Publications by authors named "Dorota M Ruszkiewicz"

5 Publications

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Peppermint protocol: first results for gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

J Breath Res 2022 05 26;16(3). Epub 2022 May 26.

Centre for Analytical Science, Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Theseeks to inform the standardisation of breath analysis methods. Fivewith gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), operating in the positive mode with a tritiumH 5.68 keV, 370 MBq ionisation source, were undertaken to provide benchmarkdata for this technique, to support its use in breath-testing, analysis, and research. Headspace analysis of a peppermint-oil capsule by GC-IMS with on-column injection (0.5 cm) identified 12 IMS responsive compounds, of which the four most abundant were: eucalyptol;-pinene;-pinene; and limonene. Elevated concentrations of these four compounds were identified in exhaled-breath following ingestion of a peppermint-oil capsule. An unidentified compound attributed as a volatile catabolite of peppermint-oil was also observed. The most intense exhaled peppermint-oil component was eucalyptol, which was selected as a peppermint marker for benchmarking GC-IMS. Twenty-five washout experiments monitored levels of exhaled eucalyptol, by GC-IMS with on-column injection (0.5 cm), at= 0 min, and then at+ 60,+ 90,+ 165,+ 285 and+ 360 min from ingestion of a peppermint capsule resulting in 148 peppermint breath analyses. Additionally, thedata was used to evaluate clinical deployments with a further five washout tests run in clinical settings generating an additional 35 breath samples. Regression analysis yielded an average extrapolated time taken for exhaled eucalyptol levels to return to baseline values to be 429 ± 62 min (±95% confidence-interval). The benchmark value was assigned to the lower 95% confidence-interval, 367 min. Further evaluation of the data indicated that the maximum number of volatile organic compounds discernible from a 0.5 cmbreath sample was 69, while the use of an in-line biofilter appeared to reduce this to 34.
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May 2022

Diagnosis of COVID-19 by analysis of breath with gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry - a feasibility study.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Dec 24;29:100609. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: There is an urgent need to rapidly distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory conditions, including influenza, at first-presentation. Point-of-care tests not requiring laboratory- support will speed diagnosis and protect health-care staff. We studied the feasibility of using breath-analysis to distinguish these conditions with near-patient gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS).

Methods: Independent observational prevalence studies at Edinburgh, UK, and Dortmund, Germany, recruited adult patients with possible COVID-19 at hospital presentation. Participants gave a single breath-sample for VOC analysis by GC-IMS. COVID-19 infection was identified by transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- qPCR) of oral/nasal swabs together with clinical-review. Following correction for environmental contaminants, potential COVID-19 breath-biomarkers were identified by multi-variate analysis and comparison to GC-IMS databases. A COVID-19 breath-score based on the relative abundance of a panel of volatile organic compounds was proposed and tested against the cohort data.

Findings: Ninety-eight patients were recruited, of whom 21/33 (63.6%) and 10/65 (15.4%) had COVID-19 in Edinburgh and Dortmund, respectively. Other diagnoses included asthma, COPD, bacterial pneumonia, and cardiac conditions. Multivariate analysis identified aldehydes (ethanal, octanal), ketones (acetone, butanone), and methanol that discriminated COVID-19 from other conditions. An unidentified-feature with significant predictive power for severity/death was isolated in Edinburgh, while heptanal was identified in Dortmund. Differentiation of patients with definite diagnosis (25 and 65) of COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 was possible with 80% and 81.5% accuracy in Edinburgh and Dortmund respectively (sensitivity/specificity 82.4%/75%; area-under-the-receiver- operator-characteristic [AUROC] 0.87 95% CI 0.67 to 1) and Dortmund (sensitivity / specificity 90%/80%; AUROC 0.91 95% CI 0.87 to 1).

Interpretation: These two studies independently indicate that patients with COVID-19 can be rapidly distinguished from patients with other conditions at first healthcare contact. The identity of the marker compounds is consistent with COVID-19 derangement of breath-biochemistry by ketosis, gastrointestinal effects, and inflammatory processes. Development and validation of this approach may allow rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 in the coming endemic flu seasons.

Funding: MR was supported by an NHS Research Scotland Career Researcher Clinician award. DMR was supported by the University of Edinburgh ref COV_29.
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December 2020

A benchmarking protocol for breath analysis: the peppermint experiment.

