Publications by authors named "Doug Brugge"

110 Publications

A randomized crossover trial of HEPA air filtration to reduce cardiovascular risk for near highway residents: Methods and approach.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 09 28;108:106520. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, United States of America.

Background: Near highway residents are exposed to elevated levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), including ultrafine particles, which are associated with adverse health effects. The efficacy of using in-home air filtration units that reduce exposure and potentially yield health benefits has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: We will conduct a randomized double-blind crossover trial of portable air filtration units for 200 adults 30 years and older who live in near-highway homes in Somerville, MA, USA. We will recruit participants from 172 households. The intervention periods will be one month of true or sham filtration, followed by a one-month wash out period and then a month of the alternate intervention. The primary health outcome will be systolic blood pressure (BP); secondary outcome measures will include diastolic and central BP, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and D-dimer. Reasons for success or failure of the intervention will be evaluated in a subset of homes using indoor/outdoor monitoring for particulate pollution, personal monitoring, size and composition of particulate pollution, tracking of time spent in the room with the filter, and interviews for qualitative feedback.

Results: This trial has begun recruitment and is expected to take 2-3 years to be completed. Recruitment has been particularly challenging because of additional precautions required by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion: This study has the potential to shed light on the value of using portable air filtration in homes close to highways to reduce exposure to TRAP and whether doing so has benefits for cardiovascular health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453120PMC
September 2021

Health Lens Analysis: A Strategy to Engage Community in Environmental Health Research in Action.

Sustainability 2021 Feb 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Macro Department, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Rd., Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Health Lens Analysis is a tool to facilitate collaboration among diverse community stakeholders. We employed HLA as part of a community based participatory research (CBPR) and action study to mitigate the negative health effects of TRAP and ultrafine particles (UFPs) in Somerville, MA. HLA is a Health in All Policies tool with previously limited implementation in a North American context. As part of the HLA, community and academic partners engaged residents from across near-highway neighborhoods in a series of activities designed to identify health concerns and generate recommendations for policies and projects to improve health over an 18-month planning period. Noise barriers, which may reduce TRAP exposure among residents in addition to reducing traffic noise, were seen as an acceptable solution by community stakeholders. We found HLA to be an effective means to engage stakeholders from across sectors and diverse community residents in critical discourse about the health impacts of near-roadway exposures. The iterative process allowed the project team to fully explore the arguments for noise barriers and preferred health interventions, while building a stakeholder base interested in the mitigation of TRAP, thus, creating a shared language and understanding of the issue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112597PMC
February 2021

Effect of Reducing Ambient Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Blood Pressure: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Hypertension 2021 03 25;77(3):823-832. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine (M.E., D.B.), Tufts University, Medford, MA.

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to increased prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP) for residents of near-highway neighborhoods. Relatively few studies have investigated the effects of reducing TRAP exposure on short-term changes in BP. We assessed whether reducing indoor TRAP concentrations by using stand-alone high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters and limiting infiltration through doors and windows effectively prevented acute (ie, over a span of hours) increases in BP. Using a 3-period crossover design, 77 participants were randomized to attend three 2-hour-long exposure sessions separated by 1-week washout periods. Each participant was exposed to high, medium, and low TRAP concentrations in a room near an interstate highway. Particle number concentrations, black carbon concentrations, and temperature were monitored continuously. Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and heart rate were measured every 10 minutes. Outcomes were analyzed with a linear mixed model. The primary outcome was the change in SBP from 20 minutes from the start of exposure. SBP increased with exposure duration, and the amount of increase was related to the magnitude of exposure. The mean change in SBP was 0.6 mm Hg for low exposure (mean particle number and black carbon concentrations, 2500 particles/cm and 149 ng/m), 1.3 mm Hg for medium exposure (mean particle number and black carbon concentrations, 11 000 particles/cm and 409 ng/m), and 2.8 mm Hg for high exposure (mean particle number and black carbon concentrations, 30 000 particles/cm and 826 ng/m; linear trend =0.019). There were no statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes, diastolic BP, or heart rate. In conclusion, reducing indoor concentrations of TRAP was effective in preventing acute increases in SBP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878425PMC
March 2021

Two communities, one highway and the fight for clean air: the role of political history in shaping community engagement and environmental health research translation.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 11;20(1):1690. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Somerville Transportation Equity Partnership, Somerville, MA, 02145, USA.

Background: This paper explores strategies to engage community stakeholders in efforts to address the effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). Communities of color and low-income communities are disproportionately impacted by environmental threats including emissions generated by major roadways.

