Publications by authors named "Douglas E Padgett"

115 Publications

Sequencing of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA Can Identify Pathogens in Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Sep;103(18):1705-1712

Hospital for Special Surgery Research Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing.

Methods: In this prospective observational study performed at a musculoskeletal specialty hospital in the U.S., we enrolled 53 adults with validated hip or knee periprosthetic joint infections. Participants had peripheral blood drawn immediately prior to surgical treatment. Microbial cfDNA from plasma was sequenced and aligned to a genome database with >1,000 microbial species. Intraoperative tissue and synovial fluid cultures were performed per the standard of care. The primary outcome was accuracy in organism identification with use of blood cfDNA sequencing, as measured by agreement with tissue-culture results.

Results: Intraoperative and preoperative joint cultures identified an organism in 46 (87%) of 53 patients. Microbial cfDNA sequencing identified the joint pathogen in 35 cases, including 4 of 7 culture-negative cases (57%). Thus, as an adjunct to cultures, cfDNA sequencing increased pathogen detection from 87% to 94%. The median time to species identification for cases with genus-only culture results was 3 days less than standard-of-care methods. Circulating cfDNA sequencing in 14 cases detected additional microorganisms not grown in cultures. At postoperative encounters, cfDNA sequencing demonstrated no detection or reduced levels of the infectious pathogen.

Conclusions: Microbial cfDNA from pathogens causing local periprosthetic joint infections can be detected in peripheral blood. These circulating biomarkers can be sequenced from noninvasive venipuncture, providing a novel source for joint pathogen identification. Further development as an adjunct to tissue cultures holds promise to increase the number of cases with accurate pathogen identification and improve time-to-speciation. This test may also offer a novel method to monitor infection clearance during the treatment period.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.02229DOI Listing
September 2021

Adverse Local Tissue Reactions are Common in Asymptomatic Individuals After Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty: Interim Report from a Prospective Longitudinal Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 07 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

MRI Research Laboratory, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The evaluation of the natural history prevalence of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) using MRI has focused only on metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces without comparison to nonMoM bearing surfaces.

Questions/purposes: To determine (1) the longitudinal changes and differences in blood metal ion levels in patients with hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) THA, and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA compared with those undergoing ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) THA; (2) how the longitudinal change of synovial reaction classification in patients with HRA, CoC THA, and MoP THA compares with those undergoing CoP THA, and whether there is an association between the presence of an ALTR or metallosis on MRI with corresponding patient-reported outcomes, or the presence of capsular dehiscence; and (3) differences in blood metal ion levels between patients undergoing HRA with an ALTR or metallosis on MRI and those with HRA without these conditions.

Methods: Between March 2014 and February 2019, 22,723 patients underwent primary HRA and THA at one center. Patients received an HRA based on their desired athletic level after surgery and the presence of normal acetabular and proximal femoral bone morphology without osteopenia or osteoporosis. Two percent (342 of 22,723) of patients were contacted to participate, and 71% (243 of 342 hips in 206 patients) were enrolled for analysis at baseline. The patients underwent arthroplasty for degenerative joint disease, and 25 patients withdrew over the course of the study. We included patients who were more than 1 year postarthroplasty. All participants had an MRI examination and blood serum ion testing and completed a Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score survey annually for four years (baseline, year 1, year 2, year 3). Morphologic and susceptibility-reduced MR images were evaluated by a single radiologist not involved in the care of patients for the presence and classification of synovitis (Gwet AC1: 0.65 to 0.97), synovial thickness, and volume (coefficient of repeatability: 1.8 cm3). Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the mean synovial thickness, synovial volume, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales between bearing surfaces at each timepoint and within each bearing surface over time. Marginal Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the time to and the risk of developing ALTR only, metallosis only, and ALTR or metallosis between bearing surfaces. All models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and length of implantation based on known confounders for hip arthroplasty. Adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed using the Dunnett-Hsu method.

Results: Patients with unilateral HRA had higher cobalt and chromium serum ion levels (baseline: 1.8 ± 0.8 ppb, year 1: 2.0 ± 1.5 ppb, year 2: 2.1 ± 1.2 ppb, year 3: 1.6 ± 0.7 ppb) than those with unilateral CoP bearings (baseline: 0.0 ± 0.1 ppb, year 1: 0.1 ± 0.3 ppb, year 2: 0.0 ± 0.2 ppb, year 3: 0.0 ± 0.0 ppb) at all timepoints (p < 0.001 for each time point). More patients who received an HRA developed ALTR or metallosis on MRI than did patients with CoP bearings (hazard ratio 4.8 [95% confidence interval 1.2 to 18.4]; p = 0.02). There was no association between the longitudinal change of synovial reaction to ALTR or metallosis on MRI with patient-reported outcomes. In addition, there was no association between the presence of dehiscence at baseline and the subsequent development of ALTR or metallosis, as seen on MRI. There were elevated cobalt (4.7 ± 3.5 ppb) and chromium (4.7 ± 2.6 ppb) serum levels in patients with unilateral HRA who had an ALTR or metallosis present on MRI at year 1 compared with patients without an ALTR or metallosis on MRI (cobalt: 1.8 ± 1.0 ppb, mean difference 4.7 ppb [95% CI 3.3 to 6.0]; p < 0.001; chromium: 2.3 ± 0.5 ppb, mean difference 3.6 ppb [95% CI 2.2 to 5.0]; p < 0.001) as well as for chromium at year 3 (3.9 ± 2.4 ppb versus 2.2 ± 1.1 ppb, mean difference 1.3 ppb [95% CI 0.3 to 2.4]; p = 0.01).

Conclusion: We found a higher proportion of ALTR or metallosis on MRI in patients with HRA compared with patients with CoP, even when patient self-assessed symptomatology of those with an ALTR or metallosis on MRI was not different than the absence of these features. MRI detected ALTRs in high-function patients, emphasizing that an annual clinical assessment dependent on survey or blood ion testing alone may not detect soft tissue complications. The results of this study are in line with prior consensus recommendations of using MRI as part of a routine follow-up protocol for this patient population.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001882DOI Listing
July 2021

Fretting and corrosion of metal liners from modular dual mobility constructs : a retrieval analysis.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7):1238-1246

Department of Biomechanics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Dual mobility implants in total hip arthroplasty are designed to increase the functional head size, thus decreasing the potential for dislocation. Modular dual mobility (MDM) implants incorporate a metal liner (e.g. cobalt-chromium alloy) in a metal shell (e.g. titanium alloy), raising concern for mechanically assisted crevice corrosion at the modular liner-shell connection. We sought to examine fretting and corrosion on MDM liners, to analyze the corrosion products, and to examine histologically the periprosthetic tissues.

