Publications by authors named "Douglas P Kiel"

328 Publications

Osteoporosis and Dementia: Establishing a Link.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4431DOI Listing
September 2021

Fisetin for COVID-19 in skilled nursing facilities: Senolytic trials in the COVID era.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

The burden of senescent cells (SnCs), which do not divide but are metabolically active and resistant to death by apoptosis, is increased in older adults and those with chronic diseases. These individuals are also at the greatest risk for morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 complications include cytokine storm and multiorgan failure mediated by the same factors as often produced by SnCs through their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP can be amplified by infection-related pathogen-associated molecular profile factors. Senolytic agents, such as Fisetin, selectively eliminate SnCs and delay, prevent, or alleviate multiple disorders in aged experimental animals and animal models of human chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Senolytics are now in clinical trials for multiple conditions linked to SnCs, including frailty; obesity/diabetes; osteoporosis; and cardiovascular, kidney, and lung diseases, which are also risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. A clinical trial is underway to test if senolytics decrease SARS-CoV-2 progression and morbidity in hospitalized older adults. We describe here a National Institutes of Health-funded, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trial of Fisetin for older adult skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents who have been, or become, SARS-CoV-2 rtPCR-positive, including the rationale for targeting fundamental aging mechanisms in such patients. We consider logistic challenges of conducting trials in long-term care settings in the SARS-CoV-2 era, including restricted access, consent procedures, methods for obtaining biospecimens and clinical data, staffing, investigational product administration issues, and potential solutions for these challenges. We propose developing a national network of SNFs engaged in interventional clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447437PMC
August 2021

Global epidemiology of hip fractures: a study protocol using a common analytical platform among multiple countries.

BMJ Open 2021 07 28;11(7):e047258. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea.

Introduction: Hip fractures are associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Globally, there is wide variation in the incidence of hip fracture in people aged 50 years and older. Longitudinal and cross-geographical comparisons of health data can provide insights on aetiology, risk factors, and healthcare practices. However, systematic reviews of studies that use different methods and study periods do not permit direct comparison across geographical regions. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate global secular trends in hip fracture incidence, mortality and use of postfracture pharmacological treatment across Asia, Oceania, North and South America, and Western and Northern Europe using a unified methodology applied to health records.

Methods And Analysis: This retrospective cohort study will use a common protocol and an analytical common data model approach to examine incidence of hip fracture across population-based databases in different geographical regions and healthcare settings. The study period will be from 2005 to 2018 subject to data availability in study sites. Patients aged 50 years and older and hospitalised due to hip fracture during the study period will be included. The primary outcome will be expressed as the annual incidence of hip fracture. Secondary outcomes will be the pharmacological treatment rate and mortality within 12 months following initial hip fracture by year. For the primary outcome, crude and standardised incidence of hip fracture will be reported. Linear regression will be used to test for time trends in the annual incidence. For secondary outcomes, the crude mortality and standardised mortality incidence will be reported.

Ethics And Dissemination: Each participating site will follow the relevant local ethics and regulatory frameworks for study approval. The results of the study will be submitted for peer-reviewed scientific publications and presented at scientific conferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319985PMC
July 2021

Identification of novel and rare variants associated with handgrip strength using whole genome sequence data from the NHLBI Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(7):e0253611. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Handgrip strength is a widely used measure of muscle strength and a predictor of a range of morbidities including cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Previous genome-wide association studies of handgrip strength have focused on common variants primarily in persons of European descent. We aimed to identify rare and ancestry-specific genetic variants associated with handgrip strength by conducting whole-genome sequence association analyses using 13,552 participants from six studies representing diverse population groups from the Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. By leveraging multiple handgrip strength measures performed in study participants over time, we increased our effective sample size by 7-12%. Single-variant analyses identified ten handgrip strength loci among African-Americans: four rare variants, five low-frequency variants, and one common variant. One significant and four suggestive genes were identified associated with handgrip strength when aggregating rare and functional variants; all associations were ancestry-specific. We additionally leveraged the different ancestries available in the UK Biobank to further explore the ancestry-specific association signals from the single-variant association analyses. In conclusion, our study identified 11 new loci associated with handgrip strength with rare and/or ancestry-specific genetic variations, highlighting the added value of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples. Several of the associations identified using single-variant or aggregate analyses lie in genes with a function relevant to the brain or muscle or were reported to be associated with muscle or age-related traits. Further studies in samples with sequence data and diverse ancestries are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253611PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253404PMC
July 2021

Pharmacogenomic Effects of β-Blocker Use on Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Aug 15;5(8):bvab092. Epub 2021 May 15.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, ME 04101, USA.

Context: Recent studies have shown that β-blocker (BB) users have a decreased risk of fracture and higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to nonusers, likely due to the suppression of adrenergic signaling in osteoblasts, leading to increased BMD. There is also variability in the effect size of BB use on BMD in humans, which may be due to pharmacogenomic effects.