Methods: Qualitative instrumental case study design was employed to examine how community-level factors in two Massachusetts communities, the City of Somerville and Boston's Chinatown neighborhood, influence the translation of research into practice to address TRAP exposure. Guided by the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF), we drew on three data sources: key informant interviews, observations and document reviews. Thematic analysis was used.

Results: Findings indicate political history plays a significant role in shaping community action. In Somerville, community organizers worked with city and state officials, and embraced community development strategies to engage residents. In contrast, Chinatown community activists focused on immediate resident concerns including housing and resident displacement resulting in more opposition to local municipal leadership.

Conclusions: The ISF was helpful in informing the team's thinking related to systems and structures needed to translate research to practice. However, although municipal stakeholders are increasingly sympathetic to and aware of the health impacts of TRAP, there was not a local legislative or regulatory precedent on how to move some of the proposed TRAP-related policies into practice. As such, we found that pairing the ISF with a community organizing framework may serve as a useful approach for examining the dynamic relationship between science, community engagement and environmental research translation. Social workers and public health professionals can advance TRAP exposure mitigation by exploring the political and social context of communities and working to bridge research and community action.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09751-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656715PMC
November 2020

CBPR Partnerships and Near-Roadway Pollution: A Promising Strategy to Influence the Translation of Research into Practice.

Environments (Basel) 2020 Jun 10;7(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) aims to engage those traditionally left out of the research process. Partnering with community stakeholders to design, plan, implement and disseminate research can facilitate translation into practice. Using qualitative research methods, we set out to explore the policy and practice implications of a CBPR partnership focused on reducing exposure to near-roadway pollution. Key Informant interviews ( = 13) were conducted with individuals from various entities (municipal, state and private) for whom partners to the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) provided technical assistance between 2013 and 2017. The findings indicate community research partnerships may have the power to inform local planning efforts. Developers and planners who the partnership consulted indicated a greater awareness of the implications of near-roadway exposure. They also described making changes in their practice based on study findings. The CAFEH partnership has demonstrated active attention to translating knowledge can influence local planning and practice, albeit with some challenges.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/environments7060044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470231PMC
June 2020

A field study to estimate inhalation rates for use in a particle inhalation rate exposure metric.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 16;696:133919. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Tufts University School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Medford, MA, USA.

Particle inhalation rate (PIR) is an air pollution exposure metric that relies on age-, sex-, and physical activity-specific estimates of minute respiratory volume (MRV; L/min-kg) to account for personal inhalation patterns. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-generated MRV estimates derive primarily from relatively homogenous populations without substantial cardiorespiratory challenges. To determine if these MRV estimates are relevant to populations in generally poor cardiorespiratory health (e.g., the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS) population) or whether population-specific estimates are needed, we 1) estimated population-specific MRVs and compared them to USEPA MRV estimates, and 2) compared exposure distributions and health effect estimates using PIR with population-specific MRVs, PIR with USEPA MRVs, and ambient particle number concentration (PNC). We recruited 40 adults (80% Puerto Rican, mean age = 60.2 years) in Boston with health characteristics similar to the BPRHS population. We measured pulse, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, and inspiratory volume while participants walked, stood, sat, and lay down. Pulse, respiration rate, inspiratory volume, and MRV were greater when participants were walking/standing compared to sitting or lying down. We then calculated MRVs adjusted for age, sex, measured body weight, and physical activity using data from 19 Puerto Rican participants who wore a nose clip or held their nostrils closed. We applied the population-specific and USEPA MRVs to estimate ultrafine particle exposure for participants in the BPRHS (n = 781). We compared exposure distributions and health effect estimates using the PIR with population-specific MRV estimates, PIR with USEPA MRV estimates, and ambient concentrations. We found that while population-specific MRVs differed from USEPA MRVs, particularly for unhealthy participants, PIR exposure distributions and health effect estimates were similar using each exposure metric. Confidence intervals were narrower using the PIR metrics than ambient PNC, suggesting increased statistical efficiency. Even in our understudied population, using USEPA MRVs did not meaningfully change PIR estimates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067691PMC
December 2019

Traffic-related particulate matter affects behavior, inflammation, and neural integrity in a developmental rodent model.

Environ Res 2020 04 17;183:109242. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, 195 Farmington Ave., Farmington, CT, 06032, USA.

