Publications by authors named "Douglas L Arnold"

211 Publications

Abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter from which multiple sclerosis lesions arise.

Brain Commun 2021 10;3(3):fcab176. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Biogen Digital Health, Biogen, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Normal-appearing white matter is far from normal in multiple sclerosis; little is known about the precise pathology or spatial pattern of this alteration and its relation to subsequent lesion formation. This study was undertaken to evaluate normal-appearing white matter abnormalities in brain areas where multiple sclerosis lesions subsequently form, and to investigate the spatial distribution of normal-appearing white matter abnormalities in persons with multiple sclerosis. Brain MRIs of pre-lesion normal-appearing white matter were analysed in participants with new T2 lesions, pooled from three clinical trials: SYNERGY (NCT01864148; = 85 with relapsing multiple sclerosis) was the test data set; ASCEND (NCT01416181; = 154 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis) and ADVANCE (NCT00906399; = 261 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis) were used as validation data sets. Focal normal-appearing white matter tissue state was analysed prior to lesion formation in areas where new T2 lesions later formed (pre-lesion normal-appearing white matter) using normalized magnetization transfer ratio and T2-weighted (nT2) intensities, and compared with overall normal-appearing white matter and spatially matched contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Each outcome was analysed using linear mixed-effects models. Follow-up time (as a categorical variable), patient-level characteristics (including treatment group) and other baseline variables were treated as fixed effects. In SYNERGY, nT2 intensity was significantly higher, and normalized magnetization transfer ratio was lower in pre-lesion normal-appearing white matter versus overall and contralateral normal-appearing white matter at all time points up to 24 weeks before new T2 lesion onset. In ASCEND and ADVANCE (for which normalized magnetization transfer ratio was not available), nT2 intensity in pre-lesion normal-appearing white matter was significantly higher compared to both overall and contralateral normal-appearing white matter at all pre-lesion time points extending up to 2 years prior to lesion formation. In all trials, nT2 intensity in the contralateral normal-appearing white matter was also significantly higher at all pre-lesion time points compared to overall normal-appearing white matter. Brain atlases of normal-appearing white matter abnormalities were generated using measures of voxel-wise differences in normalized magnetization transfer ratio of normal-appearing white matter in persons with multiple sclerosis compared to scanner-matched healthy controls. We observed that overall spatial distribution of normal-appearing white matter abnormalities in persons with multiple sclerosis largely recapitulated the anatomical distribution of probabilities of T2 hyperintense lesions. Overall, these findings suggest that intrinsic spatial properties and/or longstanding precursory abnormalities of normal-appearing white matter tissue may contribute to the risk of autoimmune acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453433PMC
August 2021

Propagating Uncertainty Across Cascaded Medical Imaging Tasks For Improved Deep Learning Inference.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Sep 20;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Although deep networks have been shown to perform very well on a variety of medical imaging tasks, inference in the presence of pathology presents several challenges to common models. These challenges impede the integration of deep learning models into real clinical workflows, where the customary process of cascading deterministic outputs from a sequence of image-based inference steps (e.g. registration, segmentation) generally leads to an accumulation of errors that impacts the accuracy of downstream inference tasks. In this paper, we propose that by embedding uncertainty estimates across cascaded inference tasks, performance on the downstream inference tasks should be improved. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in three different clinical contexts: (i) We demonstrate that by propagating T2 weighted lesion segmentation results and their associated uncertainties, subsequent T2 lesion detection performance is improved when evaluated on a proprietary large-scale, multi-site, clinical trial dataset acquired from patients with Multiple Sclerosis. (ii) We show an improvement in brain tumour segmentation performance when the uncertainty map associated with a synthesised missing MR volume is provided as an additional input to a follow-up brain tumour segmentation network, when evaluated on the publicly available BraTS-2018 dataset. (iii) We show that by propagating uncertainties from a voxel-level hippocampus segmentation task, the subsequent regression of the Alzheimer's disease clinical score is improved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3114097DOI Listing
September 2021

Slowly expanding lesions are a marker of progressive MS - No.

Mult Scler 2021 Oct 3;27(11):1681-1683. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

NeuroRx Research, Montreal, QC, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211017020DOI Listing
October 2021

Long-term safety and efficacy of dimethyl fumarate for up to 13 years in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Final ENDORSE study results.

Mult Scler 2021 Sep 1:13524585211037909. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) demonstrated favorable benefit-risk in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients in phase-III DEFINE and CONFIRM trials, and ENDORSE extension.

Objective: The main aim of this study is assessing DMF safety/efficacy up to 13 years in ENDORSE.

Methods: Randomized patients received DMF 240 mg twice daily or placebo (PBO; Years 0-2), then DMF (Years 3-10; continuous DMF/DMF or PBO/DMF); maximum follow-up (combined studies), 13 years.

Results: By January 2020, 1736 patients enrolled/dosed in ENDORSE (median follow-up 8.76 years (ENDORSE range: 0.04-10.98) in DEFINE/CONFIRM and ENDORSE); 52% treated in ENDORSE for ⩾6 years. Overall, 551 (32%) patients experienced serious adverse events (mostly multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse or fall; one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy); 243 (14%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events (4% gastrointestinal (GI) disorders). Rare opportunistic infections, malignancies, and serious herpes zoster occurred, irrespective of lymphocyte count. For DMF/DMF ( = 501), overall annualized relapse rate (ARR) remained low (0.143 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.120-0.169)), while for PBO/DMF ( = 249), ARR decreased after initiating DMF and remained low throughout (ARR 0-2 years, 0.330 (95% CI, 0.266-0.408); overall ARR (ENDORSE, 0.151 (95% CI, 0.118-0.194)). Over 10 years, 72% DMF/DMF and 73% PBO/DMF had no 24-week confirmed disability worsening.

Conclusion: Sustained DMF safety/efficacy was observed in patients followed up to 13 years, supporting DMF's positive benefit/risk profile for long-term RRMS treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211037909DOI Listing
September 2021

Safety and efficacy of tolebrutinib, an oral brain-penetrant BTK inhibitor, in relapsing multiple sclerosis: a phase 2b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Neurol 2021 09;20(9):729-738

Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Tolebrutinib is an oral, CNS-penetrant, irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, an enzyme expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells including microglia, which are major drivers of inflammation in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to determine the dose-response relationship between tolebrutinib and the reduction in new active brain MRI lesions in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Methods: We did a 16-week, phase 2b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, dose-finding trial at 40 centres (academic sites, specialty clinics, and general neurology centres) in ten countries in Europe and North America. Eligible participants were adults aged 18-55 years with diagnosed relapsing multiple sclerosis (either relapsing-remitting or relapsing secondary progressive multiple sclerosis), and one or more of the following criteria: at least one relapse within the previous year, at least two relapses within the previous 2 years, or at least one active gadolinium-enhancing brain lesion in the 6 months before screening. Exclusion criteria included a diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis or a diagnosis of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis without relapse. We used a two-step randomisation process to randomly assign eligible participants (1:1) to two cohorts, then further randomly assign participants in each cohort (1:1:1:1) to four tolebrutinib dose groups (5, 15, 30, and 60 mg administered once daily as an oral tablet). Cohort 1 received tolebrutinib for 12 weeks, then matched placebo (ie, identical looking tablets) for 4 weeks; cohort 2 received 4 weeks of placebo followed by 12 weeks of tolebrutinib. Participants and investigators were masked for dose and tolebrutinib-placebo administration sequence; investigators, study team members, and study participants did not have access to unmasked data. MRI scans were done at screening and every 4 weeks over 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions detected on the scan done after 12 weeks of tolebrutinib treatment (assessed at week 12 for cohort 1 and week 16 for cohort 2), relative to the scan done 4 weeks previously, and compared with the lesions accumulated during 4 weeks of placebo run-in period in cohort 2. Efficacy data were analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, using a two-step multiple comparison procedure with modelling analysis. Safety was assessed for all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03889639), EudraCT (2018-003927-12), and WHO (U1111-1220-0572), and has been completed.