Methods: A total of 60 retrieved liners were subjectively scored for fretting and corrosion. The corrosion products from the three most severely corroded implants were removed from the implant surface, imaged using scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

Results: Fretting was present on 88% (53/60) of the retrieved liners, and corrosion was present on 97% (58/60). Fretting was most often found on the lip of the taper at the transition between the lip and the dome regions. Macrophages and particles reflecting an innate inflammatory reaction to corrosion debris were noted in six of the 48 cases for which periprosthetic tissues were examined, and all were associated with retrieved components that had high corrosion scores.

Conclusion: Our results show that corrosion occurs at the interface between MDM liners and shells and that it can be associated with reactions in the local tissues, suggesting continued concern that this problem may become clinically important with longer-term use of these implants. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7):1238-1246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-0221.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes in opioid discharge prescriptions after primary total hip and total knee arthroplasty affect opioid refill rates and morphine milligram equivalents : an institutional experience of 20,000 patients.

Bone Joint J 2021 07;103-B(7 Supple B):103-110

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Due to the opioid epidemic in the USA, our service progressively decreased the number of opioid tablets prescribed at discharge after primary hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect on total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) prescribed and post-discharge opioid repeat prescriptions.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 19,428 patients undergoing a primary THA or TKA between 1 February 2016 and 31 December 2019. Two reductions in the number of opioid tablets prescribed at discharge were implemented over this time; as such, we analyzed three periods (P1, P2, and P3) with different routine discharge MME (750, 520, and 320 MMEs, respectively). We investigated 90-day refill rates, refill MMEs, and whether discharge MMEs were associated with represcribing in a multivariate model.

Results: A discharge prescription of < 400 MMEs was not a risk factor for opioid represcribing in the entire population (p = 0.772) or in opioid-naïve patients alone (p = 0.272). Procedure type was the most significant risk factor for narcotic represcribing, with unilateral TKA (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.62), bilateral TKA (HR = 6.32), and bilateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) (HR = 5.29) (all p < 0.001) being the highest risk for refills. For these three procedures, there was approximately a 5% to 6% increase in refills from P1 to P3 (p < 0.001); however, there was no significant increase in refill rates after any hip arthroplasty procedures. Total MMEs prescribed were significantly reduced from P1 to P3 (p < 0.001), leading to the equivalent of nearly 500,000 fewer oxycodone 5 mg tablets prescribed.

Conclusion: Decreasing opioids prescribed at discharge led to a statistically significant reduction in total MMEs prescribed. While the represcribing rate did not increase for any hip arthroplasty procedure, the overall refill rates increased by about 5% for most knee arthroplasty procedures. As such, we are now probably prescribing an appropriate amount of opioids at discharge for knee arthroplasty procedure, but further reductions may be possible for hip arthroplasty procedures. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7 Supple B):103-110.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-2392.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Exposure in Surgeons and Anesthesiologists at a New York City Specialty Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study of Symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Status.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 06;63(6):521-527

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Management (Dr Soffin); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Spine Care Institute (Dr Reisener, Dr Sama, Dr Salzmann, Dr Chiapparelli, Dr Okano, Dr Oezel, Dr Cammisa, Dr Girardi, Dr Hughes); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hip and Knee Arthroplasty (Dr Padgett); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sports Medicine (Dr Kelly); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Core (Ms Zhu); Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases (Dr Miller), Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York; Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany (Dr Oezel).

Objective: We measured the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among surgeons and anesthesiologists and associated antibody status with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical illness.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence with a survey assessing demographics, SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk, and COVID-19 illness. The primary outcome was the period prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies associated with COVID-19 illness.

Results: One hundred forty three surgeons and anesthesiologists completed both serology and survey testing. We found no significant relationships between antibody status and clinical role (anesthesiologist, surgeon), mode of commuting to work, other practice settings, or place of residence. SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence was 9.8%. Positive IgG status was highly correlated with presence of symptoms of COVID-19 illness.

Conclusions: These results suggest the relative safety of surgeons and anesthesiologists where personal protective equipment (PPE) is available and infection control protocols are implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168673PMC
June 2021

Retrieval Analysis of Polyethylene Components in Rotating Hinge Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 13;36(8):2998-3003. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: This study examined a cohort of retrieved rotating hinge (RH) total knee arthroplasty implants of four different designs with emphasis on the surface damage observed on the polyethylene components. Our purpose was to determine if differences in polyethylene damage existed among the designs, and if those differences could be explained by differences in design characteristics.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two RH implants from four manufacturers (DePuy LPS/SROM, Zimmer NexGen, Stryker Howmedica MRH, and Biomet Finn-OSS) removed at the time of revision performed between 2002 and 2017 were identified in our institutional retrieval registry. Damage to the surfaces of the polyethylene was assessed using a subjective grading system and evaluated in multiple zones. Design characteristics that were evaluated included the following: location of the dwell point on the polyethylene component, posterior position of the axle, and amount of hyperextension and rotation allowed by the implant.

Results: There were no differences in total damage scores between the four implant groups (P = .45). The Stryker Howmedica MRH group showed the least backside wear of all implants but significantly more articular-sided wear compared with two of the other three groups. All implants except NexGen showed increased total damage scores in implants revised for mechanical (vs nonmechanical) reasons and in implants with a longer duration of implantation.

Conclusion: No single implant design emerged as superior in terms of minimizing polyethylene wear damage. Polyethylene damage existed in various locations but was not different in severity across designs, suggesting that there is no clear superior RH design that minimizes overall articular surface wear compared with other designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.04.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Independent Risk Factors for Transfusion in Contemporary Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 20;36(8):2921-2926. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Background: The incidence of transfusion in contemporary revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains high despite recent advances in blood management, including the use of tranexamic acid. The purpose of this prospective investigation was to determine independent risk factors for transfusion in revision THA.