Objective: To investigate potential single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) associated with the effect of BB use on femoral neck BMD, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using clinical data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and genetic data from the Framingham Heart Study's (FHS) Offspring Cohort. We then sought to validate our top 4 genetic findings using data from the Rotterdam Study, the BPROOF Study, the Malta Osteoporosis Fracture Study (MOFS), and the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

Methods: We used sex-stratified linear mixed models to determine SNVs that had a significant interaction effect with BB use on femoral neck (FN) BMD across 11 gene regions. We also evaluated the association of our top SNVs from the FHS with microRNA (miRNA) expression in blood and identified potential miRNA-mediated mechanisms by which these SNVs may affect FN BMD.

Results: One variation (rs11124190 in ) was validated in females using data from the Rotterdam Study, while another (rs12414657 in ) was validated in females using data from the MOFS. We performed an exploratory meta-analysis of all 5 studies for these variations, which further validated our findings.

Conclusion: This analysis provides a starting point for investigating the pharmacogenomic effects of BB use on BMD measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvab092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237849PMC
August 2021

A genome-wide scan for pleiotropy between bone mineral density and nonbone phenotypes.

Bone Res 2020 Jul 1;8(1):26. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder globally and is characterized by skeletal fragility and microarchitectural deterioration. Genetic pleiotropy occurs when a single genetic element is associated with more than one phenotype. We aimed to identify pleiotropic loci associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and nonbone phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. In the discovery stage, the NHGRI-EBI Catalog was searched for genome-wide significant associations (P value < 5 × 10), excluding bone-related phenotypes. SNiPA was used to identify proxies of the significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (r = 1). We then assessed putative genetic associations of this set of SNPs with femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD data from the GEFOS Consortium. Pleiotropic variants were claimed at a false discovery rate < 1.4 × 10 for FN-BMD and < 1.5 × 10 for LS-BMD. Replication of these genetic markers was performed among more than 400 000 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry with available genetic and heel bone ultrasound data. In the discovery stage, 72 BMD-related pleiotropic SNPs were identified, and 12 SNPs located in 11 loci on 8 chromosomes were replicated in the UK Biobank. These SNPs were associated, in addition to BMD, with 14 different phenotypes. Most pleiotropic associations were exhibited by rs479844 (AP5B1, OVOL1 genes), which was associated with dermatological and allergic diseases, and rs4072037 (MUC1 gene), which was associated with magnesium levels and gastroenterological cancer. In conclusion, 12 BMD-related genome-wide significant SNPs showed pleiotropy with nonbone phenotypes. Pleiotropic associations can deepen the genetic understanding of bone-related diseases by identifying shared biological mechanisms with other diseases or traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-020-0101-8DOI Listing
July 2020

What Cut-Point in Gait Speed Best Discriminates Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Mobility Complaints From Those Without? A Pooled Analysis From the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Sep;76(10):e321-e327

University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Background: Cut-points to define slow walking speed have largely been derived from expert opinion.

Methods: Study participants (13 589 men and 5043 women aged ≥65years) had walking speed (m/s) measured over 4-6 m (mean ± SD: 1.20 ± 0.27 m/s in men and 0.94 ± 0.24 m/s in women.) Mobility limitation was defined as any self-reported difficulty with walking approximately 1/4 mile (prevalence: 12.6% men, 26.4% women). Sex-stratified classification and regression tree (CART) models with 10-fold cross-validation identified walking speed cut-points that optimally discriminated those who reported mobility limitation from those who did not.

Results: Among 5043 women, CART analysis identified 2 cut-points, classifying 4144 (82.2%) with walking speed ≥0.75 m/s, which we labeled as "fast"; 478 (9.5%) as "intermediate" (walking speed ≥0.62 m/s but <0.75 m/s); and 421 (8.3%) as "slow" (walking speed <0.62 m/s). Among 13 589 men, CART analysis identified 3 cut-points, classifying 10 001 (73.6%) with walking speed ≥1.00 m/s ("very fast"); 2901 (21.3%) as "fast" (walking speed ≥0.74 m/s but <1.00 m/s); 497 (3.7%) as "intermediate" (walking speed ≥0.57 m/s but <0.74 m/s); and 190 (1.4%) as "slow" (walking speed <0.57 m/s). Prevalence of self-reported mobility limitation was lowest in the "fast" or "very fast" (11% for men and 19% for women) and highest in the "slow" (60.5% in men and 71.0% in women). Rounding the 2 slower cut-points to 0.60 m/s and 0.75 m/s reclassified very few participants.

Conclusions: Cut-points in walking speed of approximately 0.60 m/s and 0.75 m/s discriminate those with self-reported mobility limitation from those without.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436986PMC
September 2021

Abdominal aortic calcification is associated with a higher risk of injurious fall-related hospitalizations in older Australian women.

Atherosclerosis 2021 07 12;328:153-159. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute for Nutrition Research, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia; Medical School, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, 6000, Australia; Centre for Kidney Research, Children's Hospital at Westmead, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Backgrounds And Aims: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is associated with weaker grip strength, an established risk factor for fall-related hospitalizations. However, its association with long-term fall-related hospitalisations remains unknown. This study investigated the association between AAC and long-term fall-related hospitalizations in community-dwelling older women.