Findings: Between May 14, 2019, and Jan 2, 2020, we enrolled and randomly assigned 130 participants to tolebrutinib: 33 to 5 mg, 32 to 15 mg, 33 to 30 mg, and 32 to 60 mg. 129 (99%) completed the treatment regimen and 126 were included in the primary analysis. At treatment week 12, there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (mean [SD] lesions per patient: placebo, 1·03 [2·50]; 5 mg, 1·39 [3·20]; 15 mg, 0·77 [1·48]; 30 mg, 0·76 [3·31]; 60 mg, 0·13 [0·43]; p=0·03). One serious adverse event was reported (one patient in the 60 mg group was admitted to hospital because of a multiple sclerosis relapse). The most common non-serious adverse event during tolebrutinib treatment was headache (in one [3%] of 33 in the 5 mg group; three [9%] of 32 in the 15 mg group; one [3%] of 33 in the 30 mg group; and four [13%] of 32 in the 60 mg group). No safety-related discontinuations or treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: 12 weeks of tolebrutinib treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in new gadolinium-enhancing lesions, the 60 mg dose being the most efficacious, and the drug was well tolerated. Reduction of acute inflammation, combined with the potential to modulate the immune response within the CNS, provides a scientific rationale to pursue phase 3 clinical trials of tolebrutinib in patients with relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis.

Funding: Sanofi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00237-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434816PMC
September 2021

Plasma neurofilament light chain concentrations as a biomarker of clinical and radiologic outcomes in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Post hoc analysis of Phase 3 ozanimod trials.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background And Purpose: We investigated plasma neurofilament light chain concentration (pNfL) as a biomarker for neuroaxonal damage and disease activity using data from Phase 3 trials of ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).

Methods: pNfL was measured before and after ozanimod 0.46 mg or 0.92 mg daily or interferon β-1a 30 µg weekly in the randomized, double-blind SUNBEAM and RADIANCE trials. In these post hoc analyses, we investigated relationships between pNfL (at baseline and median percentage change from baseline to Month 12 [SUNBEAM] or 24 [RADIANCE]) and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes.

Results: Median (Q1, Q3) baseline pNfL, available in 1244 of 1346 SUNBEAM participants, was 14.70 (10.16, 23.26) pg/ml and in 1109 of 1313 RADIANCE participants was 13.35 (9.42, 20.41) pg/ml. Baseline gadolinium-enhancing (GdE) and T2 lesion counts increased and brain volume decreased with increasing baseline pNfL. Baseline pNfL was higher in those with versus without on-treatment relapse. Median percentage reduction in pNfL at 12 months in SUNBEAM (n = 1238) and 24 months in RADIANCE (n = 1088) was greater for ozanimod (20%-27%) than interferon β-1a (13%-16%; p < 0.01). Greater pNfL reduction was associated with fewer GdE lesions, fewer new/enlarging T2 lesions per scan, less loss of brain volume, lower annualized relapse rate (ARR), and no evidence of disease activity. The following models predicted ARR: 0.5111 + 0.0116 × ΔNfL at 12 months (SUNBEAM) and 0.4079 + 0.0088 × ΔNfL at 24 months (RADIANCE).

Conclusions: pNfL was associated with clinical and radiologic measures of disease and treatment effects in RMS, supporting its use as a biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15009DOI Listing
July 2021

Brain volume change after high-dose immunosuppression and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 12;54:103149. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; NeuroRx Research Inc., Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Brain volume loss (BVL) is commonly observed after high-dose immunosuppression and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HDIT/HCT) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To better understand the mechanisms of underlying BVL associated with this treatment, we characterized the time courses of whole-brain (WB), grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) volume loss in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who received BEAM-based HDIT/HCT.

Methods: We used Jacobian integration to measure MRI-based WB, GM and WM volume changes up to 5 years after transplant in twenty-four RRMS participants who underwent BEAM-based HDIT/HCT. Using a two-piecewise mixed-effects model, we estimated the short-term (baseline to 1 year) and long-term (beyond 1 year) rates of BVL after HDIT/HCT. We also compared the rates based on the presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline, and the maintenance of event-free survival during follow-up.

Results: On average, accelerated short-term BVL of -1.37% (SE: 0.21), -0.86% (SE: 0.28) and -2.18% (SE: 0.26) occurred in WB, GM and WM, respectively. Baseline T1-weighted MRI WM lesion volume was a significant predictor in the WB (short-term) and the WM (short-term and long-term). The average rates of BVL after the initial acceleration were -0.22%/y (SE: 0.10), -0.13%/y (SE: 0.11) and -0.36%/y (SE: 0.11) in the WB, GM and WM, respectively. Participants with gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline had significantly higher short-term rates of GM (-1.56% vs. -0.27%, p = 0.01) and WB volume loss (-1.94% vs. -0.81%, p = 0.006) at 1 year follow-up as compared to those without gadolinium-enhancing lesions. WM volume loss was not significantly different (-2.59% vs. -1.66%, p = 0.16). Participants who maintained event-free survival had similar rates of BVL compared to those who did not.

Conclusions: BVL may accelerate for months after HDIT/HCT. However, over the long-term, adequate HDIT/HCT may reduce BVL rates to those similar to normal aging at the WB level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103149DOI Listing
July 2021

Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: New Insights.

Neurology 2021 08 4;97(8):378-388. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

From the UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neurology (B.A.C.C.), University of California San Francisco; NeuroRx Research (D.L.A.), Montreal; Brain Imaging Centre (D.L.A.), Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada; Queen Square Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation (J.C.), UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London; National Institute for Health Research (J.C.), University College London Hospitals, Biomedical Research Centre, UK; Brigham Multiple Sclerosis Center (T.C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute (R.J.F.), Cleveland Clinic, OH; Oxford PharmaGenesis (A.P.R.), UK; Novartis Pharma AG (N.M.), Basel, Switzerland; and Center for Brain Research (H.L.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

In most cases, multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with a relapsing-remitting course followed by insidious disability worsening that is independent from clinically apparent relapses and is termed secondary progressive MS (SMPS). Major differences exist between relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS, especially regarding therapeutic response to treatment. This review provides an overview of the pathology, differentiation, and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of SPMS. We emphasize the criticality of conversion from a relapsing-remitting to a secondary progressive disease course not only because such conversion is evidence of disability progression, but also because, until recently, treatments that effectively reduced disability progression in relapsing MS were not proven to be effective in SPMS. Clear clinical, imaging, immunologic, or pathologic criteria marking the transition from RRMS to SPMS have not yet been established. Early identification of SPMS will require tools that, together with the use of appropriate treatments, may result in better long-term outcomes for the population of patients with SPMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397587PMC
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab over 6 years: final results of the 4-year CARE-MS extension trial.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 23;14:1756286420982134. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: In the 2-year CARE-MS I and II trials, alemtuzumab 12 mg administered on 5 consecutive days at core study baseline and on 3 consecutive days 12 months later significantly improved outcomes subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Here, we present the final 6-year CARE-MS extension trial results (CAMMS03409), and compare outcomes over 6 years in patients randomized to both treatment groups at core study baseline.

