Publications by authors named "Doron Lipson"

80 Publications

R269C variant of ESR1: high prevalence and differential function in a subset of pancreatic cancers.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 8;20(1):531. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Institute of Oncology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) plays a critical role in promoting growth of various cancers. Yet, its role in the development of pancreatic cancer is not well-defined. A less studied region of ESR1 is the hinge region, connecting the ligand binding and DNA domains. rs142712646 is a rare SNP in ESR1, which leads to a substitution of arginine to cysteine at amino acid 269 (R269C). The mutation is positioned in the hinge region of ESR1, hence may affect the receptor structure and function. We aimed to characterize the activity of R269C-ESR1 and study its role in the development of pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Transcriptional activity was evaluated by E2-response element (ERE) and AP1 -luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR. Proliferation and migration were assessed using MTT and wound healing assays. Gene-expression analysis was performed using RNAseq.

Results: We examined the presence of this SNP in various malignancies, using the entire database of FoundationOne and noted enrichment of it in a subset of pancreatic non-ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 2800) compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) as well as other tumor types (0.53% vs 0.29%, p = 0.02). Studies in breast and pancreatic cancer cells indicated cell type-dependent activity of ESR1 harboring R269C. Thus, expression of R269C-ESR1 enhanced proliferation and migration of PANC-1 and COLO-357 pancreatic cancer cells but not of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, R269C-ESR1 enhanced E2-response elements (ERE) and AP1-dependent transcriptional activity and increased mRNA levels of ERE and AP1-regulated genes in pancreatic cancer cell lines, but had a modest effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Accordingly, whole transcriptome analysis indicated alterations of genes associated with tumorigenicity in pancreatic cancer cells and upregulation of genes associated with cell metabolism and hormone biosynthesis in breast cancer cells.

Conclusions: Our study shed new light on the role of the hinge region in regulating transcriptional activity of the ER and indicates cell-type specific activity, namely increased activity in pancreatic cancer cells but reduced activity in breast cancer cells. While rare, the presence of rs142712646 may serve as a novel genetic risk factor, and a possible target for therapy in a subset of non-ductal pancreatic cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07005-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282172PMC
June 2020

Homologous recombination in lung cancer, germline and somatic mutations, clinical and phenotype characterization.

Lung Cancer 2019 11 12;137:48-51. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Sharett institute of Oncology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: Identifying new predictive biomarkers in lung cancer that will prolong survival for additional subgroups of patients is of utmost importance. We report response to treatment and survival among homologous recombination deficient (HRD) lung cancer patients mostly BRCA mutation carriers to better define the predictive value of HRD status among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated our genetic and pathology database and identified 14 carriers of germline mutation in BRCA1 (n = 5), BRCA2 (n = 8), or PALB2 (n = 1) and a patient with a somatic BRCA2 mutation. Platinum compounds were part of the initial or follow-on treatment protocols in 9/11 with metastatic disease. Overall survival (OS) and response to platinum were analyzed in these patients.

Results: Median OS for the 11 patients was 30 months. The 2- and 3-year survival rates in our cohort were 62.5% and 28.6%, respectively, and 7/10 patients with metastatic lung cancer survived for more than 1 year which compares favorably with the literature. Of eight patients who were treated with platinum compounds, seven responded; however, in two the response endured for <6 months. The Foundation Medicine LOH/HRD genomic score was calculated in three patients and the level was high in 2/3 (66%), including 1/2 tumors in germline BRCA mutation carriers and tumor in the patient with a somatic BRCA2 mutation. In both complete response to platinum was recorded.

Conclusion: Response rate to platinum compounds and survival in these patients do suggest that platinum-based therapies should still be incorporated in our treatment regimen for the patients with HRD lung cancer, and that BRCA and other HRR associated gene testing may be important in lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.09.008DOI Listing
November 2019

Blood-based tumor mutational burden as a predictor of clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with atezolizumab.

Nat Med 2018 09 6;24(9):1441-1448. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.

Although programmed death-ligand 1-programmed death 1 (PD-L1-PD-1) inhibitors are broadly efficacious, improved outcomes have been observed in patients with high PD-L1 expression or high tumor mutational burden (TMB). PD-L1 testing is required for checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy in front-line non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, obtaining adequate tumor tissue for molecular testing in patients with advanced disease can be challenging. Thus, an unmet medical need exists for diagnostic approaches that do not require tissue to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel, technically robust, blood-based assay to measure TMB in plasma (bTMB) that is distinct from tissue-based approaches. Using a retrospective analysis of two large randomized trials as test and validation studies, we show that bTMB reproducibly identifies patients who derive clinically significant improvements in progression-free survival from atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1) in second-line and higher NSCLC. Collectively, our data show that high bTMB is a clinically actionable biomarker for atezolizumab in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0134-3DOI Listing
September 2018

Analytical Validation of a Hybrid Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Clinical Assay for Genomic Profiling of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA.