Methods: Fall-related hospitalizations were obtained from linked data over 14.5-years in a prospective cohort of 1053 older women (mean age 75.0 ± 2.6 years). At baseline (1998/99), AAC was assessed from lateral spine images obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and scored using a semi-quantitative method (AAC24, range 0-24). The presence of any AAC was defined by AAC24 ≥ 1.

Results: Over 14.5-years, 413 (39.2%) women experienced a fall-related hospitalization. In the multivariable-adjusted model, each unit increase in baseline AAC24 was associated with a 3% increase in relative hazards for a fall-related hospitalization (HR 1.03 95%CI, 1.01 to 1.07). Compared to women with no AAC, women with any AAC had a 40% (HR 1.40 95%CI, 1.11 to 1.76) and 39% (HR 1.39 95%CI, 1.10 to 1.76) greater risk for fall-related hospitalizations in the minimal and multivariable-adjusted models, respectively. This relationship was not attenuated by including measures of muscle function such as grip strength and timed-up-and-go.

Conclusions: The presence of AAC is associated with long-term fall-related hospitalizations risk, independent of muscle function, in community-dwelling older women. Concurrent assessment of AAC may be a simple and cost-effective way to identify older women at higher risk of falling as part of routine osteoporosis screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk Factors for Incident Fracture in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Framingham Heart Study.

Diabetes Care 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA.

Objective: To identify risk factors for fracture in type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: This prospective study included members of the Framingham Original and Offspring Cohorts. Type 2 diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose >125 mg/dL or use of type 2 diabetes therapy. We used repeated-measures Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for associations between potential predictors and incidence of fragility fracture.

Results: Participants included 793 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Mean ± SD age was 70 ± 10 years; 45% were women. A total of 106 incident fractures occurred over 1,437 observation follow-up intervals. Fracture incidence increased with age (adjusted HRs 1.00, 1.44 [95% CI 0.65, 3.16], and 2.40 [1.14, 5.04] for <60, 60-70, and >70 years, respectively; = 0.02), female sex (2.23 [1.26, 3.95]), HbA (1.00, 2.10 [1.17, 3.75], and 1.29 [0.69, 2.41] for 4.45-6.46% [25-47 mmol/mol], 6.50-7.49% [48-58 mmol/mol], and 7.50-13.86% [58-128 mmol/mol]; =0.03), falls in past year (1.00, 1.87 [0.82, 4.28], and 3.29 [1.34, 8.09] for no falls, one fall, and two or more falls; =0.03), fracture history (2.05 [1.34, 3.12]), and lower grip strength (0.82 [0.69, 0.99] per 5-kg increase). Femoral neck bone mineral density, BMI, smoking, physical function, chronic diseases, medications, and physical function were not associated with fracture incidence.

Conclusions: Prior falls, fractures, low grip strength, and elevated HbA are risk factors for fractures in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Evaluation of these factors may improve opportunities for early intervention and reduce fractures in this high-risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-3150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323187PMC
May 2021

Higher Hand Grip Strength Is Associated With Greater Radius Bone Size and Strength in Older Men and Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 30;5(5):e10485. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife Boston Massachusetts USA.

Mechanical loading by muscles elicits anabolic responses from bone, thus age-related declines in muscle strength may contribute to bone fragility in older adults. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to determine the association between grip strength and distal radius bone density, size, morphology, and microarchitecture, as well as bone strength estimated by micro-finite element analysis (μFEA), among older men and women. Participants included 508 men and 651 women participating in the Framingham Offspring Study with grip strength measured in 2011-2014 and HR-pQCT scanning in 2012-2015. Separately for men and women, analysis of covariance was used to compare HR-pQCT measures among grip strength quartiles and to test for linear trends, adjusting for age, height, weight, smoking, and physical activity. Mean age was 70 years (range, 50-95 years), and men had higher mean grip strength than the women (37 kg vs. 21 kg). Bone strength estimated by μFEA-calculated failure load was higher with greater grip strength in both men ( < 0.01) and women ( = 0.04). Higher grip strength was associated with larger cross-sectional area in both men and women ( < 0.01), with differences in area of 6% and 11% between the lowest to highest grip strength quartiles in men and women, respectively. Cortical thickness was positively associated with grip strength among men only ( = 0.03). Grip strength was not associated with volumetric BMD (vBMD) in men. Conversely, there was a trend for lower total vBMD with higher grip strength among women ( = 0.02), though pairwise comparisons did not reveal any statistically significant differences in total vBMD among grip strength quartiles. Bone microarchitecture (cortical porosity, trabecular thickness, trabecular number) was not associated with grip strength in either men or women. Our findings suggest that the positive association between hand grip strength and distal radius bone strength may be driven primarily by bone size. © 2021 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101610PMC
May 2021

Genetic variants modify the associations of concentrations of methylmalonic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate with bone mineral density.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 08;114(2):578-587

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been found to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, especially hip and vertebral fractures. The plasma concentration of homocysteine is dependent on the activities of several B vitamin-dependent enzymes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS).