J Breath Res 2020 08 10;14(4):046008. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Exhaled Biomarkers and Exposure, Department of Molecular and Laser Physics, IMM, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has shown promise for detection of a range of diseases but results have proved hard to replicate due to a lack of standardization. In this work we introduce the 'Peppermint Initiative'. The initiative seeks to disseminate a standardized experiment that allows comparison of breath sampling and data analysis methods. Further, it seeks to share a set of benchmark values for the measurement of VOCs in breath. Pilot data are presented to illustrate the standardized approach to the interpretation of results obtained from the Peppermint experiment. This pilot study was conducted to determine the washout profile of peppermint compounds in breath, identify appropriate sampling time points, and formalise the data analysis. Five and ten participants were recruited to undertake a standardized intervention by ingesting a peppermint oil capsule that engenders a predictable and controlled change in the VOC profile in exhaled breath. After collecting a pre-ingestion breath sample, five further samples are taken at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after ingestion. Samples were analysed using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to multi-capillary column and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A regression analysis of the washout data was used to determine sampling times for the final peppermint protocol, and the time for the compound measurement to return to baseline levels was selected as a benchmark value. A measure of the quality of the data generated from a given technique is proposed by comparing data fidelity. This study protocol has been used for all subsequent measurements by the Peppermint Consortium (16 partners from seven countries). So far 1200 breath samples from 200 participants using a range of sampling and analytical techniques have been collected. The data from the consortium will be disseminated in subsequent technical notes focussing on results from individual platforms.
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August 2020

Breath selection methods for compact mass spectrometry breath analysis.

J Breath Res 2019 09 30;13(4):046013. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. Translational Chemical Biology Research Group, United Kingdom.

Compact mass spectrometry (CMS) is a versatile and transportable analytical instrument that has the potential to be used in clinical settings to quickly and non-invasively detect a wide range of relevant conditions from breath samples. The purpose of this study is to optimise data preprocessing protocols by three proposed methods of breath sampling, using the CMS. It also lays out a general framework for which data processing methods can be evaluated.

Methods: This paper considers data from three previous studies, each using a different breath sampling method. These include a peppermint washout study using continuous breath sampling with a purified air source, an exercise study using continuous breath sampling with an ambient air source, and a single breath sampling study with an ambient air source. For each dataset, different breath selection (data preprocessing) methods were compared and benchmarked according to predictive performance on a validation set and quantitative reliability of m/z bin intensity measurements.

Results: For both continuous methods, the best breath selection method improved the predictive model compared to no preselection, as measured by the 95% CI range for Youden's index, from 0.68-0.86 to 0.86-0.97 for the exercise study and 0.69-0.82 to 1.00-1.00 for the peppermint study. The reliability of intensity measurements for both datasets (as measured by median relative standard deviation (RSD)), was improved slightly by the best selection method compared to no preselection, from 18% to 14% for the exercise study and 7%-5% for the peppermint study. For the single breath samples, all the models resulted in perfect prediction, with a 95% CI range for Youden's index of 1.00-1.00. The reliability of the proposed method was 38%.

Conclusion: The method of selecting exhaled breath from CMS data can affect the reliability of the measurement and the ability to distinguish between breath samples taken under different conditions. The application of appropriate data processing methods can improve the quality of the data and results obtained from CMS. The methods presented will enable untargeted analysis of breath VOCs using CMS to be performed.
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September 2019

Real-time monitoring of exhaled volatiles using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization on a compact mass spectrometer.

Bioanalysis 2016 Jul 9;8(13):1325-36. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Centre for Analytical Science, Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK.

Aim: Breath analyses have potential to detect early signs of disease onset. Ambient ionization allows direct combination of breath gases with MS for fast, on-line analysis. Portable MS systems would facilitate field/clinic-based breath analyses. Results & methodology: Volunteers ingested peppermint oil capsules and exhaled volatile compounds were monitored over 10 h using a compact mass spectrometer. A rise and fall in exhaled menthone was observed, peaking at 60-120 min. Real-time analysis showed a gradual rise in exhaled menthone postingestion. Sensitivity was comparable to established methods, with detection in the parts per trillion range.

Conclusion: Breath volatiles were readily analyzed on a portable mass spectrometer through a simple inlet modification. Induced changes in exhaled profiles were detectable with high sensitivity and measurable in real-time.
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July 2016