were operated on using the eversion carotid endarterectomy and 98 patients using the conventional technique. Operative treatment was carried out under general anaesthesia. Following the clammping of the carotid artery, retrograde blood pressure was determined by a direct puncture of the internal carotid artery above the stenotic lesions. In patients with retrograde pressure below 20 mm Hg intraluminal shunting was routinely performed. Early results were estimated (during the first seven postoperative days) based on mortality, central neurological complications (stroke, TIA) and cranial or cervical nerve lesions. Long-term results were estimated (after at least two years) based on long-term survival rate, central neurological complications (stroke,TIA) and the incidence of haemodynamically significant restenosis of the carotid artery treated by endarterectomy.

Results: The average time of clamming of the internal carotid artery in the eversion carotid anderectomy group was 5.36 minutes shorter than in the group treated by the conventional technique. Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the time needed for clamming of the internal carotid artery between the two groups. The average duration of eversion endarterectomy (82 minutes) was most often 19 minutes shorter than the duration of the conventional endarterectomy (101 minutes). Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the average length of surgeries. The distal intimal fixation was more often needed during the conventional carotid endarterectomy (34.7%) compared to eversion endarterectomy (3.9%). Chi 2-test showed a statistically highly significant difference.

Conclusion: Eversion carotid endarectomy represents a statistically significantly shorter procedure. Distal intimal fixation demanded by this procedure is very rare, clammping of the internal carotid artery is significantly shorter, and it also has a lower rate of the early neurological complications. Based on the results of this study, as well as the opinions of other authors, it can be concluded that the eversion carotid endarterectomy has an advantage over the conventional procedure.We recommend conventional procedure only in cases when retrograde pressure indicates the use of the intraluminal shunting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0812590mDOI Listing
February 2009

[Surgical treatment of abdominal tumours closely related to major blood vessels].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2008 May-Jun;136(5-6):241-7

Introduction: Radical operative treatment of abdominal tumours closely related to major blood vessels often demands complex vascular procedures.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to present elementary principles and results of the complex procedures, based on 46 patients operated on at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, from January 1999 to July 2006.

Method: Primary localisation of the tumour was the kidney in 14 patients, the suprarenal gland in 2, the retroperitoneum in 23 and the testis in 7 patients. Histologically, the most frequent were the following: renal carcinoma in 14 patients, teratoma in 7, liposarcoma in 5, fibrosarcoma and lymphoma in 3 patients. The tumour compressed abdominal aorta occurred in 3 cases, vena cava inferior in 5 and both the abdominal aorta and vena cava inferior in 11 cases. In 4 cases the tumour infiltrated the abdominal aorta, in 11 the vena cava inferior and in 8 both of them. In two patients, the tumour compressed the vena cava inferior and infiltrated the aorta; in two patients the aorta was compressed and the vena cava was infiltrated. In three cases only the exploration was performed due to multiple abdominal organ infiltration. The ex tempore biopsy showed the type of tumour in which the radical surgical treatment did not improve the prognosis. In 20 cases of tumour compression, subadventitional excision was performed. In 23 cases of infiltration, the tumour excision and vascular reconstruction had to be performed. Intraoperative blood cell saving and autotransfusion were applied in 27 patients.

Results: The lethal outcome happened in 3 (6.5%) patients during hospitalization. In other patients all reconstructed blood vessels were patent during the postoperative hospitalization period.

Conclusion: Treatment of the abdominal tumours closely related to major blood vessels must be interdisciplinary, considering diagnostics, operability estimation and additional measures. Tumour reduction cannot improve long term prognosis, and has no major impact on life quality. There have been not many papers that analyse the long term results after such complex operations proving their appropriateness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0806241dDOI Listing
October 2008

Unusual forms of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Vascular 2008 Jan-Feb;16(1):17-24