Recent studies indicate that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cognitive delay, depression, anxiety, autism, and neurodegenerative diseases; however, the role of PM in the etiology of these outcomes is not well-understood. Therefore, there is a need for controlled animal studies to better elucidate the causes and mechanisms by which PM impacts these health outcomes. We assessed the effects of gestational and early life exposure to traffic-related PM on social- and anxiety-related behaviors, cognition, inflammatory markers, and neural integrity in juvenile male rats. Gestating and lactating rats were exposed to PM from a Boston (MA, USA) traffic tunnel for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks (3 weeks gestation, 3 weeks lactation). The target exposure concentration for the fine fraction of nebulized PM, measured as PM2.5, was 200 μg/m. To assess anxiety and cognitive function, F1 male juveniles underwent elevated platform, cricket predation, nest building, social behavior and marble burying tests at 32-60 days of age. Upon completion of behavioral testing, multiple cytokines and growth factors were measured in these animals and their brains were analyzed with diffusion tensor MRI to assess neural integrity. PM exposure had no effect on litter size or weight, or offspring growth; however, F1 litters developmentally exposed to PM exhibited significantly increased anxiety (p = 0.04), decreased cognition reflected in poorer nest-organization (p = 0.04), and decreased social play and allogrooming (p = 0.003). MRI analysis of ex vivo brains revealed decreased structural integrity of neural tissues in the anterior cingulate and hippocampus in F1 juveniles exposed to PM (p < 0.01, p = 0.03, respectively). F1 juvenile males exposed to PM also exhibited significantly decreased plasma levels of both IL-18 (p = 0.03) and VEGF (p = 0.04), and these changes were inversely correlated with anxiety-related behavior. Chronic exposure of rat dams and their offspring to traffic-related PM during gestation and lactation decreases social behavior, increases anxiety, impairs cognition, decreases levels of inflammatory and growth factors (which are correlated with behavioral changes), and disrupts neural integrity in the juvenile male offspring. Our findings add evidence that exposure to traffic-related air pollution during gestation and lactation is involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and other disorders which include social and cognitive deficits and/or increased anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167358PMC
April 2020

Ultrafine Particle Number Concentration Model for Estimating Retrospective and Prospective Long-Term Ambient Exposures in Urban Neighborhoods.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 02 24;54(3):1677-1686. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Tufts University , 200 College Avenue , Medford , Massachusetts 02155 , United States.

Short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; <100 nm in diameter), which are present at high concentrations near busy roadways, is associated with markers of cardiovascular and respiratory disease risk. To date, few long-term studies (months to years) have been conducted due to the challenges of long-term exposure assignment. To address this, we modified hybrid land-use regression models of particle number concentrations (PNCs; a proxy for UFP) for two study areas in Boston (MA) by replacing the measured PNC term with an hourly model and adjusting for overprediction. The hourly PNC models used covariates for meteorology, traffic, and sulfur dioxide concentrations (a marker of secondary particle formation). We compared model performance against long-term PNC data collected continuously from 9 years before and up to 3 years after the model-development period. Model predictions captured the major temporal variations in the data and model performance remained relatively stable retrospectively and prospectively. The Pearson correlation of modeled versus measured hourly log-transformed PNC at a long-term monitoring site for 9 years prior was 0.74. Our results demonstrate that highly resolved spatial-temporal PNC models are capable of estimating ambient concentrations retrospectively and prospectively with generally good accuracy, giving us confidence in using these models in epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374642PMC
February 2020

Sex differences in the interaction of short-term particulate matter exposure and psychosocial stressors on C-reactive protein in a Puerto Rican cohort.

SSM Popul Health 2019 Dec 13;9:100500. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

University of Connecticut Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, Farmington, CT, USA.

There is substantial evidence linking particulate matter air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, health disparities between populations may exist due to imprecisely defined non-innate susceptibility factors. Psychosocial stressors are associated with cardiovascular disease and may increase non-innate susceptibility to air-pollution. We investigated whether the association between short-term changes in ambient particulate matter and cardiovascular health risk differed by psychosocial stressors in a Puerto Rican cohort, comparing women and men. We used data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS), a longitudinal study of cardiovascular health among adults, collected between 2004 and 2013. We used mixed effect models to estimate the association of current-day ambient particle number concentration (PNC) on C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, and effect modification by psychosocial stressors (depression, acculturation, perceived stress, discrimination, negative life events and a composite score). Point estimates of percent difference in CRP per interquartile range change in PNC varied among women with contrasting levels of stressors: negative life events (15.7% high vs. 6.5% low), depression score (10.6% high vs. 4.6% low) and composite stress score (16.2% high vs. 7.0% low). There were minimal differences among men. For Puerto Rican adults, cardiovascular non-innate susceptibility to adverse effects of ambient particles may be greater for women under high stress. This work contributes to understanding health disparities among minority ethnic populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831870PMC
December 2019

On the Need for Better Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution with High Spatial and Temporal Variation.