J Mol Diagn 2018 09 22;20(5):686-702. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Genomic profiling of circulating tumor DNA derived from cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood can provide a noninvasive method for detecting genomic biomarkers to guide clinical decision making for cancer patients. We developed a hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing assay for genomic profiling of circulating tumor DNA from blood (FoundationACT). High-sequencing coverage and molecular barcode-based error detection enabled accurate detection of genomic alterations, including short variants (base substitutions, short insertions/deletions) and genomic re-arrangements at low allele frequencies (AFs), and copy number amplifications. Analytical validation was performed on 2666 reference alterations. The assay achieved >99% overall sensitivity (95% CI, 99.1%-99.4%) for short variants at AF >0.5%, >95% sensitivity (95% CI, 94.2%-95.7%) for AF 0.25% to 0.5%, and 70% sensitivity (95% CI, 68.2%-71.5%) for AF 0.125% to 0.25%. No false positives were detected in 62 samples from healthy volunteers. Genomic alterations detected by FoundationACT demonstrated high concordance with orthogonal assays run on the same clinical cfDNA samples. In 860 routine clinical FoundationACT cases, genomic alterations were detected in cfDNA at comparable frequencies to tissue; for the subset of cases with temporally matched tissue and blood samples, 75% of genomic alterations and 83% of short variant mutations detected in tissue were also detected in cfDNA. On the basis of analytical validation results, FoundationACT has been approved for use in our Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified/College of American Pathologists-accredited/New York State-approved laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593250PMC
September 2018

Distinct age-associated molecular profiles in acute myeloid leukemia defined by comprehensive clinical genomic profiling.

Oncotarget 2018 May 29;9(41):26417-26430. Epub 2018 May 29.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge MA, USA.

Large scale comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) has led to an improved understanding of oncogenic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as identification of alterations that can serve as targets for potential therapeutic intervention. We sought to gain insight into age-associated variants in AML through comparison of extensive DNA and RNA-based GP results from pediatric and adult AML. Sequencing of 932 AML specimens (179 pediatric (age 0-18), 753 adult (age ≥ 19)) from diagnostic, relapsed, and refractory times points was performed. Comprehensive DNA (405 genes) and RNA (265) sequencing to identify a variety of structural and short variants was performed. We found that structural variants were highly prevalent in the pediatric cohort compared to the adult cohort (57% vs. 30%; < 0.001), with certain structural variants detected only in the pediatric cohort. Fusions were the most common structural variant and were highly prevalent in AML in very young children occurring in 68% of children < 2 years of age. We observed an inverse trend in the prevalence of fusions compared to the average number of mutations per patient. In contrast to pediatric AML, adult AML was marked by short variants and multiple mutations per patient. Mutations that were common in adult AML were much less common in the adolescent and young adult cohort and were rare or absent in the pediatric cohort. Clinical CGP demonstrates the biologic differences in pediatric vs. adult AML that have significant therapeutic impacts on prognosis, therapeutic allocation, disease monitoring, and the use of more targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995178PMC
May 2018

Hybrid Capture-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Lung Cancer Patients with Well-Characterized Sensitizing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Point Mutations That Were Not Detected by Standard of Care Testing.

Oncologist 2018 07 14;23(7):776-781. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Foundation Medicine Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor () exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort.

Materials And Methods: DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015). CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 576×. Genomic alterations (pm, small indels, copy number changes and rearrangements) involving were recorded for each case and compared with prior testing results if available.

Results: Overall, there were 482 instances of exon 21 L858R (359) and L861Q (20), exon 18 G719X (73) and exon 20 S768I (30) pm, of which 103 unique cases had prior testing results that were available for review. Of these 103 cases, CGP identified 22 patients (21%) with sensitizing pm that were not detected by SOC testing, including 9/75 (12%) patients with L858R, 4/7 (57%) patients with L861Q, 8/20 (40%) patients with G719X, and 4/7 (57%) patients with S768I pm (some patients had multiple pm). In cases with available clinical data, benefit from small molecule inhibitor therapy was observed.

Conclusion: CGP, even when applied to low tumor purity clinical-grade specimens, can detect well-known pm in NSCLC patients that would otherwise not be detected by SOC testing. Taken together with exon 19 deletions, over 20% of patients who are positive for -activating mutations using CGP are previously negative by SOC mutation testing, suggesting that thousands of such patients per year in the U.S. alone could experience improved clinical outcomes when hybrid capture-based CGP is used to inform therapeutic decisions.

Implications For Practice: This study points out that genomic profiling, as based on hybrid capture next-generation sequencing, can identify lung cancer patients with point mutation in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) missed by standard molecular testing who can likely benefit from anti-EGFR targeted therapy. Beyond the specific findings regarding false-negative point mutation testing for EGFR, this study highlights the need for oncologists and pathologists to be cognizant of the performance characteristics of testing deployed and the importance of clinical intuition in questioning the results of laboratory testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6058345PMC
July 2018

A computational approach to distinguish somatic vs. germline origin of genomic alterations from deep sequencing of cancer specimens without a matched normal.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 02 7;14(2):e1005965. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, MA, United States of America.