Objectives: We investigated whether genetic variants in some of the genes involved in 1 carbon metabolism modify the association of B vitamin-related measures with bone mineral density (BMD) and strength.

Methods: We measured several B vitamins and biomarkers in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study, and performed analyses of methylmalonic acid (MMA) continuously and <210 nmol/L; pyridoxal-5'-phosphate; vitamin B-12 continuously and ≥258 pmol/L; and folate. The outcomes of interest included areal and volumetric BMD, measured by DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. We evaluated associations between the bone measures and interactions of single nucleotide polymorphism with a B vitamin or biomarker in Framingham participants (n = 4310 for DXA and n = 3127 for QCT). For analysis of DXA, we validated the association results in the B-PROOF cohort (n = 1072). Bonferroni-corrected locus-wide significant thresholds were defined to account for multiple testing.

Results: The interactions between rs2274976 and vitamin B-12 and rs34671784 and MMA <210 nmol/L were associated with lumbar spine BMD, and the interaction between rs6586281 and vitamin B-12 ≥258 pmol/L was associated with femoral neck BMD. For QCT-derived traits, 62 interactions between genetic variants and B vitamins and biomarkers were identified.

Conclusions: Some genetic variants in the 1-carbon methylation pathway modify the association of B vitamin and biomarker concentrations with bone density and strength.  These interactions require further replication and functional validation for a mechanistic understanding of the role of the 1-carbon metabolism pathway on BMD and risks of fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326042PMC
August 2021

Association of dietary fiber and risk of hip fracture in men from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study and the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

Nutr Health 2021 May 4:2601060211011798. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia.

Background: Data in the Offspring Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS) suggested that higher intake of dietary fiber was modestly protective against loss of bone mineral density at the femoral neck in men but not in women.

Aim: To examine the relationship of fiber intake with risk of hip fractures in men.

Methods: We included 367 men from the FOS Original cohort, 1730 men from the FOS Offspring cohort, and 782 men from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) in the analysis. Incident fractures were defined as medically confirmed first occurrence of osteoporotic fractures at the proximal femur. Fiber intake was estimated via a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or diet history. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk in meta-analysis.

Results: Seventy-two incident hip fractures were identified, of which 24 occurred in the FOS Original cohort [mean (SD): age 75.3 (5.1) years; follow-up time: 8.5 (6.2) years; dietary fiber: 19 (8) (g/d)], 19 in the FOS Offspring cohort [58.8 (9.8) years; 11.0 (5.9) years; 19 (8) (g/d)], and 29 in CHAMP [81.4 (4.5) years; 5.2 (1.5) years; 28 (10) (g/d)]. We did not find significant associations within each cohort between fiber intake and risk of hip fractures. The pooled HR (95% CI) was 0.80 (0.39, 1.66) comparing energy-adjusted dietary fiber at tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 (I = 0, = 0.56).

Conclusion: These data suggested that dietary fiber was not associated with risk of incident hip fractures in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060211011798DOI Listing
May 2021

A multi-center trial of exercise and testosterone therapy in women after hip fracture: Design, methods and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 05 11;104:106356. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Background: Up to 75% of hip fracture patients never recover to their pre-fracture functional status. Supervised exercise that includes strength training can improve functional recovery after hip fracture. The role of testosterone replacement for augmenting the effects of exercise in older women after hip fracture is unknown.

Methods: The Starting Testosterone and Exercise after Hip Injury (STEP-HI) Study is a 6-month Phase 3 multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to compare supervised exercise (EX) plus 1% testosterone topical gel, with EX plus placebo gel, and with enhanced usual care (EUC). Female hip fracture patients age ≥ 65 years are being recruited from clinical centers across the United States. Participants are community dwelling and enrolled within 24 weeks after surgical repair of the fracture. The EX intervention is a center-based program of progressive resistance training. The EUC group receives a home exercise program and health education. Participants receive dietary counseling, calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome is the Six Minute Walk Distance. Secondary outcomes include physical performance measures, self-reported function and quality of life, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measures of body composition and bone mineral density.

Results: Enrollment, interventions, and follow-up are ongoing. We describe the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the trial, including modifications made to allow continuation of the interventions and outcome data collection using remote video and audio technology.

Conclusions: Results from the STEP-HI study are expected to have important clinical and public health implications for management of the growing population of hip fracture patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106356DOI Listing
May 2021

Sequencing of 53,831 diverse genomes from the NHLBI TOPMed Program.

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):290-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes). In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03205-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875770PMC
February 2021

Association Between Liver Fat and Bone Density is Confounded by General and Visceral Adiposity in a Community-Based Cohort.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 03 2;29(3):595-600. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Section of Gastroenterology, Boston Medical Center, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); however, it is not known whether early-stage NAFLD may be associated with BMD after accounting for BMI or visceral adipose tissue (VAT).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 3,462 Framingham Heart Study participants who underwent computed tomographic measurement of liver fat, VAT volume, volumetric spine BMD, vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral compressive strength. This study excluded heavy alcohol consumers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the association between NAFLD and volumetric BMD, CSA, and vertebral compressive strength after accounting for covariates, including BMI or VAT.