Authors:
Doug Brugge

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 7;16(9). Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Ave., Farmington, CT 06030, USA.

The mainstay of air pollution health research has been fine particulate matter pollution (PM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540602PMC
May 2019

Visualizing Air Pollution: Communication of Environmental Health Information in a Chinese Immigrant Community.

J Health Commun 2019 27;24(4):339-358. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

f Department of Public Health and Community Medicine , Tufts University School of Medicine , Boston , MA , USA.

This study developed and evaluated a visual approach to promoting environmental health literacy about highway pollution. The Interactive Map of Chinatown Traffic Pollution was the centerpiece of a communication approach designed to make complex scientific information about traffic-related air pollution comprehensible to Chinese immigrants with limited English proficiency. The map enabled visualization of the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles (less than 100 nanometers in diameter), a toxic and invisible form of air pollution, in Boston Chinatown. A university-community partnership enabled design of intergenerational training sessions aimed toward empowering community members to take health-promoting actions that reduce exposure to ultrafine particulate pollution. A mixed methods approach was taken to evaluation. Nine high school youth learned to use the map and then tutored adults recruited from English as a Second Language (ESL) classes and from a community workshop. Seventy-three of these adults completed a pre-post survey measuring change in three domains: pollution knowledge, attitudes toward environmental issues, and self-efficacy in using maps. Adult participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all three domains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, all p < 0.01). Seventeen adults and nine youth participated in interviews. Interview participants reported adjusting daily routines to reduce exposure to pollution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2019.1597949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258432PMC
September 2020

The Role of Environmental Health Literacy When Developing Traffic Pollution Fact Sheets for Puerto Rican Adults.

Environ Justice 2018 Feb;11(1):40-46

Environmental health literacy is particularly relevant to racial/ethnic and linguistic minority populations who are likely to live near major roadways and highways. We conducted exploratory research to develop ways to communicate the risks of traffic-related air pollution to Puerto Rican adults living in and near Boston, Massachusetts. We held two initial focus groups with Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican adults ( = 16) enrolled in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). Most had only a high school education or less and earned a low income. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to suggest ways to improve three fact sheets designed to communicate BPRHS findings to the community. Based on these results, we made substantial revisions. We then conducted a second set of two focus groups with the same participants to assess revisions. Participants viewed the revised fact sheets more favorably and indicated that they found them easier to read. Lessons learned about improving readability and relevance included increasing text size, adding more graphics, chunking text, and providing more technical details. Designing successful environmental health communication tools that retain scientific accuracy is not a simple task. There is need for systematic attempts to evaluate and report on health literacy and community engagement processes for developing materials that are easy to read, culturally relevant, and that communicate complex environmental health information and concepts in ways people can understand and act on.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/env.2017.0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830854PMC
February 2018

Urban environment as an independent predictor of insulin resistance in a South Asian population.

Int J Health Geogr 2019 02 12;18(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

PURSE-HIS Study Center, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India.

Background: Developing countries, such as India, are experiencing rapid urbanization, which may have a major impact on the environment: including worsening air and water quality, noise and the problems of waste disposal. We used health data from an ongoing cohort study based in southern India to examine the relationship between the urban environment and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

Methods: We utilized three metrics of urbanization: distance from urban center; population density in the India Census; and satellite-based land cover. Restricted to participants without diabetes (N = 6350); we built logistic regression models adjusted for traditional risk factors to test the association between urban environment and HOMA-IR.

Results: In adjusted models, residing within 0-20 km of the urban center was associated with an odds ratio for HOMA-IR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.39, 2.29) for females and 2.30 (95% CI 1.64, 3.22) for males compared to residing in the furthest 61-80 km distance group. Similar statistically significant results were identified using the other metrics.