A key constraint in genomic testing in oncology is that matched normal specimens are not commonly obtained in clinical practice. Thus, while well-characterized genomic alterations do not require normal tissue for interpretation, a significant number of alterations will be unknown in whether they are germline or somatic, in the absence of a matched normal control. We introduce SGZ (somatic-germline-zygosity), a computational method for predicting somatic vs. germline origin and homozygous vs. heterozygous or sub-clonal state of variants identified from deep massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of cancer specimens. The method does not require a patient matched normal control, enabling broad application in clinical research. SGZ predicts the somatic vs. germline status of each alteration identified by modeling the alteration's allele frequency (AF), taking into account the tumor content, tumor ploidy, and the local copy number. Accuracy of the prediction depends on the depth of sequencing and copy number model fit, which are achieved in our clinical assay by sequencing to high depth (>500x) using MPS, covering 394 cancer-related genes and over 3,500 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Calls are made using a statistic based on read depth and local variability of SNP AF. To validate the method, we first evaluated performance on samples from 30 lung and colon cancer patients, where we sequenced tumors and matched normal tissue. We examined predictions for 17 somatic hotspot mutations and 20 common germline SNPs in 20,182 clinical cancer specimens. To assess the impact of stromal admixture, we examined three cell lines, which were titrated with their matched normal to six levels (10-75%). Overall, predictions were made in 85% of cases, with 95-99% of variants predicted correctly, a significantly superior performance compared to a basic approach based on AF alone. We then applied the SGZ method to the COSMIC database of known somatic variants in cancer and found >50 that are in fact more likely to be germline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5832436PMC
February 2018

Characterization of Clinical Cases of Advanced Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma via Comprehensive Genomic Profiling.

Eur Urol 2018 01 4;73(1):71-78. Epub 2017 Jun 4.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is a rare subset of RCC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data largely reflect localized disease, and there are limited data for advanced PRCC.

Objective: To characterize the frequency of genomic alterations (GAs) in patients with advanced PRCC for whom comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was performed in the context of routine clinical care.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was obtained for 169 consecutive patients with confirmed PRCC. DNA was extracted and comprehensive genomic profiling was performed in a certified central laboratory.

Measurements: Hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation-based libraries of up to 315 genes were sequenced to a median coverage of 648×. All classes of GAs were identified, including substitutions, insertions/deletions, copy number alterations, and rearrangements.

Results And Limitations: From 169 patients, either primary tumor tissue (102 patients, 60%) or metastatic tissue (67 patients, 40%) was collected. In patients with type 1 PRCC, commonly altered genes were MET (33%; 8 activating mutations, 5 amplifications at >6 copies), TERT (30%), CDKN2A/B (13%), and EGFR (8%). In patients with type 2 PRCC, commonly altered genes were CDKN2A/B (18%), TERT (18%), NF2 (13%), and FH (13%); MET GAs (5 mutations, 3 amplifications) were observed in 7% of type 2 cases. Notable differences from TCGA data include higher frequencies of MET, NF2, and CDKN2A/B GAs, association of alterations in SWI/SNF complex genes with type 2 PRCC, and observation of frequent CDKN2A/B alterations in both type 1 and type 2 disease.

Conclusions: Both the current study and the TCGA experience represent similarly sized cohorts of patients with PRCC. Key differences in GA frequency probably underscore the marked difference in stage distribution between these data sets. These results may inform planned precision medicine trials for metastatic PRCC.

Patient Summary: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer, and understanding of the biology of advanced PRCC is limited. This report highlights some of the unique biologic features of PRCC that may inform on future use of targeted therapies for the treatment of metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.05.033DOI Listing
January 2018

High-Throughput Genomic Profiling of Adult Solid Tumors Reveals Novel Insights into Cancer Pathogenesis.

Cancer Res 2017 05 24;77(9):2464-2475. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Genomic profiling is widely predicted to become a standard of care in clinical oncology, but more effective data sharing to accelerate progress in precision medicine will be required. Here, we describe cancer-associated genomic profiles from 18,004 unique adult cancers. The dataset was composed of 162 tumor subtypes including multiple rare and uncommon tumors. Comparison of alteration frequencies to The Cancer Genome Atlas identified some differences and suggested an enrichment of treatment-refractory samples in breast and lung cancer cohorts. To illustrate novelty within the dataset, we surveyed the genomic landscape of rare diseases and identified an increased frequency of alterations in adenoid cystic carcinomas compared with previous studies. Analysis of tumor suppressor gene patterns revealed disease specificity for certain genes but broad inactivation of others. We identified multiple potentially druggable, novel and known kinase fusions in diseases beyond those in which they are currently recognized. Analysis of variants of unknown significance identified an enrichment of alterations in colon cancer and other rare alterations predicted to have functional impact. Analysis of established, clinically relevant alterations highlighted the spectrum of molecular changes for which testing is currently recommended, as well as opportunities for expansion of indications for use of approved targeted therapies. Overall, this dataset presents a new resource with which to investigate rare alterations and diseases, validate clinical relevance, and identify novel therapeutic targets. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-2479DOI Listing
May 2017

RET Fusion Lung Carcinoma: Response to Therapy and Clinical Features in a Case Series of 14 Patients.