Results: A total of 2,253 participants (mean age, 51.2  [SD 10.7] years; 51.1% women) were included. In multivariable-adjusted models, positive associations between NAFLD and integral BMD, trabecular BMD, and vertebral compressive strength were observed. However, results were attenuated and no longer significant after additionally adjusting for BMI or VAT. NAFLD was observed to be weakly associated with a lower vertebral CSA in adjusted models.

Conclusions: In a community-based cohort, the associations between NAFLD and BMD and vertebral strength were confounded by BMI and VAT. However, NAFLD was associated with a reduced vertebral CSA in adjusted models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904629PMC
March 2021

A regulatory variant at 3q21.1 confers an increased pleiotropic risk for hyperglycemia and altered bone mineral density.

Cell Metab 2021 03 28;33(3):615-628.e13. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Metabolism Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Cell Circuits and Epigenomics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02131, USA; University of Hohenheim, Institute of Nutritional Science, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. Electronic address:

Skeletal and glycemic traits have shared etiology, but the underlying genetic factors remain largely unknown. To identify genetic loci that may have pleiotropic effects, we studied Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for bone mineral density and glycemic traits and identified a bivariate risk locus at 3q21. Using sequence and epigenetic modeling, we prioritized an adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5) intronic causal variant, rs56371916. This SNP changes the binding affinity of SREBP1 and leads to differential ADCY5 gene expression, altering the chromatin landscape from poised to repressed. These alterations result in bone- and type 2 diabetes-relevant cell-autonomous changes in lipid metabolism in osteoblasts and adipocytes. We validated our findings by directly manipulating the regulator SREBP1, the target gene ADCY5, and the variant rs56371916, which together imply a novel link between fatty acid oxidation and osteoblast differentiation. Our work, by systematic functional dissection of pleiotropic GWAS loci, represents a framework to uncover biological mechanisms affecting pleiotropic traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928941PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis of muscle weakness identifies 15 susceptibility loci in older men and women.

Nat Commun 2021 01 28;12(1):654. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20918-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844411PMC
January 2021

Prognostic Value of Abdominal Aortic Calcification: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 13;10(2):e017205. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Centre for Kidney Research School of Public Health Faculty of Medicine and Health Children's Hospital at WestmeadThe University of Sydney New South Wales Australia.

Background The prognostic importance of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) viewed on noninvasive imaging modalities remains uncertain. Methods and Results We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) until March 2018. Multiple reviewers identified prospective studies reporting AAC and incident cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. Summary risk ratios (RRs) were estimated using random-effects models comparing the higher AAC groups combined (any or more advanced AAC) to the lowest reported AAC group. We identified 52 studies (46 cohorts, 36 092 participants); only studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (57%) and the general older-elderly (median, 68 years; range, 60-80 years) populations (26%) had sufficient data to meta-analyze. People with any or more advanced AAC had higher risk of cardiovascular events (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.40-2.39), fatal cardiovascular events (RR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.44-2.39), and all-cause mortality (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.55-2.53). Patients with chronic kidney disease with any or more advanced AAC had a higher risk of cardiovascular events (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.21-5.45), fatal cardiovascular events (RR, 3.68; 95% CI, 2.32-5.84), and all-cause mortality (RR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.95-2.97). Conclusions Higher-risk populations, such as the elderly and those with chronic kidney disease with AAC have substantially greater risk of future cardiovascular events and poorer prognosis. Providing information on AAC may help clinicians understand and manage patients' cardiovascular risk better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955302PMC
January 2021

Metabolomics Insights into Osteoporosis Through Association With Bone Mineral Density.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 04 2;36(4):729-738. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), increases the risk for fractures. Conventional risk factors alone do not completely explain measured BMD or osteoporotic fracture risk. Metabolomics may provide additional information. We aim to identify BMD-associated metabolomic markers that are predictive of fracture risk. We assessed 209 plasma metabolites by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 1552 Framingham Offspring Study participants, and measured femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD 2 to 10 years later using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We assessed osteoporotic fractures up to 27-year follow-up after metabolomic profiling. We identified 27 metabolites associated with FN-BMD or LS-BMD by LASSO regression with internal validation. Incorporating selected metabolites significantly improved the prediction and the classification of osteoporotic fracture risk beyond conventional risk factors (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.74 for the model with identified metabolites and risk factors versus AUC = 0.70 with risk factors alone, p = .001; net reclassification index = 0.07, p = .03). We replicated significant improvement in fracture prediction by incorporating selected metabolites in 634 participants from the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study (HKOS). The glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathway (including four identified metabolites: creatine, dimethylglycine, glycine, and serine) was significantly enriched (false discovery rate [FDR] p value = .028). Furthermore, three causally related metabolites (glycine, phosphatidylcholine [PC], and triacylglycerol [TAG]) were negatively associated with FN-BMD, whereas PC and TAG were negatively associated with LS-BMD through Mendelian randomization analysis. In summary, metabolites associated with BMD are helpful in osteoporotic fracture risk prediction. Potential causal mechanisms explaining the three metabolites on BMD are worthy of further experimental validation. Our findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4240DOI Listing
April 2021