Conclusions: We identified associations between urban environment and HOMA-IR in a cohort of adults. These associations were robust using various metrics of urbanization and adjustment for individual predictors. Our results are of public health concern due to the global movement of large numbers of people from rural to urban areas and the already large burden of diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-019-0169-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373002PMC
February 2019

Metabolomic assessment of exposure to near-highway ultrafine particles.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2019 06 5;29(4):469-483. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes and mortality; however, the biochemical pathways linking exposure to disease are not known. To delineate biological response mechanisms associated with exposure to near-highway ultrafine particles (UFP), we used untargeted high-resolution metabolomics to profile plasma from 59 participants enrolled in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) study. Metabolic variations associated with UFP exposure were assessed using a cross-sectional study design based upon low (mean 16,000 particles/cm) and high (mean 24,000 particles/cm) annual average UFP exposures. In comparing quantified metabolites, we identified five metabolites that were differentially expressed between low and high exposures, including arginine, aspartic acid, glutamine, cystine and methionine sulfoxide. Analysis of the metabolome identified 316 m/z features associated with UFP, which were consistent with increased lipid peroxidation, endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide and vehicle exhaust exposure biomarkers. Network correlation analysis and metabolic pathway enrichment identified 38 pathways and included variations related to inflammation, endothelial function and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Taken together, these results suggest UFP exposure is associated with a complex series of metabolic variations related to antioxidant pathways, in vivo generation of reactive oxygen species and processes critical to endothelial function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-018-0102-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551325PMC
June 2019

Relationship of Time-Activity-Adjusted Particle Number Concentration with Blood Pressure.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 09 18;15(9). Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, 200 College Ave, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Emerging evidence suggests long-term exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 µm) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether annual average UFP exposure was associated with measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and hypertension prevalence among 409 adults participating in the cross-sectional Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) study. We used measurements of particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP) obtained from mobile monitoring campaigns in three near-highway and three urban background areas in and near Boston, Massachusetts to develop PNC regression models (20-m spatial and hourly temporal resolution). Individual modeled estimates were adjusted for time spent in different micro-environments (time-activity-adjusted PNC, TAA-PNC). Mean TAA-PNC was 22,000 particles/cm³ (sd = 6500). In linear models (logistic for hypertension) adjusted for the minimally sufficient set of covariates indicated by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), we found positive, non-significant associations between natural log-transformed TAA-PNC and SBP (β = 5.23, 95%CI: -0.68, 11.14 mmHg), PP (β = 4.27, 95%CI: -0.79, 9.32 mmHg), and hypertension (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 0.94, 3.48), but not DBP (β = 0.96, 95%CI: -2.08, 4.00 mmHg). Associations were stronger among non-Hispanic white participants and among diabetics in analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and, separately, by health status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165221PMC
September 2018

Urbanization as a risk factor for aortic stiffness in a cohort in India.

PLoS One 2018 1;13(8):e0201036. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Urbanization is associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Aortic stiffness, as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is a validated predictor of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the association between urbanization and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The analysis included 6166 participants enrolled in an ongoing population-based study (mean age 42 years; 58% female) who live in an 80 × 80 km region of southern India. Multiple measures of urbanization were used and compared: 1) census designations, 2) satellite derived land cover (crops, grass, shrubs or trees as rural; built-up areas as urban), and 3) distance categories based on proximity to an urban center. The association between urbanization and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was tested in sex-stratified linear regression models. People residing in urban areas had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated mean carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity compared to non-urban populations after adjustment for other risk factors. There was also an inverse association between distance from the urban center and mean carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity: each 10 km increase in distance was associated with a decrease in mean carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity of 0.07 m/s (95% CI: -0.09, -0.06 m/s). The association was stronger among older participants, among smokers, and among those with other cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to determine which components in the urban environment are associated with higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201036PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070252PMC
January 2019

Short-and medium-term associations of particle number concentration with cardiovascular markers in a Puerto Rican cohort.

Environ Res 2018 10 30;166:595-601. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, United States; Tufts University School of Engineering, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, United States; Jonathan M. Tisch College of Civic Life, 10 Upper Campus Road, Medford, MA 02155, United States. Electronic address:

Air pollution has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, susceptibility may vary by population. Puerto Rican adults living in the US may be a susceptible group due to a high rate of adverse cardiovascular events. We evaluated the effect of changes in ambient particle number concentration (PNC, a measure of ultrafine particles) and effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS), a longitudinal cohort (n = 1499). Ambient PNC was measured at a fixed site between 2004 and 2013 and daily mean concentrations were used to construct PNC metrics, including lags of 0, 1 and 2 days and moving averages (MAs) of 3, 7 and 28 days. We examined the association of each metric with C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood pressure. Each model included subject-specific random intercepts to account for multiple measurements. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PNC was associated with CRP for all metrics, notably a 3-day increase in PNC was associated with a 7.1% (95% CI: 2.0%, 12.2%) increase in CRP. Significant associations with CRP were seen in women, but not men; with current and former (but not non-) smokers; participants younger (but not older) than 65 y; those without diabetes (but not with), and those with (but not without), hypertension. Our study extends knowledge about the health effects of air pollution to a vulnerable population that has been understudied.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694578PMC
October 2018

Environmental health, engineering and public health.