Clin Lung Cancer 2017 07 29;18(4):e223-e232. Epub 2016 Oct 29.

Institute of Oncology, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: RET (rearranged during transfection) fusions have been reported in 1% to 2% of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) cases. In contrast, KIF5B-RET and CCDC6-RET fusion genes have been identified in 70% to 90% and 10% to 25% of tumors, respectively. The natural history and management of RET-rearranged LADC are still being delineated.

Materials And Methods: We present a series of 14 patients with RET-rearranged LADC. The response to therapy was assessed by the clinical response and an avatar model in 2 cases. Patients underwent chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Results: A total of 14 patients (8 women; 10 never smokers; 4 light smokers; mean age, 57 years) were included. KIF5B-RET and CCDC6-RET variants were diagnosed in 10 and 4 cases, respectively. Eight patients had an early disseminated manifestation, seven with KIF5B-RET rearranged tumor. The features of this subset included bilateral miliary lung metastases, bone metastases, and unusual early visceral abdominal involvement. One such patient demonstrated an early and durable complete response to cabozantinib for 7 months. Another 2 patients treated with cabozantinib experienced a partial response, with rapid significant clinical improvement. Four patients with tumors harboring CCDC6-RET and KIF5B-RET fusions showed pronounced and durable responses to platinum-based chemotherapy that lasted for 8 to 15 months. Two patients' tumors showed programmed cell death ligand 1-positive staining but did not respond to pembrolizumab. The median overall survival was 22.8 months.

Conclusion: RET-rearranged LADC in our series tended to occur as bilateral disease with early visceral involvement, especially with KIF5B fusion. Treatment with cabozantinib achieved responses, including 1 complete response. However, further studies are required in this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2016.09.003DOI Listing
July 2017

Genomic Profiling of a Large Set of Diverse Pediatric Cancers Identifies Known and Novel Mutations across Tumor Spectra.

Cancer Res 2017 01 9;77(2):509-519. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Pediatric cancers are generally characterized by low mutational burden and few recurrently mutated genes. Recent studies suggest that genomic alterations may help guide treatment decisions and clinical trial selection. Here, we describe genomic profiles from 1,215 pediatric tumors representing sarcomas, extracranial embryonal tumors, brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, carcinomas, and gonadal tumors. Comparable published datasets identified similar frequencies of clinically relevant alterations, validating this dataset as biologically relevant. We identified novel ALK fusions in a neuroblastoma (BEND5-ALK) and an astrocytoma (PPP1CB-ALK), novel BRAF fusions in an astrocytoma (BCAS1-BRAF) and a ganglioglioma (TMEM106B-BRAF), and a novel PAX3-GLI2 fusion in a rhabdomyosarcoma. Previously characterized ALK, NTRK1, and PAX3 fusions were observed in unexpected malignancies, challenging the "disease-specific" alterations paradigm. Finally, we identified recurrent variants of unknown significance in MLL3 and PRSS1 predicted to have functional impact. Data from these 1,215 tumors are publicly available for discovery and validation. Cancer Res; 77(2); 509-19. ©2017 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1106DOI Listing
January 2017

Individualized Molecular Analyses Guide Efforts (IMAGE): A Prospective Study of Molecular Profiling of Tissue and Blood in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Jan 3;23(2):379-386. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: The clinical utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in breast cancer has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that we could perform NGS of a new biopsy from patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in a clinically actionable timeframe.

Experimental Design: We planned to enroll 40 patients onto a prospective study, Individualized Molecular Analyses Guide Efforts (IMAGE), to evaluate the feasibility of obtaining a new biopsy of a metastatic site, perform NGS (FoundationOne), and convene a molecular tumor board to formulate treatment recommendations within 28 days. We collected blood at baseline and at time of restaging to assess cell-free circulating plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA).

Results: We enrolled 26 women with metastatic TNBC who had received ≥1 line of prior chemotherapy, and 20 (77%) underwent NGS of a metastatic site biopsy. Twelve (60%) evaluable patients received treatment recommendations within 28 days of consent. The study closed after 20 patients underwent NGS, based on protocol-specified interim futility analysis. Three patients went on to receive genomically directed therapies. Twenty-four of 26 patients had genetic alterations successfully detected in ptDNA. Among 5 patients, 4 mutations found in tumor tissues were not identified in blood, and 4 mutations found in blood were not found in corresponding tumors. In 9 patients, NGS of follow-up blood samples showed 100% concordance with baseline blood samples.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates challenges of performing NGS on prospective tissue biopsies in patients with metastatic TNBC within 28 days, while also highlighting the potential use of blood as a more time-efficient and less invasive method of mutational assessment. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 379-86. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-1543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241251PMC
January 2017

Profiling of 149 Salivary Duct Carcinomas, Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenomas, and Adenocarcinomas, Not Otherwise Specified Reveals Actionable Genomic Alterations.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Dec 22;22(24):6061-6068. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Purpose: We sought to identify genomic alterations (GA) in salivary gland adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS), salivary duct carcinomas (SDC), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca ex PA), and salivary carcinoma, NOS.