Methods: Over a 4-year extension, alemtuzumab patients (alemtuzumab-only) received as-needed additional alemtuzumab (⩾12 months apart) for disease activity after course 2. SC IFNB-1a patients who entered the extension discontinued SC IFNB-1a and received 2 alemtuzumab 12 mg courses (IFN-alemtuzumab), followed by additional, as-needed, alemtuzumab.

Results: Through year 6, 63% of CARE-MS I and 50% of CARE-MS II alemtuzumab-only patients received neither additional alemtuzumab nor other disease-modifying therapy, with lasting suppression of disease activity, improved disability, and slowing of brain volume loss (BVL). In CARE-MS I patients (treatment-naive; less disability; shorter disease duration), disease activity and BVL were significantly reduced in IFN-alemtuzumab patients, similar to alemtuzumab-only patients at year 6. Among CARE-MS II patients (inadequate response to prior treatment; more disability; longer disease duration), alemtuzumab significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, including BVL, in IFN-alemtuzumab patients; however, disability outcomes were less favorable alemtuzumab-only patients. Safety profiles, including infections and autoimmunities, following alemtuzumab were similar between treatment groups.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high efficacy of alemtuzumab over 6 years, with a similar safety profile between treatment groups.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifiers: NCT00530348; NCT00548405; NCT00930553.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420982134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072102PMC
April 2021

Author Correction: Identifying multiple sclerosis subtypes using unsupervised machine learning and MRI data.

Nat Commun 2021 May 20;12(1):3169. Epub 2021 May 20.

Queen Square Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23538-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137887PMC
May 2021

Ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Pooled safety results from the clinical development program.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 15;51:102844. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Research Center for Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neuroscience Basel (RC2NB), Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research, Biomedicine, and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital and University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Ozanimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and 5 modulator, is approved in multiple countries for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). In phase 3 trials, ozanimod was well tolerated and superior to interferon beta-1a 30 µg once-weekly in reducing clinical and radiologic disease activity. The objective of this integrated safety analysis was to evaluate the safety of extended ozanimod exposure in participants with RMS from all clinical trials and compare it with phase 3 trial data.

Methods: We report pooled incidence and study duration‒adjusted incidence rates (IR) of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) from an interim data cut (January 31, 2019) of RMS participants treated with ozanimod. Data were pooled from a phase 1 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic trial, a placebo-controlled phase 2 trial with dose-blinded extension, 2 large active-controlled phase 3 trials, and an open-label extension (OLE). Results were compared with pooled phase 3 trial data.

Results: At the data cutoff, 2631 RMS participants had exposure to ozanimod 0.92 mg (mean 32.0 months) and 2787 had exposure to either ozanimod 0.46 or 0.92 mg (mean 37.1 months). The IRs per 1000 person-years (PY) for any TEAE (772.2) and serious TEAEs (33.2) in the overall population were similar to those in the phase 3 population (896.1 and 31.2, respectively). There were no serious opportunistic infections. There were no second-degree or higher atrioventricular blocks on electrocardiogram. Hepatic enzyme elevations declined over time. Malignancy rates remained low with longer exposure. Pulmonary function tests showed minimal reductions in lung function. Seven ozanimod-treated participants with comorbid risk factors had confirmed macular edema, including 3 in the ongoing OLE.

Conclusions: Safety results in this larger RMS population with greater ozanimod exposure demonstrated no new safety concerns and were consistent with phase 3 trial results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102844DOI Listing
June 2021

Predicting disability progression and cognitive worsening in multiple sclerosis using patterns of grey matter volumes.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Sep 20;92(9):995-1006. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

NMR Research Unit, Queen Square Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI measures at the whole brain or regional level are only modestly associated with disability, while network-based measures are emerging as promising prognostic markers. We sought to demonstrate whether data-driven patterns of covarying regional grey matter (GM) volumes predict future disability in secondary progressive MS (SPMS).

Methods: We used cross-sectional structural MRI, and baseline and longitudinal data of Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine-Hole Peg Test (9HPT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), from a clinical trial in 988 people with SPMS. We processed T1-weighted scans to obtain GM probability maps and applied spatial independent component analysis (ICA). We repeated ICA on 400 healthy controls. We used survival models to determine whether baseline patterns of covarying GM volume measures predict cognitive and motor worsening.

Results: We identified 15 patterns of regionally covarying GM features. Compared with whole brain GM, deep GM and lesion volumes, some ICA components correlated more closely with clinical outcomes. A mainly basal ganglia component had the highest correlations at baseline with the SDMT and was associated with cognitive worsening (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.52, p<0.005). Two ICA components were associated with 9HPT worsening (HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p<0.01 and HR=1.21, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.45, p<0.05). ICA measures could better predict SDMT and 9HPT worsening (C-index=0.69-0.71) compared with models including only whole and regional MRI measures (C-index=0.65-0.69, p value for all comparison <0.05).

Conclusions: The disability progression was better predicted by some of the covarying GM regions patterns, than by single regional or whole-brain measures. ICA, which may represent structural brain networks, can be applied to clinical trials and may play a role in stratifying participants who have the most potential to show a treatment effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-325610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372398PMC
September 2021

Identifying multiple sclerosis subtypes using unsupervised machine learning and MRI data.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2078. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Queen Square Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be divided into four phenotypes based on clinical evolution. The pathophysiological boundaries of these phenotypes are unclear, limiting treatment stratification. Machine learning can identify groups with similar features using multidimensional data. Here, to classify MS subtypes based on pathological features, we apply unsupervised machine learning to brain MRI scans acquired in previously published studies. We use a training dataset from 6322 MS patients to define MRI-based subtypes and an independent cohort of 3068 patients for validation. Based on the earliest abnormalities, we define MS subtypes as cortex-led, normal-appearing white matter-led, and lesion-led. People with the lesion-led subtype have the highest risk of confirmed disability progression (CDP) and the highest relapse rate. People with the lesion-led MS subtype show positive treatment response in selected clinical trials. Our findings suggest that MRI-based subtypes predict MS disability progression and response to treatment and may be used to define groups of patients in interventional trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22265-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024377PMC
April 2021

Deep grey matter injury in multiple sclerosis: a NAIMS consensus statement.