Clinic for Vascular Surgery, Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Over 95% of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) rupture into the retroperitoneal space. Rare types of AAA ruptures comprise ruptures into the inferior vena cava with aortocaval fistula formation (ACF), ruptures into the duodenum with formation of a primary aortoduodenal fistula (ADF), and chronic contained ruptures (CCRs). This article presents a study of 41 cases with unusual forms of ruptured AAA of a series of 506 patients with AAA rupture treated within a 14-year period. There were 11 cases of CCR, 5 cases with ADF, and 25 cases with ACF. The correct preoperative diagnosis was established in 6 (of 11) cases of CCR, in 2 (of 5) cases of primary ADF, and in 13 (of 25) cases of ACF. AAA replacement was performed in 8 cases using a tube graft, whereas a bifurcated graft was used in 31 patients because of the distant extent of the atherosclerotic/aneurysmatic lesions engaging iliac arteries. Two patients had an axillobifemoral bypass. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 19% (8 of 41), with subgroup mortality rates of 0 (CCR), 60% (ADF), and 20% (ACF). Diagnosis and treatment are simplest in cases of CCR and the most complicated in cases of ADF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/6670.2007.00042DOI Listing
August 2008

Determination of O(3), NO (2), SO (2), CO and PM (10) measured in Belgrade urban area.

Environ Monit Assess 2008 Oct 1;145(1-3):349-59. Epub 2007 Dec 1.

Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, POB 68, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia.

O(3), NO(2), SO(2), CO and PM(10) concentrations, simultaneously determined for the first time in Belgrade urban area in the autumnal period of 2005, are presented. The obtained results display similar behaviour of SO(2), NO(2), CO, PM(10) opposite from that of O(3). The weekend effect was also investigated showing diminution of average daily concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), PM(10) and CO for 72, 40, 37 and 42% respectively, and increase of the average daily concentration of O(3) for 56%. Influence of meteorological conditions on observed concentration levels was studied, too. The observed influence of wind speed on the O(3) nightly concentration levels was analyzed pointing to the phenomena of O(3) transport during episodic measurements. To make an identification of possible pollution sources and analyse the influence of meteorological parameters on pollution levels, air back trajectories for high level concentrations episodes were calculated and analysed. A multivariate receptor modelling (Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis) has been applied to a set of data in order to determine the contribution of different sources. It was found that the main principal components, extracted from the air pollution data, were related to gasoline combustion, oil combustion and ozone transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0044-1DOI Listing
October 2008

False anastomotic aneurysms.

Vascular 2007 May-Jun;15(3):141-8

Department for Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

This retrospective study covers the period from 1991 to 2002, during which 3,623 patients were operated on because of aneurysmal or occlusive disease of aortoiliac and femoropopliteal segments. Among them, 87 patients (2.4%) developed a false anastomotic aneurysm in the 12-year follow-up period and were treated operatively. Most frequently, in 53 patients (6.9%), a false anastomotic aneurysm developed after aortobifemoral bypass performed owing to aortoiliac occlusive disease. The cause of false anastomotic aneurysm was infection in 21 cases (24.7%); resection and revascularization were performed with a Dacron graft in 46 cases (52.9%), with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 10 cases (11.5%), and with the great saphenous vein in 16 cases (18.4%). Homograft implantation in 4 patients (4.6%) or extra-anatomic bypasses in 11 cases (12.6%) were performed when graft infection was suspected. Of 87 patients who underwent surgery, 74 (85.5%) had good early results without infection, reintervention, limb loss, and mortality. The presence of infection as a cause of false anastomotic aneurysm and comorbidity increased the mortality rate significantly after the reoperation, whereas the type of graft used in treatment had no influence on early results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/6670.2007.00026DOI Listing
October 2007

[Anastomotic pseudoaneurysms].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2006 Mar-Apr;134(3-4):114-21