Methods: Six centers prospectively collected data on 175 revision THAs. A multivariable logistic analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for transfusion. Revisions were categorized into subgroups for analysis, including femur-only, acetabulum-only, both-component, explantation with spacer, and second-stage reimplantation. Patients undergoing an isolated modular exchange were excluded.

Results: Twenty-nine patients required at least one unit of blood (16.6%). In the logistic model, significant risk factors for transfusion were lower preoperative hemoglobin, higher preoperative international normalized ratio (INR), and longer operative time (P < .01, P = .04, P = .05, respectively). For each preoperative 1g/dL decrease in hemoglobin, the chance of transfusion increased by 79%. For each 0.1-unit increase in the preoperative INR, transfusion chance increased by 158%. For each additional operative hour, the chance of transfusion increased by 74%. There were no differences in transfusion rates among categories of revision hip surgery (P = .23). No differences in demographic or surgical variables were found between revision types.

Conclusion: Despite the use of tranexamic acid, transfusions are commonly required in revision THA. Preoperative hemoglobin and INR optimization are recommended when medically feasible. Efforts should also be made to decrease operative time when technically possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.032DOI Listing
August 2021

Reduction of Opioid Quantities at Discharge After TKA Did Not Increase the Risk of Manipulation Under Anesthesia: An Institutional Experience.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 20;36(7):2307-2312. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: In response to the opioid epidemic, our arthroplasty service sequentially reduced the opioid quantities prescribed at primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) discharge. However, its effect on postdischarge pain control and rehabilitation is unknown. We assessed if this decrease was associated with an increase in the risk of manipulation under anesthesia (MUA).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 8799 patients undergoing primary TKA from 2016 to 2019 at a single institution. There were two institution-wide reductions in the amount of opioids prescribed at discharge; therefore, we divided patients into 3 periods (P1, P2, and P3). The mean discharge morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) went from 900 MMEs to ~525 MMEs to ~320 MMEs in P1, P2, and P3, respectively. We analyzed MUA rates and if lower discharge MMEs was a risk factor for MUA in a multivariate model. We also compared refill patterns (rates, number, refill MMEs, and total MMEs) between MUA and non-MUA patients.

Results: The rate of MUA did not increase with reduced discharged opioids (5.5% in P1, 5.8% in P2, and 4.6% in P3, P = .74). In a multivariate analysis, discharge MMEs of <450 was not a significant risk factor for MUA. However, a diagnosis of chronic pain (OR = 1.86, P < .001) and an elevated body mass index (OR = 1.02 per unit increase, P < .001) were significant risk factors. We did not find significant differences in any opioid prescription refill patterns in MUA and non-MUA patients.

Conclusion: Serial reductions in discharge MMEs after primary TKA did not significantly affect the rate of MUA, a surrogate marker for pain control and the rehabilitative process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.045DOI Listing
July 2021

Is There an Association Between Negative Patient-Experience Comments and Perioperative Outcomes After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2021 06 20;36(6):2016-2023. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Multiple stakeholders are interested in improving patient experience after primary total hip arthroplasty due to shifts toward patient-centered care. Patient free-text narratives are a potentially valuable but largely unexplored source of data.

Methods: The records of 383 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between August 2016 and August 2019 were combined with vendor-supplied patient satisfaction data, which included patient free-text comments and the Press Ganey satisfaction survey. A total of 1295 patient comments were analyzed for sentiment, and negative comments were categorized into nine themes. Postoperative outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures, and traditional measures of satisfaction were compared between patients who provided a negative comment vs those who did not. Multivariable regression was used to determine perioperative variables associated with providing a negative comment.

Results: Of the 1295 patient comments: 54% were positive, 24% were negative, 10% were mixed, and 12% were neutral. Top two themes of negative comments were room condition (25%) and inefficient communication (23%). There were no differences in studied outcomes (eg. peak pain intensity, length of stay, or improvements in hip injury and osteoarthritis outcome scores Jr. and pain visual analog scale scores at 6-week follow-up) between those who provided negative comments vs those who did not (P > .05). However, patients who made negative comments were less likely to recommend their hospital care to peers (P < .001). Finally, patients who had >2 allergies (P = .024) were more likely to provide negative comments.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that patient satisfaction appears not to be a reliable sole proxy for traditional objective outcome measures of pain relief and functional improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.023DOI Listing
June 2021

The Hip-Spine Relationship: The Importance of Femoral Version.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 11;36(7S):S99-S103. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Recent investigations have confirmed the impact of spinopelvic mobility upon functional acetabular position. However, it is critical to remember the impact of femoral component position as it contributes to combined version of the hip joint. It has been demonstrated that implant position can affect articular wear, the potential for prosthetic impingement as well as a cause of joint instability. Ensuring an impingement-free range of motion at the time of hip replacement is critical to long-term survivorship. During hip reconstruction, there is significant latitude in acetabular component positioning but femoral component version is often dictated by native femoral anatomy and in some instances cannot be adjusted. Understanding the role that femoral version plays in prosthetic hip joint kinematics should provide surgeons with a better understanding of this complex relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.004DOI Listing
July 2021

The Optimal Dosing Regimen for Tranexamic Acid in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Nov;102(21):1883-1890

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: The purpose of this multicenter, randomized trial was to determine the optimal dosing regimen of tranexamic acid (TXA) to minimize perioperative blood loss in revision total hip arthroplasty.

Methods: Six centers prospectively randomized 175 patients to 1 of 4 regimens: (1) 1-g intravenous (IV) TXA prior to incision (the single-dose IV group), (2) 1-g IV TXA prior to incision followed by 1-g IV TXA after arthrotomy wound closure (the double-dose IV group), (3) a combination of 1-g IV TXA prior to incision and 1-g intraoperative topical TXA (the combined IV and topical group), or (4) 3 doses totaling 1,950-mg oral TXA (the multidose oral group). Randomization was based on revision subgroups to ensure equivalent group distribution. An a priori power analysis (α = 0.05; β = 0.80) determined that 40 patients per group were required to identify a >1-g/dL difference in postoperative hemoglobin reduction between groups. Per-protocol analysis involved an analysis of variance, Fisher exact tests, and two 1-sided t tests for equivalence. Demographic and surgical variables were equivalent between groups.