A Meta-Analysis of the Transferability of Bone Mineral Density Genetic Loci Associations From European to African Ancestry Populations.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 03 18;36(3):469-479. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

Genetic studies of bone mineral density (BMD) largely have been conducted in European populations. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of six independent African ancestry cohorts to determine whether previously reported BMD loci identified in European populations were transferable to African ancestry populations. We included nearly 5000 individuals with both genetic data and assessments of BMD. Genotype imputation was conducted using the 1000G reference panel. We assessed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD in each cohort separately, then combined results in fixed effects (or random effects if study heterogeneity was high, I index >60) inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. In secondary analyses, we conducted locus-based analyses of rare variants using SKAT-O. Mean age ranged from 12 to 68 years. One cohort included only men and another cohort included only women; the proportion of women in the other four cohorts ranged from 52% to 63%. Of 56 BMD loci tested, one locus, 6q25 (C6orf97, p = 8.87 × 10 ), was associated with lumbar spine BMD and two loci, 7q21 (SLC25A13, p = 2.84 × 10 ) and 7q31 (WNT16, p = 2.96 × 10 ), were associated with femoral neck BMD. Effects were in the same direction as previously reported in European ancestry studies and met a Bonferroni-adjusted p value threshold, the criteria for transferability to African ancestry populations. We also found associations that met locus-specific Bonferroni-adjusted p value thresholds in 11q13 (LRP5, p < 2.23 × 10 ), 11q14 (DCDC5, p < 5.35 × 10 ), and 17p13 (SMG6, p < 6.78 × 10 ) that were not tagged by European ancestry index SNPs. Rare single-nucleotide variants in AKAP11 (p = 2.32 × 10 ), MBL2 (p = 4.09 × 10 ), MEPE (p = 3.15 × 10 ), SLC25A13 (p = 3.03 × 10 ), STARD3NL (p = 3.35 × 10 ), and TNFRSF11A (p = 3.18 × 10 ) were also associated with BMD. The majority of known BMD loci were not transferable. Larger genetic studies of BMD in African ancestry populations will be needed to overcome limitations in statistical power and to identify both other loci that are transferable across populations and novel population-specific variants. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353846PMC
March 2021

Total carotenoid intake is associated with reduced loss of grip strength and gait speed over time in adults: The Framingham Offspring Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 02;113(2):437-445

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Lower antioxidant serum concentrations have been linked to declines in lean mass and physical function in older adults. Yet population data on the effect of dietary antioxidants on loss of muscle strength and physical function are lacking.

Objective: We sought to determine the association of antioxidant intake [vitamin C, vitamin E, and total and individual carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin)] with annualized change in grip strength and gait speed in adults from the Framingham Offspring study.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included participants with a valid FFQ at the index examination and up to 2 prior examinations and at ≥2 measures of primary outcomes: grip strength (n = 2452) and/or gait speed (n = 2422) measured over 3 subsequent examinations. Annualized change in grip strength (kg/y) and change in gait speed (m/s/y) over the follow-up period were used. Linear regression was used to calculate β coefficients and P values, adjusting for covariates.

Results: Mean ± SD age of participants was 61 ± 9 y (range: 33-88 y). Median intakes (IQR, mg/d) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and total carotenoid across available examinations were 209.2 (133.1-394.2), 27.1 (7.4-199.0), and 15.3 (10.4-21.3), respectively. The mean follow-up time was ∼12 ± 2 y (range: 4.5-15.4 y). In the sex-combined sample, higher intakes of total carotenoids, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin were associated with increased annualized change in grip strength [β (SE) per 10-mg higher intake/d, range: 0.0316 (0.0146) to 0.1223 (0.0603) kg/y)]. All antioxidants except for vitamin C were associated with faster gait speed [β (SE) per 10-mg higher intake/d, range: 0.00008 (0.00004) to 0.0187 (0.0081) m/s/y].

Conclusions: Higher antioxidant intake was associated with increase in grip strength and faster gait speed in this cohort of adults. This finding highlights the need for a randomized controlled trial of dietary antioxidants and their effect on muscle strength and physical function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851823PMC
February 2021

Implementation, mechanisms of impact and key contextual factors involved in outcomes of the Modification of Diet, Exercise and Lifestyle (MODEL) randomised controlled trial in Australian adults: protocol for a mixed-method process evaluation.

BMJ Open 2020 11 11;10(11):e036395. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: The Modification of Diet, Exercise and Lifestyle (MODEL) study aims to examine the impact of providing visualisation and pictorial representation of advanced structural vascular disease (abdominal aortic calcification), on 'healthful' improvements to diet and lifestyle. This paper reports the protocol for the process evaluation for the MODEL study.