Experimental Design: DNA was extracted from 149 tumors. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was performed on hybridization-captured adaptor ligation-based libraries of 182 or 315 cancer-related genes plus introns from 14 or 28 genes frequently rearranged for cancer and evaluated for all classes of GAs.

Results: A total of 590 GAs were found in 157 unique genes (mean 3.9/tumor). GAs in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were more common in SDC (53.6%) than other histologies (P = 0.019) Cyclin-dependent kinase GAs varied among all histotypes: adenocarcinoma, NOS (34.6%); SDC (12.2%); ca ex PA (16.7%); carcinoma, NOS (31.2%; P = 0.043). RAS GAs were observed: adenocarcinoma, NOS (17.3%); SDC (26.8%); ca ex PA (4.2%); and carcinoma, NOS (9.4%; P = 0.054). ERBB2 GAs, including amplifications and mutations, were common: adenocarcinoma, NOS (13.5%); SDC (26.8%); ca ex PA (29.2%); carcinoma, NOS (18.8; P = 0.249). Other notable GAs include TP53 in >45% of each histotype; NOTCH1: adenocarcinoma, NOS (7.7%), ca ex PA (8.3%), carcinoma, NOS (21.6%); NF1: adenocarcinoma, NOS (9.6%), SDC (17.1%), carcinoma, NOS (18.8%). RET fusions were identified in one adenocarcinoma, NOS (CCDC6-RET) and two SDCs (NCOA4-RET). Clinical responses were observed in patients treated with anti-HER2 and anti-RET-targeted therapies.

Conclusions: CGP of salivary adenocarcinoma, NOS, SDCs, ca ex PA, and carcinoma, NOS revealed diverse GAs that may lead to novel treatment options. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 6061-8. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2568DOI Listing
December 2016

Nonamplification ERBB2 genomic alterations in 5605 cases of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer: An emerging opportunity for anti-HER2 targeted therapies.

Cancer 2016 09 10;122(17):2654-62. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Foundation Medicine Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Background: Activating, nonamplification ERBB2 mutations (ERBB2mut) are not detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but are detected by DNA sequencing and may predict clinical responses to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-targeted therapy. The authors queried 5605 advanced/metastatic breast cancers (mBC) to uncover the frequency of ERBB2mut genomic alterations. Clinical responses to anti-HER2 therapeutics were identified.

Methods: DNA was extracted from 40 µm of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was used to evaluate up to 315 genes (592× mean coverage depth). Results were analyzed for base substitutions, short indels, copy number changes, and selected rearrangements.

Results: Of 5605 cases, 698 (12.5%) featured ERBB2 alterations, including 596 (10.6%) ERBB2 amplifications (ERBB2amp) and 138 (2.4%) ERBB2mut; 38 cases (0.7%) had co-occurring ERBB2amp and ERBB2mut. ERBB2mut predominantly affected the kinase (124 cases; 90%) or extracellular (15 cases; 11%) domains. Both primary BC (52 cases; 38%) and metastatic site biopsies (86 cases; 62%) were found to harbor ERBB2mut, which were distributed across carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) (69 cases; 50%), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) (40 cases; 29%), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) (27 cases; 20%), and mucinous mBC (2 cases; 1%). Genes commonly coaltered with ERBB2 were tumor protein 53 (TP53) (49%); phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (42%); cadherin 1, type 1 (CDH1) (37%); MYC (17%); and cyclin D1 protein (CCND1) (16%). CDH1 mutations were enriched in ERBB2mut mBC (P<0.0006) and associated with recurrent mBC. Selected patients with ERBB2mut, without ERBB2amp, who responded to anti-HER2 targeted therapies are presented herein.

Conclusions: Within this large series, 1.8% of cases harbored ERBB2mut, which are undetectable by standard-of-care IHC or FISH tests. Metastatic BC driven by ERBB2mut respond to anti-HER2 targeted therapies, and expanding clinical trials designed to detect ERBB2mut by CGP and optimize targeted treatments are warranted. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2654-2662. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30102DOI Listing
September 2016

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies a Subset of Crizotinib-Responsive ALK-Rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Not Detected by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

Oncologist 2016 06 31;21(6):762-70. Epub 2016 May 31.

Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Introduction: For patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to benefit from ALK inhibitors, sensitive and specific detection of ALK genomic rearrangements is needed. ALK break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved and standard-of-care diagnostic assay, but identification of ALK rearrangements by other methods reported in NSCLC cases that tested negative for ALK rearrangements by FISH suggests a significant false-negative rate. We report here a large series of NSCLC cases assayed by hybrid-capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) in the course of clinical care.

Materials And Methods: Hybrid-capture-based CGP using next-generation sequencing was performed in the course of clinical care of 1,070 patients with advanced lung cancer. Each tumor sample was evaluated for all classes of genomic alterations, including base-pair substitutions, insertions/deletions, copy number alterations and rearrangements, as well as fusions/rearrangements.