Brain 2021 08;144(7):1974-1984

Department of Neurology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Although multiple sclerosis has traditionally been considered a white matter disease, extensive research documents the presence and importance of grey matter injury including cortical and deep regions. The deep grey matter exhibits a broad range of pathology and is uniquely suited to study the mechanisms and clinical relevance of tissue injury in multiple sclerosis using magnetic resonance techniques. Deep grey matter injury has been associated with clinical and cognitive disability. Recently, MRI characterization of deep grey matter properties, such as thalamic volume, have been tested as potential clinical trial end points associated with neurodegenerative aspects of multiple sclerosis. Given this emerging area of interest and its potential clinical trial relevance, the North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (NAIMS) Cooperative held a workshop and reached consensus on imaging topics related to deep grey matter. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding deep grey matter injury in multiple sclerosis from an imaging perspective, including insights from histopathology, image acquisition and post-processing for deep grey matter. We discuss the clinical relevance of deep grey matter injury and specific regions of interest within the deep grey matter. We highlight unanswered questions and propose future directions, with the aim of focusing research priorities towards better methods, analysis, and interpretation of results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370433PMC
August 2021

Safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 5-year open-label study (EXTEND): final results following early termination.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 26;14:1756286420987941. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: EXTEND (NCT01797965), an open-label extension study, evaluated the safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who had completed the randomized DECIDE study.

Methods: Eligible participants who received either daclizumab beta or interferon beta-1a in DECIDE received daclizumab beta 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks for up to 5 years in EXTEND, followed by 24 weeks of post-dosing follow-up. Safety and tolerability were evaluated, as were clinical efficacy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). EXTEND was terminated ahead of schedule by the sponsors.

Results: The total safety population ( = 1203) received at least one dose of daclizumab beta in EXTEND. In the DECIDE and EXTEND combined periods, the median number of doses of daclizumab beta was 53; median time on treatment was 196 weeks. By 24 September 2018, the end of the study, 110/1203 (9%) participants had completed the protocol-specified treatment period and 1101/1203 (92%) had experienced an adverse event (AE). The most commonly reported AEs were MS relapse, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infection. Hepatic events (18%), cutaneous events (45%), and infections (62%) were common treatment-related AEs. The incidence of serious AEs was 29%, most commonly MS relapse and infections. The incidence of immune-mediated disorders was 2%; three of seven were encephalitis. Two of six deaths were considered treatment related. In participants who received continuous daclizumab beta throughout DECIDE and EXTEND, the treatment effects on clinical and MRI outcomes were maintained for up to 6 years.

Conclusion: Results from the combined DECIDE-EXTEND study elucidate outcomes of longer-term treatment with daclizumab beta in the clinical trial setting and underscore the importance of pharmacovigilance with immunomodulatory therapies in the real-world setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420987941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934044PMC
February 2021

Pro-inflammatory adiponectin in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Feb 1:1352458521989090. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada/Experimental Therapeutics Program, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada/Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Being obese is associated with both increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and greater MS disease activity.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate levels and potential pathophysiologic contribution of serum adipose-hormones (adipokines) in pediatric-onset MS.

Methods: Following a Luminex adipokine screen, adiponectin (APN) and its isoforms were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 169 children with incident acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS), prospectively ascertained as having either MS or other forms of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. The effect of recombinant APN and APN-containing sera was assessed on functional responses of normal human peripheral blood myeloid and T cells and on human CNS-derived microglia.

Results: Compared to other cohorts, children with MS harbored higher serum APN levels, principally driven by higher levels of the low-molecular-weight isoform. Recombinant APN and pediatric MS serum-induced APN-dependent pro-inflammatory activation of CD14 monocytes and of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells (both directly and indirectly through myeloid cells). APN induced human microglia activation while inhibiting their expression of molecules associated with quiescence.

Conclusions: Elevated APN levels in children with MS may contribute to enhanced pro-inflammatory states of innate and adaptive peripheral immune responses and breach CNS-resident microglia quiescence, providing a plausible and potentially targetable mechanism by which APN contributes to MS disease activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458521989090DOI Listing
February 2021

Characterisation of MS phenotypes across the age span using a novel data set integrating 34 clinical trials (NO.MS cohort): Age is a key contributor to presentation.

Mult Scler 2021 Jan 28:1352458520988637. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: The Oxford Big Data Institute, multiple sclerosis (MS) physicians and Novartis aim to address unresolved questions in MS with a novel comprehensive clinical trial data set.

Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the Novartis-Oxford MS (NO.MS) data set and to explore the relationships between age, disease activity and disease worsening across MS phenotypes.

Methods: We report key characteristics of NO.MS. We modelled MS lesion formation, relapse frequency, brain volume change and disability worsening cross-sectionally, as a function of patients' baseline age, using phase III study data (≈8000 patients).

Results: NO.MS contains data of ≈35,000 patients (>200,000 brain images from ≈10,000 patients), with >10 years follow-up. (1) Focal disease activity is highest in paediatric patients and decreases with age, (2) brain volume loss is similar across age and phenotypes and (3) the youngest patients have the lowest likelihood (<25%) of disability worsening over 2 years while risk is higher (25%-75%) in older, disabled or progressive MS patients. Young patients benefit most from treatment.

Conclusion: NO.MS will illuminate questions related to MS characterisation, progression and prognosis. Age modulates relapse frequency and, thus, the phenotypic presentation of MS. Disease worsening across all phenotypes is mediated by age and appears to some extent be independent from new focal inflammatory activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520988637DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Ozanimod on Symbol Digit Modalities Test Performance in Relapsing MS.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 10;48:102673. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive dysfunction, including slowed cognitive processing speed (CPS), is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a preferred measure of CPS for MS trials and routine screening. Based on encouraging SDMT results in the phase 3 SUNBEAM trial, these post hoc, exploratory analyses were conducted to further compare effects of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator ozanimod versus intramuscular interferon β-1a on CPS in participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).

Methods: In the phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy, SUNBEAM study, adults (aged 18‒55 years) with RMS (N=1,346) were randomized to once-daily oral ozanimod 0.92 or 0.46 mg, or weekly intramuscular interferon β-1a 30 µg. The study continued until the last participant was treated for 12 months. CPS was measured as part of a secondary endpoint using the SDMT. Exploratory, post hoc analyses evaluated SDMT change and percentages of participants with clinically meaningful (≥4-point) SDMT improvement or worsening at months 6 and 12, and relationship between SDMT and brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Ozanimod improved SDMT scores compared with interferon β-1a at months 6 and 12. At month 12, least squares mean difference in SDMT z-scores for ozanimod 0.92 mg versus interferon β-1a was 0.102 (95% CI, 0.031‒0.174, nominal p = 0.0051; standardized mean difference = 0.1376). A greater percentage of ozanimod 0.92 mg‒treated participants had clinically meaningful improvements in SDMT scores versus interferon β-1a at month 6 (30.0% versus 22.2%) and month 12 (35.6% versus 27.9%). Of those with SDMT improvement at month 6, 66.4% of those treated with ozanimod 0.92 mg and 55.9% of those treated with interferon β-1a had sustained improvement at month 12. Brain volume loss was similar for those with SDMT improvement versus worsening at month 12.