Methods And Analysis: The overall aim of the process evaluation is to understand the processes that took place during participation in the MODEL study trial and which elements were effective or ineffective for influencing 'healthful' behavioural change, and possible ways of improvement to inform wider implementation strategies. A mixed-method approach will be employed with the use of structured questionnaires and semistructured in-depth interviews. All 200 participants enrolled in the trial will undertake the quantitative component of the study and maximum variation sampling will be used to select a subsample for the qualitative component. The sample size for the qualitative component will be determined based on analytical saturation. Interviews will be digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data will be analysed thematically and reported according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) guidelines.

Ethics And Dissemination: The MODEL study process evaluation has received approval from Edith Cowan University Human Research Ethics Committee (Project Number: 20513 HODGSON). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants before they are included in the study. The study results will be shared with the individuals and institutions associated with this study as well as academic audiences through peer-reviewed publication and probable presentation at conferences.

Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12618001087246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661373PMC
November 2020

Modification of diet, exercise and lifestyle (MODEL) study: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 11 11;10(11):e036366. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Most cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related events could be prevented or substantially delayed with improved diet and lifestyle. Providing information on structural vascular disease may improve CVD risk factor management, but its impact on lifestyle change remains unclear. This study aims to determine whether providing visualisation and pictorial representation of structural vascular disease (abdominal aortic calcification (AAC)) can result in healthful diet and lifestyle change.

Methods And Analysis: This study, including men and women aged 60-80 years, is a 12-week, two-arm, multisite randomised controlled trial. At baseline, all participants will have AAC assessed from a lateral spine image captured using a bone densitometer. Participants will then be randomised to receive their AAC results at baseline (intervention group) or a usual care control group that will receive their results at 12 weeks. All participants will receive information about routinely assessed CVD risk factors and standardised (video) diet and lifestyle advice with three simple goals: (1) increase fruit and vegetable (FV) intake by at least one serve per day, (2) improve other aspects of the diet and (3) reduce sitting time and increase physical activity. Clinical assessments will be performed at baseline and 12 weeks.

Outcomes: The primary outcome is a change in serum carotenoid concentrations as an objective measure of FV intake. The study design, procedures and treatment of data will adhere to Standard Protocol Items for Randomized Trials guidelines.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval for this study has been granted by the Edith Cowan University and the Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committees (Project Numbers: 20513 HODGSON and 2019-220, respectively). Results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals and presented in scientific meetings and conferences. Information regarding consent, confidentiality, access to data, ancillary and post-trial care and dissemination policy has been disclosed in the participant information form.

Trial Registration Number: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12618001087246).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661361PMC
November 2020

Factors Associated With the Declining Trends of Hip Fractures-Reply.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Feb;181(2):296

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6474DOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic basis of falling risk susceptibility in the UK Biobank Study.

Commun Biol 2020 09 30;3(1):543. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual's fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (P ≤ 5 × 10). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01256-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527955PMC
September 2020

Association of Beta Blocker Use With Bone Mineral Density in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study: A Cross-Sectional Study.

JBMR Plus 2020 Sep 30;4(9):e10388. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterHarvard Medical School Boston MA USA.

Some, but not all, prior observational studies have shown that beta blocker (BB) use is associated with lower fracture risk and higher bone mineral density (BMD). Rodent studies show the mechanism to involve the reduction in the effects of beta-adrenergic signaling on bone remodeling. Because previous studies did not have detailed information on dose, duration, and beta-1 selectivity, we examined these in a cross-sectional analysis of the association between BB use and hip and spine BMD using DXA with the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. The sample size was = 1520, and 397 individuals used BBs. We used propensity score modeling to balance a comprehensive set of covariates using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to minimize bias due to treatment indication. We found significant differences in BMD between BB users and non-users for three of four BMD measurements (femoral neck: 3.1%, 95% CI, 1.1% to 5.0%; total femur: 2.9%, 95% CI, 0.9% to 4.9%; femoral trochanter: 2.4%, 95% CI, -0.1% to 5.0%; and lumbar spine: 2.7%, 95% CI, 0.2% to 5.0%). Results were found to be similar between sexes although the magnitude of association was larger for women. Similar differences were estimated for beta-1 selective and nonselective BBs compared with no BB use. We modeled dose in categories (no BB use, low-dose, high-dose) and as a continuous variable and found an increasing dose response that levels off at higher doses. Finally, associations were similar for short-term versus long-term (≤4 years versus >4 years) use. In summary, this large comprehensive study shows that BB use is associated with higher BMD in a dose-related manner regardless of beta-1 specificity and duration of use, which supports the conduct of a randomized clinical trial of BBs for achieving improvements in BMD for individuals at risk of bone loss with aging. © 2020 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507481PMC
September 2020

miRNA Mechanisms Underlying the Association of Beta Blocker Use and Bone Mineral Density.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 01 22;36(1):110-122. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, ME, USA.