Results: No significant differences were found between TXA regimens when evaluating reduction in hemoglobin (3.4 g/dL for the single-dose IV group, 3.6 g/dL for the double-dose IV group, 3.5 g/dL for the combined IV and topical group, and 3.4 g/dL for the multidose oral group; p = 0.95), calculated blood loss (p = 0.90), or transfusion rates (14% for the single-dose IV group, 18% for the double-dose IV group, 17% for the combined group, and 17% for the multidose oral group; p = 0.96). Equivalence testing revealed that all possible pairings were statistically equivalent, assuming a >1-g/dL difference in hemoglobin reduction as clinically relevant. There was 1 venous thromboembolism, with no differences found between groups (p = 1.00).

Conclusions: All 4 TXA groups tested had equivalent blood-sparing properties in the setting of revision total hip arthroplasty, with a single venous thromboembolism reported in this high-risk population. Based on the equivalence between groups, surgeons should utilize whichever of the 4 investigated regimens is best suited for their practice and hospital setting. Given the transfusion rate in revision total hip arthroplasty despite TXA utilization, further work is required in this area.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00010DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical Experience with COVID-19 at a Specialty Orthopedic Hospital Converted to a Pandemic Overflow Field Hospital.

HSS J 2020 Aug 18:1-7. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 USA.

Background: COVID-19, the illness caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has sickened millions and killed hundreds of thousands as of June 2020. New York City was affected gravely. Our hospital, a specialty orthopedic hospital unaccustomed to large volumes of patients with life-threatening respiratory infections, underwent rapid adaptation to care for COVID-19 patients in response to emergency surge conditions at neighboring hospitals.

Purposes: We sought to determine the attributes, pharmacologic and other treatments, and clinical course in the cohort of patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to our hospital at the height of the pandemic in April 2020 in New York City.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of all patients admitted between April 1 and April 21, 2020, who had a diagnosis of COVID-19. Data were gathered from the electronic health record and by manual chart abstraction.

Results: Of the 148 patients admitted with COVID-19 (mean age, 62 years), ten patients died. There were no deaths among non-critically ill patients transferred from other hospitals, while 26% of those with critical illness died. A subset of COVID-19 patients was admitted for orthopedic and medical conditions other than COVID-19, and some of these patients required intensive care and ventilatory support.

Conclusion: Professional and organizational flexibility during pandemic conditions allowed a specialty orthopedic hospital to provide excellent care in a global public health emergency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11420-020-09779-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431310PMC
August 2020

2020 Otto Aufranc Award: Malseating of modular dual mobility liners.

Bone Joint J 2020 Jul;102-B(7_Supple_B):20-26

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: This combined clinical and in vitro study aimed to determine the incidence of liner malseating in modular dual mobility (MDM) constructs in primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) from a large volume arthroplasty centre, and determine whether malseating increases the potential for fretting and corrosion at the modular metal interface in malseated MDM constructs using a simulated corrosion chamber.

Methods: For the clinical arm of the study, observers independently reviewed postoperative radiographs of 551 primary THAs using MDM constructs from a single manufacturer over a three-year period, to identify the incidence of MDM liner-shell malseating. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), cup design, cup size, and the MDM case volume of the surgeon. For the in vitro arm, six pristine MDM implants with cobalt-chrome liners were tested in a simulated corrosion chamber. Three were well-seated and three were malseated with 6° of canting. The liner-shell couples underwent cyclic loading of increasing magnitudes. Fretting current was measured throughout testing and the onset of fretting load was determined by analyzing the increase in average current.

Results: The radiological review identified that 32 of 551 MDM liners (5.8%) were malseated. Malseating was noted in all of the three different cup designs. The incidence of malseating was significantly higher in low-volume MDM surgeons than high-volume MDM surgeons (p < 0.001). Pristine well-seated liners showed significantly lower fretting current values at all peak loads greater than 800 N (p < 0.044). Malseated liner-shell couples had lower fretting onset loads at 2,400 N.

Conclusion: MDM malseating remains an issue that can occur in at least one in 20 patients at a high-volume arthroplasty centre. The onset of fretting and increased fretting current throughout loading cycles suggests susceptibility to corrosion when this occurs. These results support the hypothesis that malseated liners may be at risk for fretting corrosion. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):20-26.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B7.BJJ-2019-1633.R1DOI Listing
July 2020

Porous Coatings in Retrieved Acetabular Components.

J Arthroplasty 2020 08 27;35(8):2254-2258. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: We evaluated bone volume fraction in retrieved acetabular shells with 2 types of porous coatings: (1) titanium fiber mesh (HG) components and (2) tantalum metal coating (TM) components.

Methods: Eight HG shells were matched to 8 TM shells for patient age, body mass index, and gender. The mean age at index surgery was 69 (51-82) years, mean body mass index was 28 (21-40), and patients were evenly divided between male and female (4:4). The length of implantation was 40 (16-96) months for the TM group and 156 (108-216) months for the HG group. Shells were embedded and two 5-mm thick cross-sections were cut through the apex of each component for backscatter scanning electron microscopy assessment. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy images were segmented to threshold for metal, bone, and available space for ingrowth. Slices were assessed regionally for ingrowth at the rim, equator, and pole of the acetabular shell. Differences were assessed using general estimating equations, and P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Holm-Bonferroni step-down procedure.

Results: The mean bone volume fraction was 21 ± 17% for the HG shell and 7 ± 4% for the TM shell (P < .0001). The rim and pole regions both had less bone ingrowth than the equator. No association was found between bone ingrowth and length of implantation for either design.

Conclusion: Adequate bone ingrowth is a requirement for successful biological fixation, but the amount of ingrowth may not be a driving factor. Both implants studied had successful outcomes and long-term fixation despite the observation of low amounts of ingrowth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.03.036DOI Listing
August 2020

Reply to the Letter to the Editor: Can Machine Learning Algorithms Predict Which Patients Will Achieve Minimally Clinically Important Differences From Total Joint Arthroplasty?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 06;478(6):1376-1377

C. H. MacLean, Chief Value Medical Officer & Senior VP, Center for the Advancement of Value in Musculoskeletal Care, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319371PMC
June 2020

Assessment of a Satisfaction Measure for Use After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 07 27;35(7):1792-1799.e4. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Patient satisfaction after total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a core outcome selected by the Outcomes Measurement in Rheumatology. Up to 20% of THA/TKA patients are dissatisfied. Improving patient satisfaction is hindered by the lack of a validated measurement tool that can accurately measure change.