Conclusions: In these exploratory analyses, ozanimod had modestly beneficial effects on CPS in RMS participants. The effects of ozanimod on SDMT are being further evaluated in an ongoing 3-year clinical trial. SUNBEAM is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02294058) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2014-002320-27).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102673DOI Listing
February 2021

Temporal profile of serum neurofilament light in multiple sclerosis: Implications for patient monitoring.

Mult Scler 2021 Sep 14;27(10):1497-1505. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Objective: To understand how longitudinal serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) patterns can inform its use as a prognostic biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS) and evaluate whether sNfL reflects MS disease activity and disease-modifying therapy usage.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of longitudinal data and samples from the ADVANCE trial (NCT00906399) of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). sNfL was measured every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 4 years. Regression models explored how sNfL data predicted 4-year values of brain volume, expanded disability status scale score, and T2 lesions. sNfL levels were assessed in those receiving placebo, peginterferon beta-1a, and those with disease activity.

Results: Baseline sNfL was a predictor of 4-year brain atrophy and development of new T2 lesions. Clinical ( = 0.02) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ( < 0.01) outcomes improved in those receiving peginterferon beta-1a whose sNfL decreased to <16 pg/mL after 12 months versus those whose sNfL remained ⩾16 pg/mL. Mean sNfL levels decreased in peginterferon beta-1a-treated patients and increased in placebo-treated patients (-9.5% vs. 6.8%;  < 0.01). sNfL was higher and more variable in patients with evidence of active MS.

Conclusion: These data support sNfL as a prognostic and disease-monitoring biomarker for RRMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520972573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414824PMC
September 2021

Long-term follow-up from the ORATORIO trial of ocrelizumab for primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a post-hoc analysis from the ongoing open-label extension of the randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Neurol 2020 12 29;19(12):998-1009. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: The safety and efficacy of ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis were shown in the phase 3 ORATORIO trial. In this study, we assessed the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab therapy on measures of disease progression and safety in the open-label extension phase of ORATORIO.

Methods: ORATORIO was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 182 study locations including academic centres, hospitals, and community speciality centres within 29 countries across the Americas, Australia, Europe, Israel, New Zealand, and Russia. Patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis aged 18-55 years who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 3·0-6·5 were eligible for enrolment. Those who had previous treatment with B-cell-targeted therapies or other immunosuppressive medications were excluded. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either intravenous infusion of 600 mg of ocrelizumab (two 300 mg infusions 14 days apart) or placebo every 24 weeks for at least 120 weeks until a prespecified number (n=253) of disability events occurred. After the double-blind phase, patients entered an extended controlled period of variable duration, during which they and investigators became aware of treatment allocation. Following this period, patients could enter an optional open-label extension, during which they continued ocrelizumab or switched from placebo to ocrelizumab. Time to onset of disability progression was confirmed at 24 weeks with four measures (ie, increase in EDSS score, ≥20% increase in time to complete the 9-Hole Peg Test [9HPT], ≥20% increase in time to perform the Timed 25-Foot Walk [T25FW], and composite progression defined as the first confirmed occurrence of any of these three individual measures), as was time to requiring a wheelchair (EDSS ≥7). Conventional MRI measures were also analysed. The intention-to-treat population was used for the safety and efficacy analyses; all analyses, and their timings, were done post hoc. ORATORIO is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01194570, and is ongoing.

Findings: From March 3, 2011, to Dec 27, 2012, 488 patients were randomly assigned to the ocrelizumab group and 244 to the placebo group. The extended controlled period started on July 24, 2015, and ended on April 27, 2016, when the last patient entered the open-label extension. Overall, 544 (74%) of 732 participants completed the double-blind period to week 144; 527 (97%) of 544 entered the open-label extension phase, of whom 451 (86%) are ongoing in the open-label extension. After at least 6·5 study years (48 weeks per study year) of follow-up, the proportion of patients with progression on disability measures was lower in those who initiated ocrelizumab early than in those initially receiving placebo for most of the measures of 24-week confirmed disability progression: EDSS, 51·7% vs 64·8% (difference 13·1% [95% CI 4·9-21·3]; p=0·0018); 9HPT, 30·6% vs 43·1% (12·5% [4·1-20·9]); p=0·0035); T25FW, 63·2% vs 70·7% (7·5% [-0·3 to 15·2]; p=0·058); composite progression, 73·2% vs 83·3% (10·1% [3·6-16·6]; p=0·0023); and confirmed time to requiring a wheelchair, 11·5% vs 18·9% (7·4% [0·8-13·9]; p=0·0274). At study end, the percentage change from baseline was lower in those who initiated ocrelizumab early than in those initially receiving placebo for T2 lesion volume (0·45% vs 13·00%, p<0·0001) and T1 hypointense lesion volume (36·68% vs 60·93%, p<0·0001). Over the entire period, in the ORATORIO all ocrelizumab exposure population, the rate of adverse events was 238·09 (95% CI 232·71-243·57) per 100 patient-years and serious adverse events was 12·63 (95% CI 11·41-13·94) per 100 patient-years; the most common serious adverse events were infections at 4·13 (95% CI 3·45-4·91) per 100 patient-years. No new safety signals emerged compared with the double-blind phase of ORATORIO.

Interpretation: Compared with patients switching from placebo, earlier and continuous ocrelizumab treatment provided sustained benefits on measures of disease progression over the 6·5 study years of follow-up. Although this study shows the benefit of earlier intervention with ocrelizumab in primary progressive disease, progression remains an important unmet need in multiple sclerosis. Further research should focus on how the potential benefits described in this study might be improved upon, particularly over longer time periods.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30342-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Natalizumab versus fingolimod for patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from REVEAL, a prospective, randomised head-to-head study.

BMJ Open 2020 10 20;10(10):e038861. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Biogen (at the time of these analyses), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: To directly compare the efficacy of natalizumab and fingolimod in patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Methods: This phase 4, randomised, rater- and sponsor-blinded, prospective, parallel-group, clinic-based head-to-head study was conducted at 43 sites in nine countries. Patients were randomised (1:1) to intravenous natalizumab 300 mg every 4 weeks or oral fingolimod 0.5 mg once daily for ≤52 weeks. Enrolment-related early study termination precluded assessment of the primary endpoint (evolution of new on-treatment gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions to persistent black holes). Unplanned exploratory analyses of secondary endpoints evaluated the effects of treatment on the development of new T1 Gd+ lesions and new/newly enlarging T2 lesions, lesion volumes and relapse outcomes.

Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 108 patients (natalizumab, n=54; fingolimod, n=54); 63 completed ≥24 weeks of treatment. Due to the limited numbers of events and patients at risk, MRI and relapse outcomes were reported over up to 24 and 36 weeks, respectively. The mean number of new T1 Gd+ lesions was numerically lower with natalizumab than with fingolimod by 4 weeks; accumulation rates were 0.02 and 0.09 per week, respectively, over 24 weeks (p=0.004). The cumulative probability of developing ≥1 lesion at 24 weeks was 40.7% with natalizumab versus 58.0% with fingolimod (HR=0.60; 95% CI 0.31-1.16; p=0.126); the corresponding probabilities for ≥2 lesions were 11.5% vs 48.5% (HR=0.25; 95% CI 0.09-0.68; p=0.007). No significant between-group differences were observed for the other MRI outcomes at 24 weeks. The cumulative probability of relapse over follow-up was 1.9% with natalizumab versus 22.3% with fingolimod (HR=0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.64; p=0.017). Adverse events were consistent with known safety profiles.