Results: A total of 47 patients (4.4%) were found to harbor ALK rearrangements, of whom 41 had an EML4-ALK fusion, and 6 had other fusion partners, including 3 previously unreported rearrangement events: EIF2AK-ALK, PPM1B-ALK, and PRKAR1A-ALK. Of 41 patients harboring ALK rearrangements, 31 had prior FISH testing results available. Of these, 20 were ALK FISH positive, and 11 (35%) were ALK FISH negative. Of the latter 11 patients, 9 received crizotinib based on the CGP results, and 7 achieved a response with median duration of 17 months.

Conclusion: Comprehensive genomic profiling detected canonical ALK rearrangements and ALK rearrangements with noncanonical fusion partners in a subset of patients with NSCLC with previously negative ALK FISH results. In this series, such patients had durable responses to ALK inhibitors, comparable to historical response rates for ALK FISH-positive cases.

Implications For Practice: Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) that includes hybrid capture and specific baiting of intron 19 of ALK is a highly sensitive, alternative method for identification of drug-sensitive ALK fusions in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had previously tested negative using standard ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) diagnostic assays. Given the proven benefit of treatment with crizotinib and second-generation ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK fusions, CGP should be considered in patients with NSCLC, including those who have tested negative for other alterations, including negative results using ALK FISH testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912370PMC
June 2016

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Clinically Advanced Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Oncology 2016 21;90(6):339-46. Epub 2016 May 21.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the genomic alterations of cancer-related genes in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma during the course of clinical care.

Methods: Hybrid-capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 34 consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma cases to identify all four classes of genomic alterations, and outcome for an index patient was collected.

Results: RET was mutated in 88% (30/34) of cases, with RET M918T being responsible for 70% (21/30) of the RET alterations. The other RET alterations were RET E632_L633del, C634R, C620R, C618G/R/S, V804M, and RET amplification. Two of the four RET wild-type patients harbored mutations in KRAS or HRAS (1/34 each). The next most frequent genomic alterations were amplifications of CCND1, FGF3, and FGF19 and alterations in CDKN2A (3/34 each). One case with a RET M918T mutation developed acquired resistance to progressively dose-escalated vandetanib. When the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was added to continued vandetanib treatment, the patient achieved a second 25% reduction of tumor volume (RECIST 1.1) for 8 months.

Conclusions: Comprehensive genomic profiling identified the full breadth of RET alterations in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and possible cooperating oncogenic driver alterations. This approach may refine the use of targeted therapy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000445978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909575PMC
December 2016

Integrated genomic DNA/RNA profiling of hematologic malignancies in the clinical setting.

Blood 2016 06 10;127(24):3004-14. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Leukemia Center.

The spectrum of somatic alterations in hematologic malignancies includes substitutions, insertions/deletions (indels), copy number alterations (CNAs), and a wide range of gene fusions; no current clinically available single assay captures the different types of alterations. We developed a novel next-generation sequencing-based assay to identify all classes of genomic alterations using archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blood and bone marrow samples with high accuracy in a clinically relevant time frame, which is performed in our Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified College of American Pathologists-accredited laboratory. Targeted capture of DNA/RNA and next-generation sequencing reliably identifies substitutions, indels, CNAs, and gene fusions, with similar accuracy to lower-throughput assays that focus on specific genes and types of genomic alterations. Profiling of 3696 samples identified recurrent somatic alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. This comprehensive genomic profiling approach has proved effective in detecting all types of genomic alterations, including fusion transcripts, which increases the ability to identify clinically relevant genomic alterations with therapeutic relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-08-664649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968346PMC
June 2016

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Frequent Drug-Sensitive EGFR Exon 19 Deletions in NSCLC not Identified by Prior Molecular Testing.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 07 1;22(13):3281-5. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Foundation Medicine Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Purpose: Reliable detection of drug-sensitive activating EGFR mutations is critical in the care of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but such testing is commonly performed using a wide variety of platforms, many of which lack rigorous analytic validation.

Experimental Design: A large pool of NSCLC cases was assayed with well-validated, hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) at the request of the individual treating physicians in the course of clinical care for the purpose of making therapy decisions. From these, 400 cases harboring EGFR exon 19 deletions (Δex19) were identified, and available clinical history was reviewed.

Results: Pathology reports were available for 250 consecutive cases with classical EGFR Δex19 (amino acids 743-754) and were reviewed to assess previous non-hybrid capture-based EGFR testing. Twelve of 71 (17%) cases with EGFR testing results available were negative by previous testing, including 8 of 46 (17%) cases for which the same biopsy was analyzed. Independently, five of six (83%) cases harboring C-helical EGFR Δex19 were previously negative. In a subset of these patients with available clinical outcome information, robust benefit from treatment with EGFR inhibitors was observed.

Conclusions: CGP identifies drug-sensitive EGFR Δex19 in NSCLC cases that have undergone prior EGFR testing and returned negative results. Given the proven benefit in progression-free survival conferred by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with these alterations, CGP should be considered in the initial presentation of advanced NSCLC and when previous testing for EGFR mutations or other driver alterations is negative. Clin Cancer Res; 22(13); 3281-5. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1668DOI Listing
July 2016

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Advanced Penile Carcinoma Suggests a High Frequency of Clinically Relevant Genomic Alterations.