Methods: The psychometric properties of a proposed satisfaction instrument, consisting of 4 questions rated on a Likert scale, scored 1-100, were tested for validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change using data collected between 2007 and 2011 in an arthroplasty registry.

Results: We demonstrated construct validity by confirming our hypothesis; satisfaction correlated with similar constructs. Satisfaction correlated moderately with pain relief (TKA ρ = 0.61, THA ρ = 0.47) and function (TKA ρ = 0.65, THA ρ = 0.51) at 2 years; there was no correlation with baseline/preoperative pain/function values, as expected. Overall Cronbach's alpha >0.88 confirmed internal consistency. Test-retest reliability with weighted kappa ranged 0.60-0.75 for TKA and 0.36-0.56 for THA. Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score/Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores quality of life improvement (>30 points) corresponds to a mean satisfaction score of 93.2 (standard deviation, 11.5) after THA and 90.4 (standard deviation, 13.8) after TKA, and increasing relief of pain and functional improvement increased the strength of their association with satisfaction. The satisfaction measure has no copyright and is available free of cost and represents minimal responder burden.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction with THA/TKA can be measured with a validated 4-item questionnaire. This satisfaction measure can be included in a total joint arthroplasty core measurement set for total joint arthroplasty trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.039DOI Listing
July 2020

Aseptic Loosening at the Tibia in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Function of Cement Mantle Quality?

J Arthroplasty 2020 06 24;35(6S):S190-S196. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Aseptic loosening remains one of the leading causes for failure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to identify early radiographic measures that may associate with aseptic tibial component loosening, emphasizing systematic evaluation of the cement mantle.

Methods: All TKA revisions from 2007 to 2015 with the primary indication of tibial aseptic loosening were identified using in an institutional implant retrieval database. After exclusion criteria, 61 TKAs comprised the study group. A matched control group of 59 TKAs that had not failed at a minimum of 3 years was identified for comparison. Radiographic analysis on all 6-week postoperative radiographs included angulation of components, cement penetration depth, and presence of radiolucency at the implant-cement and bone-cement interfaces. Groups were compared with Student's t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. A final multivariable logistic regression model was formed for the outcome of aseptic loosening.

Results: On multivariable analysis, failure was associated with a greater number of zones with cement penetration <2 mm (5.6 vs 3.4 zones, odds ratio [OR] 1.89, P < .001), increasing percent involvement of radiolucency at the implant-cement interface (8.7% vs 3.1%, OR = 1.15, P = .001), and increased varus alignment of the tibial component (1.5° vs 0°, OR = 1.35, P = .014). A greater number of zones with a radiolucent line at the bone-cement interface did not significantly associate (1.1 vs 0.3, P = .091).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that radiographic indicators of poor cement mantle quality associate with later aseptic loosening. This emphasizes the need for surgeons to perform careful cement technique in order to reduce the risk of TKA failure.

Level Of Evidence: III (Case-control).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.028DOI Listing
June 2020

Biplanar Low-Dose Radiography Is Accurate for Measuring Combined Anteversion After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

HSS J 2020 Feb 5;16(1):23-29. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 USA.

Background: Acetabular component position alone has not been predictive of stability after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Combined anteversion of the acetabulum and femur has the potential of being more predictive of stability. Unfortunately, femoral component position is difficult to measure on plain radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for measuring implant position post-operatively, but CT exposes patients to a substantial amount of radiation.

Questions/purposes: We sought to determine whether biplanar low-dose radiography can be used to accurately measure both acetabular and femoral implant position after THA.

Methods: Twenty patients underwent standing low-dose biplanar spine-to-ankle radiographs and supine CT scans 6 weeks after THA. Measurements of acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion, and femoral anteversion were performed by two blinded observers and compared.

Results: The average absolute differences between biplanar radiographs and CT scans were 2° ± 2° for acetabular inclination, 3° ± 2° for acetabular anteversion, and 4° ± 4° for femoral anteversion between EOS measurements and CT measurements. Interobserver agreement was good for acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion, and femoral anteversion (Cronbach's  = 0.90) using biplanar low-dose imaging.

Conclusion: Biplanar radiography is a reliable low-radiation alternative for measuring acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion, femoral version, and thus combined anteversion compared to CT. Femoral anteversion had the most variability but is still clinically relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11420-018-09659-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974156PMC
February 2020

How Useful Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluating Adverse Local Tissue Reaction?

J Arthroplasty 2020 06 15;35(6S):S63-S67. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Biologic failures of hip arthroplasty have emerged as an increasing threat to the longevity of the prosthesis. While wear of modern-day bearings has been greatly reduced with the advent of cross-linked polyethylene, local reaction to metal particles either from the bearing itself or to any of the modular tapers appears to be on the rise. Monitoring of these reactions by the use of plain radiographs or serum markers appears to be insufficient to gauge the gravity of the response. Over the past decade, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has emerged as the superior noninvasive instrument to assess the extent of soft tissue reaction around hip implants. The use of MRI around implants was initially challenging due to the presence of relatively high ferrous metals especially cobalt which causes local distortion of the magnetic fields. Novel changes in pulse sequencing have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of MRI so that at this time, MR is the most predictive diagnostic tool in evaluating the extent of tissue destruction. We feel strongly that modern MRI techniques are the most important tool in the workup of the patient suspected of having an adverse tissue reaction after hip arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239755PMC
June 2020

Validation of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Pain and Function Subscales for Use in Total Hip Replacement and Total Knee Replacement Clinical Trials.

J Arthroplasty 2020 05 27;35(5):1200-1207.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health, Department of Medicine at the School of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Total hip replacement (THR)/total knee replacement (TKR) studies do not uniformly measure patient centered domains, pain, and function. We aim to validate existing measures of pain and function within subscales of standard instruments to facilitate measurement.