Conclusions: These results suggest that natalizumab is more efficacious than fingolimod in reducing multiple sclerosis relapses and T1 Gd+ lesion accumulation in patients with active disease.

Trial Registration Numbers: NCT02342704; EUCTR2013-004622-29-IT; Post-results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577060PMC
October 2020

Efficacy and Safety of 2 Fingolimod Doses vs Glatiramer Acetate for the Treatment of Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 Aug 24. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey.

Importance: Doses of fingolimod lower than 0.5 mg per day were not investigated during the fingolimod clinical development program. Whether lower doses of fingolimod might retain efficacy with fewer safety risks remains unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fingolimod, 0.5 mg, and fingolimod, 0.25 mg, compared with glatiramer acetate and to assess whether these doses of fingolimod show superior efficacy to glatiramer acetate in adult patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Interventions: Fingolimod, 0.5 mg, or fingolimod, 0.25 mg, orally once per day or glatiramer acetate, 20 mg, subcutaneously once per day.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Multiple Sclerosis Study Evaluating Safety and Efficacy of Two Doses of Fingolimod Versus Copaxone (ASSESS) was a phase 3b multicenter randomized rater-blinded and dose-blinded 12-month clinical trial conducted between August 9, 2012, and April 30, 2018 (including the time required to recruit participants). A total of 1461 patients aged 18 to 65 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were screened, and 1064 participants were randomized. These participants had at least 1 documented relapse during the previous year or 2 documented relapses during the previous 2 years and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 0 to 6 at screening. Data were analyzed between September and November 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The superiority of the fingolimod doses was tested hierarchically, with fingolimod, 0.5 mg, vs glatiramer acetate, 20 mg, tested first, followed by fingolimod, 0.25 mg, vs glatiramer acetate, 20 mg. The primary end point was the reduction in annualized relapse rate (ARR). Magnetic resonance imaging parameters, safety, and tolerability were also assessed.

Results: Of 1461 adult patients screened, 1064 participants (72.8%) were randomized (mean [SD] age, 39.6 [11.0] years; 792 women [74.4%]) to 3 treatment groups: 352 participants received fingolimod, 0.5 mg, 370 participants received fingolimod, 0.25 mg, and 342 participants received glatiramer acetate, 20 mg. In total, 859 participants (80.7%) completed the study. Treatment with fingolimod, 0.5 mg, was superior to treatment with glatiramer acetate, 20 mg, in reducing ARR (40.7% relative reduction); the relative reduction with fingolimod, 0.25 mg, was 14.6%, which was not statistically significant (for fingolimod, 0.5 mg, ARR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.11-0.21; for fingolimod, 0.25 mg, ARR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.17-0.29; for glatiramer acetate, 20 mg, ARR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.20-0.34). Treatment with both fingolimod doses (0.5 mg and 0.25 mg) significantly reduced new or newly enlarging T2 and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions compared with treatment with glatiramer acetate. Adverse events were reported in similar proportions across treatment groups (312 participants [90.4%] in the fingolimod, 0.5 mg, group, 323 participants [88.3%] in the fingolimod, 0.25 mg, group, and 283 participants [87.3%] in the glatiramer acetate group).

Conclusions And Relevance: Fingolimod, 0.5 mg, demonstrated superior clinical efficacy compared with glatiramer acetate, 20 mg, and had a superior benefit-risk profile compared with fingolimod, 0.25 mg, in adult participants with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633112.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445630PMC
August 2020

Five years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension.

Neurology 2020 09 20;95(13):e1854-e1867. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

From the Department of Neurology (S.L.H.), University of California, San Francisco; Neurologic Clinic and Policlinic (L.K.), Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research, Biomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Switzerland; NeuroRx Research (D.L.A.); Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery (D.L.A.), McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroinflammation and Experimental Therapeutics (A.B.-O.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (B.B.), CHU de Bordeaux, France; Department of Neurology (R.T.N.), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Division of Neurology (A.T.), Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Neurology (J.S.W.), McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth); F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (S.B., H.K., M.M., F.M., S.H.), Basel, Switzerland; Genentech, Inc. (V.L., L.M.), South San Francisco, CA; Division of Neurology (X.M.), University of Toronto, Canada; and Department of Neurology-Neuroimmunology (X.M.), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. During completion of the work related to this article, S.B. and L.M. were employees of F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd; current affiliations are Biogen (S.B.), Cambridge, MA; and Alder Biopharmaceuticals Inc. (L.M.), Bothell, WA.

Objective: To assess over 3 years of follow-up the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA: I/II studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Methods: After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN)-β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE phase (3 years). Adjusted annualized relapse rate, time to onset of 24-week confirmed disability progression (CDP)/improvement (CDP), brain MRI activity (gadolinium-enhanced and new/enlarging T2 lesions), and percentage brain volume change were analyzed.

Results: Of patients entering the OLE phase, 88.6% completed year 5. The cumulative proportion with 24-week CDP was lower in patients who initiated OCR earlier vs patients initially receiving IFN-β-1a (16.1% vs 21.3% at year 5; = 0.014). Patients continuing OCR maintained and those switching from IFN-β-1a to OCR attained near complete and sustained suppression of new brain MRI lesion activity from years 3-5. Over the OLE phase, patients continuing OCR exhibited less whole brain volume loss from double-blind study baseline vs those switching from IFN-β-1a (-1.87% vs -2.15% at year 5; < 0.01). Adverse events were consistent with past reports and no new safety signals emerged with prolonged treatment.

Conclusion: Compared with patients switching from IFN-β-1a, earlier and continuous OCR treatment up to 5 years provided sustained benefit on clinical and MRI measures of disease progression.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that earlier and continuous treatment with OCR provided sustained benefit on clinical and MRI outcomes of disease activity and progression compared with patients switching from IFN-β-1a. The study is rated Class III because of the initial treatment randomization disclosure that occurred after inclusion in OLE.

Clinical Trial Identifiers: NCT01247324/NCT01412333.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682822PMC
September 2020

Serum neurofilament light as a biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Neurology 2020 09 16;95(10):436-444. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

From the University College London (R.K.), United Kingdom; National Multiple Sclerosis Society (K.E.S., M.A.), New York; McGill University (D.L.A.), Montreal, Canada; Perron Institute (W.C.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia; University Hospital Vall d'Hebron (M.C.), Barcelona, Spain; San Raffaele Scientific Institute (R.F.), Milan, Italy; Genentech/Roche (C.H.), South San Francisco; University Hospital Basel (J.K., D.L.), Switzerland; Biogen (T.P.), Boston; Quanterix Corporation (T.P.), Billerica; Rigshospitalet (F.S.), University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Alliance (C.S.), Glasgow, United Kingdom; Amsterdam UMC (C.E.T.), the Netherlands; MedDay Pharma (I.T.), Paris, France; Novartis (F.v.R.), Basel, Switzerland; Elizabeth Walker Consulting (E.W.), Seattle; and Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis (R.J.F.), Cleveland Clinic.