Oncologist 2016 Jan 15;21(1):33-9. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Background: Advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is associated with poor survival due to the aggressiveness of the disease and lack of effective systemic therapies. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was performed to identify clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs).

Materials And Methods: DNA was extracted from 40 μm of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections in patients with advanced PSCC. CGP was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation-based libraries to a mean coverage depth of 692× for 3,769 exons of 236 cancer-related genes plus 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer. CRGAs were defined as genomic alterations (GAs) linked to targeted therapies on the market or under evaluation in mechanism-driven clinical trials.

Results: Twenty male patients with a median age of 60 years (range, 46-87 years) were assessed. Seventeen (85%) cases were stage IV and three cases (15%) were stage III. CGP revealed 109 GAs (5.45 per tumor), 44 of which were CRGAs (2.2 per tumor). At least one CRGA was detected in 19 (95%) cases, and the most common CRGAs were CDKN2A point mutations and homozygous deletion (40%), NOTCH1 point mutations and rearrangements (25%), PIK3CA point mutations and amplification (25%), EGFR amplification (20%), CCND1 amplification (20%), BRCA2 insertions/deletions (10%), RICTOR amplifications (10%), and FBXW7 point mutations (10%).

Conclusion: CGP identified CRGAs in patients with advanced PSCC, including EGFR amplification and PIK3CA alterations, which can lead to the rational administration of targeted therapy and subsequent benefit for these patients.

Implications For Practice: Few treatment options exist for patients with advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC). Outcomes are dismal with platinum-based chemotherapy, with median survival estimated at 1 year or less across multiple series. Biological studies of patients with PSCC to date have principally focused on human papillomavirus status, but few studies have elucidated molecular drivers of the disease. To this end, comprehensive genomic profiling was performed in a cohort of 20 patients with advanced PSCC. Findings of frequent mutations in CDKN2A, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, and EGFR (all in excess of 20%) point to potential therapeutic avenues. Trials of targeted therapies directed toward these mutations should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709208PMC
January 2016

A metastatic colon adenocarcinoma harboring BRAF V600E has a durable major response to dabrafenib/trametinib and chemotherapy.

Onco Targets Ther 2015 1;8:3561-4. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Avera Cancer Institute, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

The subset of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas that harbor BRAF V600E mutations are aggressive tumors with significantly shortened survival and limited treatment options. Here we present a colorectal cancer patient whose disease progressed through standard chemotherapy and who developed liver metastasis. Comprehensive genomic profiling (FoundationOne(®)) identified a BRAF V600E mutation in the liver lesion, as well as other genomic alterations consistent with colorectal cancers. Combination therapy of dabrafenib and trametinib with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy resulted in a durable major ongoing response for the patient. This report illustrates the utility of comprehensive genomic profiling with personalized targeted therapy for aggressive metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S90766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671814PMC
December 2015

Comprehensive genomic profiling of 295 cases of clinically advanced urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder reveals a high frequency of clinically relevant genomic alterations.

Cancer 2016 Mar 9;122(5):702-11. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, California.

Background: In the current study, the authors present a comprehensive genomic profile (CGP)-based study of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) designed to detect clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs).

Methods: DNA was extracted from 40 µm of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 295 consecutive cases of recurrent/metastatic UC. CGP was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation-based libraries to a mean coverage depth of 688X for all coding exons of 236 cancer-related genes plus 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer, using process-matched normal control samples as a reference. CRGAs were defined as GAs linked to drugs on the market or currently under evaluation in mechanism-driven clinical trials.

Results: All 295 patients assessed were classified with high-grade (International Society of Urological Pathology classification) and advanced stage (stage III/IV American Joint Committee on Cancer) disease, and 294 of 295 patients (99.7%) had at least 1 GA on CGP with a mean of 6.4 GAs per UC (61% substitutions/insertions/deletions, 37% copy number alterations, and 2% fusions). Furthermore, 275 patients (93%) had at least 1 CRGA involving 75 individual genes with a mean of 2.6 CRGAs per UC. The most common CRGAs involved cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (34%), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) (21%), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (20%), and ERBB2 (17%). FGFR3 GAs were diverse types and included 10% fusions. ERBB2 GAs were equally divided between amplifications and substitutions. ERBB2 substitutions were predominantly within the extracellular domain and were highly enriched in patients with micropapillary UC (38% of 32 cases vs 5% of 263 nonmicropapillary UC cases; P<.0001).

Conclusions: Using a CGP assay capable of detecting all classes of GA simultaneously, an extraordinarily high frequency of CRGA was identified in a large series of patients with advanced UC. Cancer 2016;122:702-711. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29826DOI Listing
March 2016

Comprehensive genomic profiling of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma reveals a long tail of therapeutic targets.

J Clin Pathol 2016 May 23;69(5):403-8. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Pathology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Aim: We queried whether extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma featured clinically relevant genomic alterations that could lead to targeted therapy.