Methods: We evaluated baseline and 2-year pain and function for THR and TKR using Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), with primary unilateral TKR (4796) and THR (4801). Construct validity was assessed by correlating HOOS/KOOS pain and activities of daily living (ADL), function quality of life (QOL), and satisfaction using Spearman correlation coefficients. Patient relevant thresholds for change in pain and function were anchored to improvement in QOL; minimally clinically important difference (MCID) corresponded to "a little improvement" and a really important difference (RID) to a "moderate improvement." Pain and ADL function scores were compared by quartiles using Kruskal-Wallis.

Results: Two-year HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function correlated with health-related QOL (KOOS pain and Short Form 12 Physical Component Scale ρ = 0.54; function ρ = 0.63). Comparing QOL by pain and function quartiles, the highest levels of pain relief and function were associated with the most improved QOL. MCID for pain was estimated at ≥20, and the RID ≥29; MCID for function ≥14, and the RID ≥23. The measures were responsive to change with large effect sizes (≥1.8).

Conclusion: We confirm that HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function subscales are valid measures of critical patient centered domains after THR/TKR, and achievable thresholds anchored to improved QOL. Cost-free availability and brevity makes them feasible, to be used in a core measurement set in total joint replacement trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.12.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193650PMC
May 2020

Taper Design, Head Material, and Manufacturer Affect the Onset of Fretting Under Simulated Corrosion Conditions.

J Arthroplasty 2020 04 12;35(4):1117-1122. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: We investigated the effect of taper design, head material, and manufacturer on simulated mechanically assisted crevice corrosion (MACC).

Methods: Six pristine C-taper stems coupled with alumina-zirconia or cobalt-chromium (CoCr) heads were tested in a mechanical/electrochemical setup to measure average fretting currents and fretting current onset loads. Outcomes were compared with previous data from V40 tapers from the same manufacturer and 12/14 tapers from another manufacturer.

Results: Within a single manufacturer, differences in average fretting current between V40 and C-taper designs were dependent on head material. Only with V40 tapers did CoCr heads show higher average fretting currents than ceramic heads. Between manufacturers, differences were found between similar taper designs, as 12/14 taper couples showed higher average fretting currents than C-taper couples, regardless of head material.

Conclusion: Taper design, head material, and factors inherent to different manufacturers influence fretting current in simulated MACC. Unlike clinical and retrieval studies, this experimental design allows for investigations of factors affecting MACC in a controlled environment. Taper design, independent of manufacturer, contributes to the observed differences in average fretting current between head materials. In some taper designs, head composition, specifically ceramic, should not be considered alone to reduce risk of corrosion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.11.005DOI Listing
April 2020

Zirconia Phase Transformation in Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Ceramic Femoral Heads: An Implant Retrieval Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec 16;34(12):3094-3098. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Biomechanics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Zirconia-toughened alumina ceramic was introduced as a femoral head material for total hip arthroplasty. The material combines the stability of alumina with the toughness of zirconia. Despite inherent benefits for bearing surfaces, concern exists in the medical field that phase transformation of the zirconia grains could worsen wear resistance and lower the strength of the head. We examined these concerns in retrieved and artificially aged ceramic heads.

Methods: Twenty-eight ceramic composite heads retrieved at revision surgery were combined with 5 pristine heads (as negative controls for phase transformation) and 5 artificially aged pristine heads (as positive controls). The extent of zirconia phase transformation at the bearing surfaces was examined through confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Burst testing was conducted on all pristine and aged heads and the 4 retrieved implants with the longest lengths of implantation.

Results: Retrieved heads had higher maximum average volume fractions of the monoclinic phase compared to pristine or aged heads. Length of implantation was not correlated to the volume fraction of the monoclinic phase. All the heads achieved a burst load far above the 46 kN Food and Drug Administration acceptance criterion; 3 of the 4 retrieved heads had burst strengths exceeding 100kN.

Conclusion: Our results showed that phase transformation occurs in vivo in ceramic composite femoral heads, but the amount transformed did not increase with the length of time the head had been implanted. The negligible effect upon burst strength of the retrieved and artificially aged heads is reassuring. These results support continued clinical use of this alumina-zirconia composite material as a head material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.07.014DOI Listing
December 2019

Can Machine Learning Algorithms Predict Which Patients Will Achieve Minimally Clinically Important Differences From Total Joint Arthroplasty?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 06;477(6):1267-1279

M. A. Fontana, S. Lyman, G. K. Sarker, D. E. Padgett, C. H. MacLean, Hospital for Special Surgery, Center for the Advancement of Value in Musculoskeletal Care, New York, NY, USA M. A. Fontana, S. Lyman, Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Identifying patients at risk of not achieving meaningful gains in long-term postsurgical patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is important for improving patient monitoring and facilitating presurgical decision support. Machine learning may help automatically select and weigh many predictors to create models that maximize predictive power. However, these techniques are underused among studies of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients, particularly those exploring changes in postsurgical PROMs. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) To evaluate whether machine learning algorithms, applied to hospital registry data, could predict patients who would not achieve a minimally clinically important difference (MCID) in four PROMs 2 years after TJA; (2) to explore how predictive ability changes as more information is included in modeling; and (3) to identify which variables drive the predictive power of these models.

Methods: Data from a single, high-volume institution's TJA registry were used for this study. We identified 7239 hip and 6480 knee TJAs between 2007 and 2012, which, for at least one PROM, patients had completed both baseline and 2-year followup surveys (among 19,187 TJAs in our registry and 43,313 total TJAs). In all, 12,203 registry TJAs had valid SF-36 physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) at baseline and 2 years; 7085 and 6205 had valid Hip and Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores for joint replacement (HOOS JR and KOOS JR scores), respectively. Supervised machine learning refers to a class of algorithms that links a mapping of inputs to an output based on many input-output examples. We trained three of the most popular such algorithms (logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), random forest, and linear support vector machine) to predict 2-year postsurgical MCIDs. We incrementally considered predictors available at four time points: (1) before the decision to have surgery, (2) before surgery, (3) before discharge, and (4) immediately after discharge. We evaluated the performance of each model using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) statistics on a validation sample composed of a random 20% subsample of TJAs excluded from modeling. We also considered abbreviated models that only used baseline PROMs and procedure as predictors (to isolate their predictive power). We further directly evaluated which variables were ranked by each model as most predictive of 2-year MCIDs.