Authors:
Doug Brugge

Rev Environ Health 2018 06;33(2):109-110

Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2018-0031DOI Listing
June 2018

Combining Measurements from Mobile Monitoring and a Reference Site To Develop Models of Ambient Ultrafine Particle Number Concentration at Residences.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 06 25;52(12):6985-6995. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Tufts University , 200 College Avenue , Medford , Massachusetts 02155 , United States.

Significant spatial and temporal variation in ultrafine particle (UFP; <100 nm in diameter) concentrations creates challenges in developing predictive models for epidemiological investigations. We compared the performance of land-use regression models built by combining mobile and stationary measurements (hybrid model) with a regression model built using mobile measurements only (mobile model) in Chelsea and Boston, MA (USA). In each study area, particle number concentration (PNC; a proxy for UFP) was measured at a stationary reference site and with a mobile laboratory driven along a fixed route during an ∼1-year monitoring period. In comparing PNC measured at 20 residences and PNC estimates from hybrid and mobile models, the hybrid model showed higher Pearson correlations of natural log-transformed PNC ( r = 0.73 vs 0.51 in Chelsea; r = 0.74 vs 0.47 in Boston) and lower root-mean-square error in Chelsea (0.61 vs 0.72) but no benefit in Boston (0.72 vs 0.71). All models overpredicted log-transformed PNC by 3-6% at residences, yet the hybrid model reduced the standard deviation of the residuals by 15% in Chelsea and 31% in Boston with better tracking of overnight decreases in PNC. Overall, the hybrid model considerably outperformed the mobile model and could offer reduced exposure error for UFP epidemiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371457PMC
June 2018

Longitudinal associations of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles with blood pressure and systemic inflammation in Puerto Rican adults.

Environ Health 2018 04 5;17(1):33. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined the association between ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, particles < 0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We used data from 791 adults participating in the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (Massachusetts, USA) between 2004 and 2015 to assess whether UFP exposure was associated with blood pressure and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, a biomarker of systemic inflammation).

Methods: Residential annual average UFP exposure (measured as particle number concentration, PNC) was assigned using a model accounting for spatial and temporal trends. We also adjusted PNC values for participants' inhalation rate to obtain the particle inhalation rate (PIR) as a secondary exposure measure. Multilevel linear models with a random intercept for each participant were used to examine the association of UFP with blood pressure and hsCRP.

Results: Overall, in adjusted models, an inter-quartile range increase in PNC was associated with increased hsCRP (β = 6.8; 95% CI = - 0.3, 14.0%) but not with increased systolic blood pressure (β = 0.96; 95% CI = - 0.33, 2.25 mmHg), pulse pressure (β = 0.70; 95% CI = - 0.27, 1.67 mmHg), or diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.55; 95% CI = - 0.20, 1.30 mmHg). There were generally stronger positive associations among women and never smokers. Among men, there were inverse associations of PNC with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In contrast to the primary findings, an inter-quartile range increase in the PIR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.00, 2.06 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.36, 1.66 mmHg), but not with pulse pressure or hsCRP.

Conclusions: We observed that exposure to PNC was associated with increases in measures of CVD risk markers, especially among certain sub-populations. The exploratory PIR exposure metric should be further developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-018-0379-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5887259PMC
April 2018

Lessons from in-home air filtration intervention trials to reduce urban ultrafine particle number concentrations.

Build Environ 2017 Dec 6;126:266-275. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155.

Background: Exposure to airborne ultrafine particle (UFP; <100 nm in aerodynamic diameter) is an emerging public health problem. Nevertheless, the benefit of using high efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration to reduce UFP concentrations in homes is not yet clear.

Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover study of HEPA filtration without a washout period in 23 homes of low-income Puerto Ricans in Boston and Chelsea, MA (USA). Most participants were female, older adults who were overweight or obese. Particle number concentrations (PNC, a proxy for UFP) were measured indoors and outdoors at each home continuously for six weeks. Homes received both HEPA filtration and sham filtration for three weeks each in random order.