Anastomotic pseudoaneurysm is a form of false aneurysm, whose wall does not consist of all normal layers of arterial wall. Given the rising number of reconstructive vascular procedures, the increase of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm cases is expected. Therefore, identification of causes, clinical manifestations as well as factors which affect the outcome of operative treatment of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms is of great practical value. This retrospectively-prospective study included 87 surgically treated cases of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms in the period from 1991 to 2002. The most often localization of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms was the inguinal region (68-86.2%). In the majority of cases, they were caused by arterial degeneration in the anastomotic region--56 cases (65.9%) and infection--21 cases (24.7%). The most frequent manifestations of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms were bleeding due to rupture in 26 cases (29.9%) and chronic limb ischaemia in 22 cases (25.3%). An acute limb ischaemia was present in 17 cases (19.5%), the symptoms caused by local compression to the surrounding structures--in 9 cases (10.3%), and in 12 cases (13.8%), the only manifestation of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm was asymptomatic pulsatile mass. In 32 cases (36.8%), surgical treatment involved the resection of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm and graft interposition, whereas in 39 cases (44.8%), bypass procedure had to be performed after the resection. Comorbidity significantly increased mortality in the first 30 days. The use of Dacron graft in primary operation significantly improved early results of operative treatment. Absence of infection as the cause of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm is a statistically important prognostic factor of operative treatment, considering the graft patency, limb salvage, infection, need for reintervention and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0604114mDOI Listing
October 2006

Civil and war peripheral arterial trauma: review of risk factors associated with limb loss.

Vascular 2005 May-Jun;13(3):141-7

Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

We sought to analyze the early results of civil and war peripheral arterial injury treatment and to identify risk factors associated with limb loss. Between 1992 and 2001, data collected retrospectively and prospectively on 413 patients with 448 peripheral arterial injuries were analyzed. Of these, there were 140 patients with war injuries and 273 patients with civil injuries. The mechanism of injury was gunshot in 40%, blunt injury in 24%, explosive trauma in 20.3%, and stabbing in 15.7% of the cases. The most frequently injured vessels were the femoral arteries (37.3%), followed by the popliteal (27.8%), axillary and brachial (23.5%), and crural arteries (6.5%). Associated injuries, which included bone, nerve, and remote injuries affecting the head, chest, or abdomen, were present in 60.8% of the cases. Surgery was carried out on all patients, with a limb salvage rate of 89.1% and a survival rate of 97.3%. In spite of a rising trend in peripheral arterial injuries, our total and delayed amputation rates remained stable. On statistical analysis, significant risk factors for amputation were found to be failed revascularization, associated injuries, secondary operation, explosive injury, war injury (p < .01) and arterial contusion with consecutive thrombosis, popliteal artery injury, and late surgery (p < .05). Peripheral arterial injuries, if inadequately treated, carry a high amputation rate. Explosive injuries are the most likely to lead to amputations, whereas stab injuries are the least likely to do so. The most significant independent risk factor for limb loss was failed revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/rsmvasc.13.3.141DOI Listing
September 2005

[Long-term results after elective and emergency surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2004 Sep-Oct;132(9-10):306-12

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated--mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70%) has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower.

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture), and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients.

Material And Methods: Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and-were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months). Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122), and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126). There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups.

Results: During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05a) of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of peripheral arteries and other vascular reconstructive procedures were the factors that significantly reduced long-term survival of patients operated immediately due to rupture.

Discussion: This comprehensive study has searched for more factors than others had done before. The applied discriminative analysis numerically evaluated the influence of any risk factor of mortality. These factors were divided in three groups as follows: preoperative, operative and postoperative ones. Preoperative factors were sex, age, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, COPD, and naturally, the indication for operative treatment of ruptured or non-ruptured abdominal aneurysm. Among all these factors, only obesity significantly reduced long-term survival of electively operated patients. It may be said that immediately operated patients who survived the first 30 postoperative days had quite good long-term survival. Operative factors such as type of operative procedure and vascular graft had no influence on long-term survival of patients in both groups. Postoperative risk factors were early postoperative complications, graft infection, symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, carotid endarterectomy, myocardial revascularization, ventral hernias, "other" non vascular operations, malignancy, mental disorders, peripheral aneurysms and occlusive vascular disease, and other vascular operations either due to aneurysm or peripheral occlusive disease. Early postoperative complications (even graft infection) had no significant effect on long-term survival. Ventral hernias and peripheral aneurysms were factors that significantly decreased long-term survival of patients operated for rupture of the abdominal aneurysm.