Osteoporosis is a debilitating and costly disease that causes fractures in 33% of women and 20% of men over the age of 50 years. Recent studies have shown that beta blocker (BB) users have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased risk of fracture compared with non-users. The mechanism underlying this association is thought to be due to suppression of adrenergic signaling in osteoblasts, which leads to increased BMD in rodent models; however, the mechanism in humans is unknown. Also, several miRNAs are associated with adrenergic signaling and BMD in separate studies. To investigate potential miRNA mechanisms, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using clinical data, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, and miRNA and mRNA profiling of whole blood from the Framingham Study's Offspring Cohort. We found nine miRNAs associated with BB use and increased BMD. In parallel network analyses, we discovered a subnetwork associated with BMD and BB use containing two of these nine miRNAs, miR-19a-3p and miR-186-5p. To strengthen this finding, we showed that these two miRNAs had significantly higher expression in individuals without incident fracture compared with those with fracture in an external data set. We also noted a similar trend in association between these miRNA and Z-score as calculated from heel ultrasound measures in two external cohorts (SOS-Hip and SHIP-TREND). Because miR-19a directly targets the ADRB1 mRNA transcript, we propose BB use may downregulate ADRB1 expression in osteoblasts through increased miR-19a-3p expression. We used enrichment analysis of miRNA targets to find potential indirect effects through insulin and parathyroid hormone signaling. This analysis provides a starting point for delineating the role of miRNA on the association between BB use and BMD. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140522PMC
January 2021

The Musculoskeletal Knowledge Portal: Making Omics Data Useful to the Broader Scientific Community.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 09;35(9):1626-1633

Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard, Boston and Cambridge, MA, USA.

The development of high-throughput genotyping technologies and large biobank collections, complemented with rapid methodological advances in statistical genetics, has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which have identified hundreds of genetic variants across many loci associated with musculoskeletal conditions. Similarly, basic scientists have valuable molecular cellular and animal data based on musculoskeletal disease that would be enhanced by being able to determine the human translation of their findings. By integrating these large-scale human genomic musculoskeletal datasets with complementary evidence from model organisms, new and existing genetic loci can be statistically fine-mapped to plausibly causal variants, candidate genes, and biological pathways. Genes and pathways identified using this approach can be further prioritized as drug targets, including side-effect profiling and the potential for new indications. To bring together these big data, and to realize the vision of creating a knowledge portal, the International Federation of Musculoskeletal Research Societies (IFMRS) established a working group to collaborate with scientists from the Broad Institute to create the Musculoskeletal Knowledge Portal (MSK-KP)(http://mskkp.org/). The MSK consolidates omics datasets from humans, cellular experiments, and model organisms into a central repository that can be accessed by researchers. The vision of the MSK-KP is to enable better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal disease and apply this knowledge to identify and develop new disease interventions. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114232PMC
September 2020

Incidence of Hip Fracture Over 4 Decades in the Framingham Heart Study.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 09;180(9):1225-1231

Clinical Trials and Outcomes Branch, National Institute for Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Age-adjusted hip fracture incidence is decreasing in the US. The decrease has been attributed to osteoporosis treatment, but the cause is unknown.

Objective: To examine the decrease in hip fracture incidence over the past 40 years in the US.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A population-based cohort study using participants in the Framingham Heart Study was conducted. A total of 4918 men and 5634 women were followed up prospectively for the first hip fracture between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 2010. Data were analyzed from May 1, 2019, to May 30, 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incidence of hip fracture and contemporaneous prevalence of risk factors for hip fractures analyzed with age-period-cohort models.

Results: The study contained more than 105 000 person-years in 10 552 individuals with a gradual shift toward the offspring participants in the 1980s and 1990s. Women represented more than 55% of the study sample over the years. Adjusted for age, the incidence of hip fracture decreased by 4.4% (95% CI, 6.8%-1.9%) per year from 1970 to 2010. Both period associations (P < .001) and birth cohort associations (P < .001) were statistically significant. For example, in persons aged 85 to 89 years, the incidence of hip fracture was 759 per 100 000 person-years in the offspring group compared with 2018 per 100 000 person-years in the original cohort. The decrease in hip fracture incidence was coincident with a decrease in smoking and heavy drinking. Smoking decreased from 38% in the 1970s to 15% in the late 2000s, while heavy drinking decreased from 7.0% to 4.5%. The prevalence of other risk factors for hip fracture, such as underweight (body mass index <18.5), obesity (body mass index >30), and early menopause (age <45 years) were stable over the study period. When persons who never smoked were evaluated, a change in the incidence of -3.2% (95% CI, -6.0% to -0.4%) per year was observed. The difference between the decrease of the entire population and nonsmokers of 1.5% per year was similar to the hazard ratio conferred by smoking (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, individuals born more recently appeared to have a low risk for hip fracture. Reductions in smoking and heavy drinking were the risk factor changes coincident with the observed decrease in hip fracture. Attributing the decrease in hip fracture incidence up to 2010 solely to better treatment is not supported by these data, emphasizing the need to treat patients with osteoporosis while continuing to encourage public health interventions for smoking cessation and heavy drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385683PMC
September 2020
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