There is an unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy for treatments to stop progressive disability. The development of treatments may be accelerated if novel biomarkers are developed to overcome the limitations of traditional imaging outcomes revealed in early phase trials. In January 2019, the International Progressive MS Alliance convened a standing expert panel to consider potential tissue fluid biomarkers in MS in general and in progressive MS specifically. The panel focused their attention on neurofilament light chain (NfL) in serum or plasma, examining data from both relapsing and progressive MS. Here, we report the initial conclusions of the panel and its recommendations for further research. Serum NfL (sNfL) is a plausible marker of neurodegeneration that can be measured accurately, sensitively, and reproducibly, but standard procedures for sample processing and analysis should be established. Findings from relapsing and progressive cohorts concur and indicate that sNfL concentrations correlate with imaging and disability measures, predict the future course of the disease, and can predict response to treatment. Importantly, disease activity from active inflammation (i.e., new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions) is a large contributor to sNfL, so teasing apart disease activity from the disease progression that drives insidious disability progression in progressive MS will be challenging. More data are required on the effects of age and comorbidities, as well as the relative contributions of inflammatory activity and other disease processes. The International Progressive MS Alliance is well positioned to advance these initiatives by connecting and supporting relevant stakeholders in progressive MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538221PMC
September 2020

Temporal profile of lymphocyte counts and relationship with infections with fingolimod therapy in paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis: Results from the PARADIG study.

Mult Scler 2021 05 7;27(6):922-932. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Reduction in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is expected with fingolimod treatment.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of fingolimod 0.5 mg versus intramuscular interferon β-1a (30 μg) on ALC and its relationship with infections in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) up to 4 years.

Methods: We assessed ALC at baseline, monthly till 3 months, and every 3 months (core phase) and with variable periodicity (extension phase) of Phase 3 PARADIG study ( = 215). Incidence rates (IRs) of infection-related adverse events (AEs)/100 patient-years were analysed by on-study nadir ALC.

Results: With fingolimod, ALC rapidly reduced to 29.9%-34.4% of baseline values within 2 weeks and remained stable thereafter; no relevant changes observed with interferon. IRs of AEs were 67.6 with fingolimod and 61.8 with interferon; IR ratios with respect to interferon, overall: 1.09, by nadir ALC 0.2-0.4 × 10/L: 1.13 and >0.4 × 10/L: 0.91. Three patients had a single episode of ALC <0.2 × 10/L (core phase). No opportunistic infections were observed and infection risk did not increase during the extension phase.

Conclusion: In paediatric patients, the overall incidence of infections was comparable between fingolimod and interferon. No association was observed between nadir ALC and infections in POMS, although sample size may have been too small to rule an association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520936934DOI Listing
May 2021

Contribution of Relapse-Independent Progression vs Relapse-Associated Worsening to Overall Confirmed Disability Accumulation in Typical Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis in a Pooled Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1132-1140

Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco.

Importance: Accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis may occur as relapse-associated worsening (RAW) or steady progression independent of relapse activity (PIRA), with PIRA regarded as a feature of primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Objective: To investigate the contributions of relapse-associated worsening vs relapse-independent progression to overall confirmed disability accumulation (CDA) and assess respective baseline prognostic factors and outcomes of 2 treatments.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Analyses occurred from July 2015 to February 2020 on pooled data from the intention-to-treat population of 2 identical, phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group randomized clinical trials (OPERA I and II) conducted between August 2011 and April 2015. In the trials, patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS), diagnosed using the 2010 revised McDonald criteria, were randomized from 307 trial sites in 56 countries; resulting data were analyzed in the pooled data set.

Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 600 mg of ocrelizumab by intravenous infusion every 24 weeks or subcutaneous interferon β-1a 3 times a week at a dose of 44 μg throughout a 96-week treatment period.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Confirmed disability accumulation was defined by an increase in 1 or more of 3 measures (Expanded Disability Status Scale, timed 25-ft walk, or 9-hole peg test), confirmed after 3 or 6 months, and classified per temporal association with confirmed clinical relapses (PIRA or RAW).

Results: In the pooled OPERA I and II population (1656 of 2096 eligible participants), baseline demographics and disease characteristics were similar for patients randomized to interferon β-1a vs ocrelizumab (mean [SD] age, 37.2 [9.2] vs 37.1 [9.2] years; 552 [66.6%] vs 541 women [65.4%]). After 96 weeks, 12-week composite CDA had occurred in 223 (29.6% by Kaplan-Meier estimate) randomized to interferon β-1a and 167 (21.1%) randomized to ocrelizumab; 24-week composite CDA had occurred in 170 (22.7%) taking interferon β-1a and 129 (16.2%) taking ocrelizumab. The PIRA events were the main contributors to 12-week and 24-week composite CDA after 96 weeks in patients treated with interferon β-1a (174 of 223 [78.0%] and 137 of 170 [80.6%], respectively) and ocrelizumab (147 of 167 [88.0%] and 115 of 129 [89.1%], respectively); a minority had CDA explained by RAW events (69 of 390 [17.7%] and 52 of 299 [17.4%], respectively). Very few patients with composite CDA experienced both RAW and PIRA events (17 of 390 [4.4%] for 12-week and 15 of 299 [5.0%] for 24-week composite CDA). Ocrelizumab (vs interferon β-1a) was associated with reduced risk of composite CDA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67) and confirmed PIRA (HR, 0.78) and RAW (HR, 0.47) events.

Conclusions And Relevance: Most disability accumulation in RMS is not associated with overt relapses. This indicates an underlying progression in this typical RMS population and challenges the current clinical distinction of relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab was superior to interferon β-1a in preventing both RAW and PIRA.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: OPERA I (NCT01247324) and OPERA II (NCT01412333).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281382PMC
September 2020

Safety and efficacy of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: 9 years' follow-up of DEFINE, CONFIRM, and ENDORSE.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 12;13:1756286420915005. Epub 2020 May 12.

Biogen, 225 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Introduction: We report safety and efficacy in patients treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for ~9 years in ENDORSE. Lymphocyte analysis data are also reported.

Methods: Incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs), discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs), annualized relapse rate (ARR) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score were assessed. Patients were treated with DMF 240 mg twice daily (BID): placebo (PBO)/DMF (PBO for years 0-2 /DMF for years 3-9) or continuous (DMF/DMF) treatment; newly diagnosed patients were included. Annual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in patients from the MRI cohort of DEFINE/CONFIRM. For the lymphocyte analysis, data from first DMF exposure were analyzed.