Conclusion: It is interesting that endarterectomy, myocardial revascularization or malignancy after repair of the abdominal aneurysm (ruptured or non-ruptured) had no effect on long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0410306kDOI Listing
May 2005

[Reconstruction of the supra-aortic branches].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2003 Mar-Apr;131(3-4):105-17

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

The authors present surgical techniques and distant results of the operative treatment in patients with occlusive lesions of the supraaortic branches. The study included 29 men (55.8%) and 23 women (44.2%), with the average age of 54 years. The majority of patients--44 (84.6%) had symptoms and signs of the upper extremities ischemia while 25 (48.1%) had symptoms and signs of cerebral ischemia (the posterior circulation mainly). Among seven patients with isolated cerebral ischemia of the anterior circulation, four of them developed transient ischemic attack (TIA) and three had cerebrovascular insult (CVI). All patients were examined ultrasonographically and angiographically. Operative treatment was performed under general anesthesia. In eight cases the anatomic, and in 44 extraanatomic procedure was applied. Following reconstructive procedures were used: endarterectomy and patch of the brachiocephalic trunk--2, bypass from ascending aorta--7, carotid to subclavian bypass--31, subclavian to carotid bypass--7, subclavian artery transposition--3, axillo-axillary bypass--2. During the follow-up period (10-228 months), eight out of 52 patients exhibited the occlusion of the graft. Six occlusions developed after carotid-subclavian bypass: in two patients reconstructions were performed using Dacron grafts, in three using PTFE grafts and in one patient using autologous vein graft. Two occlusions developed after subclavio-carotid bypass. In both cases the vein graft was used: one was coming from the ipsilateral and the other one from the contralateral subclavian artery. The mean period from the operation to the occlusion of the graft (the mean lasting of the primary flow) was 14.72 years (SE = 1.41; 95% CI = 11.96-17.48). There was no statistically significant difference in primary patency and survival without symptoms between patients treated with the anatomic and those treated with the extraanatomic approach. Practically, this means that both approaches were equally good, so that the decision about the approach should be made individually, according to the loading factors of each patient. In the case of the carotid-subclavian bypass, according to our results, we recomend the use of the PTFE graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0304105dDOI Listing
January 2004

Subclavian artery aneurysms.

Asian J Surg 2003 Jan;26(1):7-11; discussion 12

Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

We report the management of 14 subclavian artery aneurysms (13 true, one false) occurring in seven male and seven female patients (average age, 48 years). The aetiology of the aneurysms included thoracic outlet syndrome in eight, atherosclerosis in five and infection in one patient. Twelve aneurysms were of extrathoracic location, while two aneurysms were intrathoracic. Symptoms related to subclavian artery aneurysms were present in 11 patients (compression in four, haemorrhage in one, and ischaemia in six patients), whereas three aneurysms were asymptomatic. All aneurysms were treated surgically. The supraclavicular approach was used in 11 cases, and the combined transsternal and supraclavicular approach was used in two cases. After aneurysm resection, the reconstruction was performed with end-to-end anastomosis in five cases and with saphenous vein or synthetic grafts in eight cases. One infected subclavian artery aneurysm was treated with carotid to axillary saphenous vein bypass after exclusion of the aneurysm. Five associated brachial embolectomies and one bypass from the axillary to the distal brachial artery were performed. In all thoracic outlet syndrome cases, decompression at the thoracic outlet was also performed. There was no operative mortality, and the early patency rate was 100%. The follow-up period was from 6 months to 10 years (mean, 3.92 years). During this period, one patient died of malignancy and one patient required reoperation due to aneurysmal degeneration of the saphenous vein graft. Surgical treatment is recommended for all patients with subclavian artery aneurysms to prevent potential complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60206-2DOI Listing
January 2003
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