Results: Median PNC under HEPA filtration was 50-85% lower compared to sham filtration in most homes, but we found no benefit in terms of reduced inflammation; associations between hsCRP, IL-6, or TNFRII in blood samples and indoor PNC were inverse and not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Limitations to our study design likely contributed to our findings. Limitations included carry-over effects, a population that may have been relatively unresponsive to UFP, reduction in PNC even during sham filtration that limited differences between HEPA and sham filtration, window opening by participants, and lack of fine-grained (room-specific) participant time-activity information. Our approach was similar to other recent HEPA intervention studies of particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular risk, suggesting that there is a need for better study designs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791918PMC
December 2017

Comparisons of Traffic-Related Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations Measured in Two Urban Areas by Central, Residential, and Mobile Monitoring.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2017 Nov 4;169:113-127. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; <100 nanometers diameter) are ubiquitous in urban air. While studies have shown that UFP are toxic, epidemiological evidence of health effects, which is needed to inform risk assessment at the population scale, is limited due to challenges of accurately estimating UFP exposures. Epidemiologic studies often use empirical models to estimate UFP exposures; however, the monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 hours of measurements at the central sites, 1,000 hours of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 hours of mobile measurements over the course of ~1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean one-minute PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations (Pearson correlations were 0.69 and 0.60 vs. 0.39 in Boston; 0.71 and 0.61 vs. 0.45 in Chelsea) and reduced spatial heterogeneity (coefficients of divergence were 0.24 and 0.29 vs. 0.33 in Boston; 0.20 and 0.27 vs. 0.31 in Chelsea). Our results suggest that combining stationary and mobile monitoring may lead to improved characterization of UFP in urban areas and thereby lead to improved exposure assignment for epidemiology studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5761336PMC
November 2017

Reference Correction to: Making Air Pollution Visible: A Tool for Promoting Environmental Health Literacy.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2017 12 20;3(4):e80. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Institute for Asian American Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7492.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.8750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5738595PMC
December 2017

Association of Low-Level Ozone with Cognitive Decline in Older Adults.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;61(1):67-78

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

Increasing evidence points to an association of airborne pollutant exposure with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological pathology. We examined whether or not ground-level ozone or fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) was associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Using repeated measures mixed regression modeling, we analyzed cognitive performance of a geographically diverse sampling of individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center between 2004-2008. Ambient air concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 were established using a space-time Hierarchical Bayesian Model that statistically merged air monitor data and modeled air quality estimates. We then compared the ambient regional concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 with the rate of cognitive decline in residents within those regions. Increased levels of ozone correlated with an increased rate of cognitive decline, following adjustment for key individual and community-level risk factors. Furthermore, individuals harboring one or more APOE4 alleles exhibited a faster rate of cognitive decline. The deleterious association of ozone was confined to individuals with normal cognition who eventually became cognitively impaired as opposed to those who entered the study with baseline impairment. In contrast to ozone, we did not observe any correlation between ambient PM2.5 and cognitive decline at regulatory limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency. Our findings suggest that prolonged exposure to ground-level ozone may accelerate cognitive decline during the initial stages of dementia development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5755393PMC
July 2018

Association of Long-Term Near-Highway Exposure to Ultrafine Particles with Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Hypertension.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 04 26;14(5). Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants. Particle number concentration (PNC, a measure of UFP) was collected by mobile monitoring in each area. Intra-neighborhood spatial-temporal regression models (approximately 20 m resolution) were used to estimate hourly ambient PNC at the residences of participants. We used participant time activity information to adjust annual average residential PNC values and assign individualized time activity adjusted annual average PNC exposures (TAA-PNC). Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.22) of TAA-PNC with stroke and ischemic heart diseases (S/IHD), an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.62) with hypertension, and an OR of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.10) for diabetes. A subset analysis controlling for BMI produced slightly stronger associations for S/IHD (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.88, 2.92) and hypertension (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02), and no association with diabetes (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.61, 1.96). Further research is needed with larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451912PMC
April 2017

Making Air Pollution Visible: A Tool for Promoting Environmental Health Literacy.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2017 Apr 12;3(2):e16. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Institute for Asian American Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Digital maps are instrumental in conveying information about environmental hazards geographically. For laypersons, computer-based maps can serve as tools to promote environmental health literacy about invisible traffic-related air pollution and ultrafine particles. Concentrations of these pollutants are higher near major roadways and increasingly linked to adverse health effects. Interactive computer maps provide visualizations that can allow users to build mental models of the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in a community and learn about the risk of exposure in a geographic context.