Results: The three machine learning algorithms performed in the poor-to-good range for predicting 2-year MCIDs, with AUROCs ranging from 0.60 to 0.89. They performed virtually identically for a given PROM and time point. AUROCs for the logistic LASSO models for predicting SF-36 PCS 2-year MCIDs at the four time points were: 0.69, 0.78, 0.78, and 0.78, respectively; for SF-36 MCS 2-year MCIDs, AUROCs were: 0.63, 0.89, 0.89, and 0.88; for HOOS JR 2-year MCIDs: 0.67, 0.78, 0.77, and 0.77; for KOOS JR 2-year MCIDs: 0.61, 0.75, 0.75, and 0.75. Before-surgery models performed in the fair-to-good range and consistently ranked the associated baseline PROM as among the most important predictors. Abbreviated LASSO models performed worse than the full before-surgery models, though they retained much of the predictive power of the full before-surgery models.

Conclusions: Machine learning has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and patient care by helping to prioritize resources for postsurgical monitoring and informing presurgical discussions of likely outcomes of TJA. Applied to presurgical registry data, such models can predict, with fair-to-good ability, 2-year postsurgical MCIDs. Although we report all parameters of our best-performing models, they cannot simply be applied off-the-shelf without proper testing. Our analyses indicate that machine learning holds much promise for predicting orthopaedic outcomes.  LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554103PMC
June 2019

Addition of Adductor Canal Block to Periarticular Injection for Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Trial.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 May;101(9):812-820

Departments of Anesthesiology (E.A.G., Y.L., D.H.K., P.D.M., and J.T.Y.), Orthopedic Surgery (A.S.R., G.H.W., D.J.M., E.P.S., D.E.P., and M.M.A.), and Rehabilitation (R.S.), Hospital for Special Surgery (K.F.), New York, NY.

Background: Periarticular injection is a popular method to control postoperative pain after total knee replacement. An adductor canal block is a sensory block that can also help to alleviate pain after total knee replacement. We hypothesized that the combination of adductor canal block and periarticular injection would allow patients to reach discharge criteria 0.5 day faster than with periarticular injection alone.

Methods: This prospective trial enrolled 56 patients to receive a periarticular injection and 55 patients to receive an adductor canal block and periarticular injection. Both groups received intraoperative neuraxial anesthesia and multiple different types of pharmaceutical analgesics. The primary outcome was time to reach discharge criteria. Secondary outcomes, collected on postoperative days 1 and 2, included numeric rating scale pain scores, the PAIN OUT questionnaire, opioid consumption, and opioid-related side effects.

Results: There was no difference in time to reach discharge criteria between the groups with and without an adductor canal block. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney odds ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 1.33; p = 0.518). The median time to achieve discharge criteria (and interquartile range) was 25.8 hours (23.4 hours, 44.3 hours) in the adductor canal block and periarticular injection group compared with 26.4 hours (22.9 hours, 46.2 hours) in the periarticular injection group. Patients who received an adductor canal block and periarticular injection reported lower worst pain (difference in means, -1.4 [99% CI, -2.7 to 0]; adjusted p = 0.041) and more pain relief (difference in means, 12% [99% CI, 0% to 24%]; adjusted p = 0.048) at 24 hours after anesthesia. There was no difference in any other secondary outcome measure (e.g., opioid consumption, opioid-related side effects, numeric rating scale pain scores).

Conclusions: The time to meet the discharge criteria was not significantly different between the groups. In the adductor canal block and periarticular injection group, the patients had lower worst pain and greater pain relief at 24 hours after anesthesia. No difference was noted in any other secondary outcome measure (e.g., opioid consumption, opioid-related side effects, numeric rating scale pain scores).

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00195DOI Listing
May 2019

Intravenous vs Oral Acetaminophen as a Component of Multimodal Analgesia After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Blinded Trial.

J Arthroplasty 2019 07 6;34(7S):S215-S220. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Management, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Multimodal analgesia including acetaminophen is increasingly popular for analgesia after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Intravenous (IV) administration of acetaminophen has pharmacokinetic benefits, but unclear clinical advantages. The authors hypothesized that IV acetaminophen would reduce pain with activity, opioid usage, or opioid-related side effects, compared to oral acetaminophen.

Methods: In this double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial, 154 THA patients received either IV or oral acetaminophen as part of a comprehensive opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia strategy. Primary outcomes were pain with physical therapy on postoperative day (POD) 1, opioid side effects (POD 1), and cumulative opioid use.

Results: There was no difference in opioid side effects, pain scores, or opioid use between the groups.

Conclusion: Patients in both groups had low pain scores, minimal opioid side effects, and limited opioid usage (corresponding to 6 doses of tramadol 100 mg over 3 days). This highlights multimodal analgesia as an effective method of pain control for THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.02.030DOI Listing
July 2019

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Total Knee Arthroplasties for Post-Traumatic Arthritis versus Osteoarthritis: A Short-Term (5- to 10-year) Retrospective Matched Cohort Study.

J Arthroplasty 2019 05 18;34(5):872-876.e1. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery-Adult Reconstruction Joint Replacement, New York, NY.

Background: The objective of the study was to compare the patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) of patients with post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) versus patients with osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare the rates of revision among these two groups.

Methods: Using a prospectively held institutional registry, we retrospectively reviewed patients ≥60 years of age who underwent unilateral TKA between May 2007 and February 2012. Patients with previous or concomitant diagnosis of inflammatory arthropathy or an initial open fracture were excluded. PTA patients were matched 1:5 with OA patients undergoing TKA. Validated PROMs were recorded at baseline before index TKA and the last follow-up. Reason and time to revision surgery was reported, and survivorship was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: Seventy-five PTA patients were matched to 375 OA patients. There was no difference between these groups with respect to age (67.7 ± 5.6 vs 67.8 ± 5.5 years; P = .876), body mass index (28.6 ± 5.4 vs 28.7 ± 5.3 kg/m; P = .948), sex (65.3% vs 65.3% females; P = .999), Charlson Comorbidity Index (21.3% vs 21.3% Index 1-2, P = .999), and time to follow-up (93.0 ± 13.4 vs 88.2 ± 13.7 months; P = .999). No statistically significant difference was found in PROMs at baseline and the last follow-up (P > .05), the rate or time to revision surgery between the two groups (P-value = .635; log-rank test).