Results: Of 2079 DEFINE/CONFIRM completers, 1736 enrolled and received ⩾1 dose of DMF. The MRI cohort included 530 patients. In the overall population, 527 (30%) patients experienced SAEs; most were fall and urinary tract infection. Over 9 years on DMF treatment, adjusted ARR remained low (⩽0.20). In patients treated with PBO in years 0-2, decreased ARR was apparent as early as year 3. Of DMF/DMF and PBO/DMF patients, 73% and 74%, respectively, had no 24-week confirmed disability progression. Most patients (~70%) had no new T1 or new/newly enlarging T2 lesions compared with previous MRI scans after 7 years treatment with DMF; the annual number of new T1 hypointense lesions and new/newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions were 0.6-0.8 and 0.9-2.0, respectively. Mean percentage brain volume change from ENDORSE baseline (6 years treatment in ENDORSE) was -1.32% (range -1.60% to -1.05%). Of the 2513 patients with lymphocyte assessments, 2470 had ⩾1 post-baseline measurement, 53 developed severe prolonged lymphopenia and were followed for up to 11 years; incidence of serious infection was not higher than in patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) always ⩾ lower limit of normal (LLN). In patients with lymphopenia while on DMF and ALC < 0.91 × 10/L at discontinuation ( = 138), median time to ALC ⩾ LLN was 7 weeks post-discontinuation.

Conclusions: Sustained safety and efficacy of DMF was observed in patients continuing on treatment for up to 11 years, supporting DMF as a long-term treatment option for patients with RRMS.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers, NCT00835770 (ENDORSE); NCT00420212 (DEFINE); NCT00451451 (CONFIRM).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420915005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222239PMC
May 2020

Neurotoxicity after hematopoietic stem cell transplant in multiple sclerosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 05 18;7(5):767-775. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

The University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Objective: Accelerated brain volume loss has been noted following immunoablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IAHSCT) for multiple sclerosis. As with other MS treatments, this is often interpreted as 'pseudoatrophy', related to reduced inflammation. Treatment-related neurotoxicity may be contributory. We sought objective evidence of post-IAHSCT toxicity by quantifying levels of Neurofilament Light Chain (sNfL) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (sGFAP) before and after treatment as markers of neuroaxonal and glial cell damage.

Methods: Sera were collected from 22 MS patients pre- and post-IAHSCT at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months along with 28 noninflammatory controls. sNfL and sGFAP quantification was performed using the SiMoA single-molecule assay.

Results: Pre-IAHSCT levels of sNfL and sGFAP were elevated in MS patients compared with controls (geometric mean sNfL 21.8 vs. 6.4 pg/mL, sGFAP 107.4 vs. 50.7 pg/mL, P = 0.0001 for both). Three months after IAHSCT, levels of sNfL and sGFAP increased from baseline by 32.1% and 74.8%, respectively (P = 0.0029 and 0.0004). sNfL increases correlated with total busulfan dose (P = 0.034), EDSS score worsening at 6 months (P = 0.041), and MRI grey matter volume loss at 6 months (P = 0.0023). Subsequent NfL levels reduced to less than baseline (12-month geometric mean 11.3 pg/mL P = 0.0001) but were still higher than controls (P = 0.0001). sGFAP levels reduced more slowly but at 12 months were approaching baseline levels (130.7 pg/mL).

Interpretation: There is direct evidence of transient CNS toxicity immediately after IAHSCT which may be chemotherapy mediated and contributes to transient increases in MRI atrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261754PMC
May 2020

Conversion of diffusely abnormal white matter to focal lesions is linked to progression in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 02 23;27(2):208-219. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada/Department of Anatomy, University of Quebec in Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC, Canada.

Background: Diffusely abnormal white matter (DAWM) regions are observed in magnetic resonance images of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients. However, their role in clinical progression is still not established.

Objectives: To characterize the longitudinal volumetric and intensity evolution of DAWM and focal white matter lesions (FWML) and assess their associations with clinical outcomes and progression in SPMS.

Methods: Data include 589 SPMS participants followed up for 3 years (3951 time points). FWML and DAWM were automatically segmented. Screening DAWM volumes that transformed into FWML at the last visit (DAWM-to-FWML) and normalized T1-weighted intensities (indicating severity of damage) in those voxels were calculated.

Results: FWML volume increased and DAWM volume decreased with an increase in disease duration ( < 0.001). The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was positively associated with FWML volumes ( = 0.002), but not with DAWM. DAWM-to-FWML volume was higher in patients who progressed (2.75 cm vs. 1.70 cm;  < 0.0001). Normalized T1-weighted intensity of DAWM-to-FWML was negatively associated with progression ( < 0.00001).

Conclusion: DAWM transformed into FWML over time, and this transformation was associated with clinical progression. DAWM-to-FWML voxels had greater normalized T1-weighted intensity decrease over time, in keeping with relatively greater tissue damage. Evaluation of DAWM in progressive multiple sclerosis provides a useful measure for therapies aiming to protect this at-risk tissue with the potential to slow progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520912172DOI Listing
February 2021

Brain volume loss in individuals over time: Source of variance and limits of detectability.

Neuroimage 2020 07 21;214:116737. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Brain volume loss measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a marker of neurodegeneration and predictor of disability progression in MS, and is commonly used to assess drug efficacy at the group level in clinical trials. Whether measures of brain volume loss could be useful to help guide management of individual patients depends on the relative magnitude of the changes over a given interval to physiological and technical sources of variability.

Goal: To understand the relative contributions of neurodegeneration vs. physiological and technical sources of variability to measurements of brain volume loss in individuals.

Material And Methods: Multiple T1-weighted 3D MPRAGE images were acquired from a healthy volunteer and MS patient over varying time intervals: 7 times on the first day (before breakfast at 7:30AM and then every 2 ​h for 12 ​h), each day for the next 6 working days, and 6 times over the remainder of the year, on 2 ​Siemens MRI scanners: 1.5T Sonata (S1) and 3.0T TIM Trio (S2). Scan-reposition-rescan data were acquired on S2 for daily, monthly and 1-year visits. Percent brain volume change (PBVC) was measured from baseline to each follow-up scan using FSL/SIENA. We estimated the effect of physiologic fluctuations on brain volume using linear regression of the PBVC values over hourly and daily intervals. The magnitude of the physiological effect was estimated by comparing the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the regression of all the data points relative to the regression line, for the hourly scans vs the daily scans. Variance due to technical sources was assessed as the RMSE of the regression over time using the intracranial volume as a reference.

Results: The RMSE of PBVC over 12 ​h, for both scanners combined, ("Hours", 0.15%), was similar to the day-to-day variation over 1 week ("Days", 0.14%), and both were smaller than the RMS error over the year (0.21%). All of these variations, however, were smaller than the scan-reposition-rescan RMSE (0.32%). The variability of PBVC for the individual scanners followed the same trend. The standard error of the mean (SEM) for PBVC was 0.26 for S1, and 0.22 for S2. From these values, we computed the minimum detectable change (MDC) to be 0.7% on S1 and 0.6% on S2. The location of the brain along the z-axis of the magnet inversely correlated with brain volume change for hourly and daily brain volume fluctuations (p ​< ​0.01).

Conclusion: Consistent diurnal brain volume fluctuations attributable to physiological shifts were not detectable in this small study. Technical sources of variation dominate measured changes in brain volume in individuals until the volume loss exceeds around 0.6-0.7%. Reliable interpretation of measured brain volume changes as pathological (greater than normal aging) in individuals over 1 year requires changes in excess of about 1.1% (depending on the scanner). Reliable brain atrophy detection in an individual may be feasible if the rate of brain volume loss is large, or if the measurement interval is sufficiently long.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116737DOI Listing
July 2020
-->