Objective: The objective of this work was to develop a new software tool appropriate for educating members of the Boston Chinatown community (Boston, MA, USA) about the nature and potential health risks of traffic-related air pollution. The tool, the Interactive Map of Chinatown Traffic Pollution ("Air Pollution Map" hereafter), is a prototype that can be adapted for the purpose of educating community members across a range of socioeconomic contexts.

Methods: We built the educational visualization tool on the open source Weave software platform. We designed the tool as the centerpiece of a multimodal and intergenerational educational intervention about the health risk of traffic-related air pollution. We used a previously published fine resolution (20 m) hourly land-use regression model of ultrafine particles as the algorithm for predicting pollution levels and applied it to one neighborhood, Boston Chinatown. In designing the map, we consulted community experts to help customize the user interface to communication styles prevalent in the target community.

Results: The product is a map that displays ultrafine particulate concentrations averaged across census blocks using a color gradation from white to dark red. The interactive features allow users to explore and learn how changing meteorological conditions and traffic volume influence ultrafine particle concentrations. Users can also select from multiple map layers, such as a street map or satellite view. The map legends and labels are available in both Chinese and English, and are thus accessible to immigrants and residents with proficiency in either language. The map can be either Web or desktop based.

Conclusions: The Air Pollution Map incorporates relevant language and landmarks to make complex scientific information about ultrafine particles accessible to members of the Boston Chinatown community. In future work, we will test the map in an educational intervention that features intergenerational colearning and the use of supplementary multimedia presentations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.7492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5406619PMC
April 2017

Creating a Culture of Empowerment in Research: Findings from a Capacity-Building Training Program.

Prog Community Health Partnersh 2016 ;10(3):479-488

Background: This paper uses a theory from educational research - "the culture of power" - to explore power differentials between academic researchers and community partners in community engaged research partnership programs.

Objectives: This paper describes how a capacity-building program illuminated the tensions between academics and community partners related to power differentials and offers strategies for how to balance the power dynamic.

Methods: This paper relies on semi-structured interviews from 30 community partners who participated in the "Building your capacity" program.

Results: The framework of "culture of power" applied to research relationships helps us understand the following: (1) The power differentials between academic institutions and community agencies are deeply entrenched. That is there is a "culture of power." (2) This culture of power is often reinforced through the cultural rules and dominant language of the academy. (3) Academic institutions, by and large, have created and perpetuated the rules that have led to these uneven power relationships. (4) Being told explicitly about the rules of academic culture make acquiring power easier for community partners. (5) Community partners are often more aware of the culture of power in research and more willing to acknowledge these differentials than academic researchers.

Conclusions: Academic partners who want to work with community partners need to acknowledge these power imbalances and be intentional about shifting these power dynamics. Capacity-building programs can help to shift these power imbalances because they help community partners acquire the confidence, knowledge and skills to advocate for more equitable research relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2016.0054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5529141PMC
June 2017

Participatory Democracy, Community Organizing and the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) Partnership.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 02 4;14(2). Epub 2017 Feb 4.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Conflicting interests, power imbalance and relationships characterized by distrust are just a few of the many challenges community-academic research partnerships face. In addition, the time it takes to build relationships is often overlooked, which further complicates matters and can leave well-intentioned individuals re-creating oppressive conditions through inauthentic partnerships. This paper presents a novel approach of using meeting minutes to explore partnership dynamics. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) partnership is used as an illustrative case study to identify how community academic partnerships overcome the challenges associated with community-based participatory research (CBPR). CAFEH is a study of ultrafine particle exposure (UFP) near highways in the Boston, MA area. Qualitative analysis was applied to meeting minutes and process evaluation reports from the first three years of the CAFEH study ( = 73 files). In addition, a group meeting was held with project partners in order to contextualize the findings from the document analysis. The three most commonly referenced challenges included language barriers, the overall project structure and budgetary constraints. Meanwhile, a heavy emphasis on process and an approach steeped in participatory democracy facilitated CAFEH's ability to overcome these challenges, as well as sustain and augment strong partnership ties. This experience suggests that leadership that incorporates an organizing approach and a transformational style facilitates CBPR processes and helps teams surmount challenges.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5334703PMC
February 2017

Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2016 12;3(4):434-442

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, 200 College Ave, Medford, MA, USA.

We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-016-0114-zDOI Listing
December 2016

Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure.

Environ Justice 2015 Jun 15;8(3):95-104. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Somerville Transportation Equity Partnership.

The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200-400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/env.2015.0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939908PMC
June 2015
-->