Conclusion: Unlike previous studies, TKA for PTA does not pose lower PROMs or higher revision rates when compared to TKA for OA. These results could help provide surgeons with a frame of reference in terms of expectations for patients with PTA undergoing TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.01.022DOI Listing
May 2019

Simplifying the Hip-Spine Relationship for Total Hip Arthroplasty: What Do I Need to Do Differently Intraoperatively?

J Arthroplasty 2019 Jul 10;34(7S):S71-S73. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Chief, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, Hospital For Special Surgery, New York, NY.

As our recognition of the complexity of the hip-spine relationship is based on stability, there are several intraoperative strategies that surgeons may consider. First, patient positioning on the operative table plays an important role in reducing pelvic motion and tilt. Then, consider determining the femoral version before acetabular preparation and component insertion. The concept of a combined version of both components is an excellent guide to position. However, femoral version is often dictated by native femoral torsion, and therefore, it is the acetabular version that must be adjusted accordingly. Finally, based upon preoperative planning and intraoperative verification, the use of enabling technologies such as navigation, robotics, and other smart tools appears to play a major role of ever increasing importance in accurate component placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.01.003DOI Listing
July 2019

Distribution of Bone Ongrowth in Metaphyseal Sleeves for Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrieval Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2019 04 7;34(4):760-765. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Division, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: The metaphyseal region of the bone has been recognized by its importance to the overall stability of a revision construct. Porous titanium metaphyseal sleeves to enhance biologic fixation can be used to manage bone loss encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty. While clinical results for metaphyseal sleeves are encouraging, there is little information on the extent to which biologic fixation is achievable with metaphyseal sleeves. We examined retrieved metaphyseal sleeves to determine the amount of bone ongrowth.

Materials And Methods: We studied 14 tibial and 11 femoral retrieved metaphyseal sleeves from 16 typical arthroplasty patients. Prerevision radiographs were reviewed for the presence of biologic fixation to the sleeves and the stem canal fill ratio. Bone ongrowth was assessed regionally in the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral areas of the retrieved implants.

Results: Bone ongrowth covered on average 14.7 ± 3.4% of the entire porous surface of the tibial sleeves. The lateral and anterior surfaces had a significantly greater proportion (P < .05) of bone ongrowth compared with the posterior and medial surfaces of the tibial components. Bone ongrowth covered on average 21.3 ± 2.6% of the entire porous surface of the femoral sleeves. No differences were found in the proportion of bone ongrowth among the posterior, medial, lateral, and anterior surfaces of the femoral. No significant association was found between the clinical, demographic, or radiographic factors and the pattern or quantity of bone ongrowth.

Discussion: This study demonstrates that sufficient fixation can be achieved with only limited amounts of bone ongrowth (14.7% in tibial sleeves and 21.3% in femoral sleeves).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.12.033DOI Listing
April 2019

MRI of THA Correlates With Implant Wear and Tissue Reactions: A Cross-sectional Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 01;477(1):159-174

M. F. Koff, P. Shah, M. Miranda, H. G. Potter, MRI Research Laboratory, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA C. Esposito, E. Baral, T. Wright, Department of Biomechanics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA K. Fields, Healthcare Research Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA T. Bauer, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA D. E. Padgett, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Division, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: MRI is predictive of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) after THA but how MRI directly relates to implant surface wear, fretting, and trunnion corrosion at different articulations between implant components remains unclear. MRI generates high-contrast images to display soft tissues around arthroplasty and may provide a surgeon the means to distinguish and differentiate host-related synovial patterns as a response to either polyethylene wear or metal wear and corrosion products.

Questions/purposes: The purposes of this study were (1) to correlate findings from MRI in patients who have undergone THA with direct assessment of implant wear, corrosion, and fretting from retrieved components; and (2) to distinguish the unique synovial responses on MRI in patients who have undergone THA based on bearing materials.

Methods: In this prospective study, patients undergoing THA (181 patients, 187 hips) with metal-on-metal (MoM), hip resurfacing (HRA), metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, or modular neck designs having revision surgery (between October 2013 and June 2017) underwent preoperative MRI. A single reader blinded to the bearing surface made an assessment of the synovial response (Gwet's AC1, 0.65-0.97); these data were compared with semiquantitative histology of tissue samples by a single reader (Gwet's AC1, 0.92) and semiquantitative wear, corrosion, and fretting analysis of retrieved components using Goldberg scoring (Gwet's AC1, 0.60-0.79). Direct noncontact measurements of implant wear were also made. Correlations and analyses of variance were used to assess associations between metrics and differences by implant type, respectively.

Results: Correlations were found between MRI synovial thickness with severity of fretting and corrosion damage of the female head-neck trunnion of femoral stems in modular designs (ρ = 0.26 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.12-0.39]; p = 0.015, n = 185) and ALTR grade and volumetric wear in MoM bearings (ρ = 0.93 [95% CI, 0.72-0.98]; p < 0.001, n = 10). MRI synovial thickness was highest in patients identified with aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions and diffuse tissue necrosis. On MRI, MoP hips demonstrated a distinct polymeric synovial response, whereas HRA, MoM, and modular hips more commonly demonstrated ALTR. Hips classified as having a polymeric synovial response on MRI had a greater number of particles present in tissue samples.

Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated that MRI of THA can distinguish synovial responses that reflect the bearing type of the implanted THA and correlate to direct measurements of implant wear, corrosion, and fretting and histologic assessment of wear particles in periprosthetic tissues. MRI provides a means of direct, noninvasive visualization of the host-generated synovial response. Patients presenting with painful arthroplasties may be evaluated for the cause of their discomfort, specifically highlighting any concerning synovial reactions that would warrant more prompt surgical intervention. Future studies would benefit from a prospective evaluation of different implants to assess the natural longitudinal history of arthroplasty complications, including the development and prevalence of ALTR across bearing constructs.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345304PMC
January 2019
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