Methods: Comprehensive genomic profiling by hybridisation capture of up to 315 genes was performed on 99 clinically advanced extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Results: There were 60 male and 39 female patients with a median age of 60.5 years. A total of 400 alterations were identified (mean 4.0; range 0-13) in 84 genes. Eighty-two (83%) of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients featured at least one clinically relevant genomic alterations including KRAS (43%); ERBB2 (9%), PTEN (7%); ATM and NF1 (6%) and CCND1, FBXW7, GNAS, MDM2 and NRAS (all at 5%). BRAF, BRCA2, CDK4, CDK6, FGFR1, FGFR3, PTCH1, RAF1 and STK11 were each altered in a single patient. No IDH1/2 mutations or FGFR2 gene fusions were identified.

Conclusions: Comprehensive genomic profiling of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma differs significantly from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and reveals diverse opportunities for the use of targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2015-203394DOI Listing
May 2016

Evaluation of 122 advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas by comprehensive genomic profiling opens the door for new routes to targeted therapies.

Cancer 2016 Jan 19;122(2):249-57. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York.

Background: The authors hypothesized that comprehensive genomic profiling of advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) could identify genomic-derived drug targets of therapy for patients with conventional therapy-resistant disease.

Methods: Comprehensive genomic profiling of 315 cancer genes was applied to 50 ng of DNA from 122 cSCC cases for the evaluation of all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as those identifying anticancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.

Results: There were 21 women (17%) and 101 men (83%) with a median age of 64.9 years (range, 21-87 years). Eleven cSCC cases (9%) were histologic AJCC grade 1, 69 (57%) were grade 2, and 42 (34%) were grade 3. The primary cSCC was used for sequencing in 77 cases (63%). Metastatic lesions were sequenced in 37% of cases. There were 1120 total GAs identified (average of 9.2 GAs per tumor), with 100% of cases harboring at least 1 alteration. Of the 122 cSCCs, 107 (88%) harbored at least 1 CRGA (2.5 CRGAs per cSCC) includingNOTCH1 (43%); patched 1 (PTCH1) (11%); BRCA2 (10%); HRAS (8%); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) (7%); neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) (6%); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (6%); cyclin D1 (CCND1) (6%); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (5%); and F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (FBXW7) (5%).

Conclusions: In the current study, approximately 88% of patients with cSCC were found to harbor clinically relevant GAs that have the potential to guide the treatment of patients with advanced-stage tumors with targeted therapeutic agents. Cancer 2016;122:249-257. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29738DOI Listing
January 2016

Tumor-specific HSP90 inhibition as a therapeutic approach in JAK-mutant acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

Blood 2015 Nov 6;126(22):2479-83. Epub 2015 Oct 6.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY;

The development of the dual Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitor ruxolitinib for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) has led to studies of ruxolitinib in other clinical contexts, including JAK-mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the limited ability of JAK inhibition to induce molecular or clinicopathological responses in MPNs suggests a need for development of better therapies for JAK kinase-dependent malignancies. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition using a purine-scaffold HSP90 inhibitor in early clinical development is an effective therapeutic approach in JAK-dependent ALL and can overcome persistence to JAK-inhibitor therapy in ALL cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-03-635821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4661170PMC
November 2015

RICTOR Amplification Defines a Novel Subset of Patients with Lung Cancer Who May Benefit from Treatment with mTORC1/2 Inhibitors.

Cancer Discov 2015 Dec 14;5(12):1262-70. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

Unlabelled: We identified amplification of RICTOR, a key component of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), as the sole actionable genomic alteration in an 18-year-old never-smoker with lung adenocarcinoma. Amplification of RICTOR occurs in 13% of lung cancers (1,016 cases) in The Cancer Genome Atlas and at a similar frequency in an independent cohort of 1,070 patients identified by genomic profiling. In the latter series, 11% of cases harbored RICTOR amplification as the only relevant genomic alteration. Its oncogenic roles were suggested by decreased lung cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo with RICTOR ablation, and the transforming capacity of RICTOR in a Ba/F3-cell system. The mTORC1/2 inhibitors were significantly more active against RICTOR-amplified lung cancer cells as compared with other agents targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Moreover, an association between RICTOR amplification and sensitivities to mTORC1/2 inhibitors was observed. The index patient has been treated with mTORC1/2 inhibitors that led to tumor stabilization for more than 18 months.

Significance: RICTOR amplification may define a novel and unique molecular subset of patients with lung cancer who may benefit from treatment with mTORC1/2 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-0971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670806PMC
December 2015

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Esophageal Adenocarcinomas Reveals Similarities and Differences.

Oncologist 2015 Oct 2;20(10):1132-9. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California, USA; The Ohio State University-James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA; National Translational Research Group, New York, New York, USA; Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) and esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) account for >95% of esophageal malignancies and represent a major global health burden. ESCC is the dominant histology globally but represents a minority of U.S. cases, with EAC accounting for the majority of U.S.

Cases: The patient outcomes for advanced ESCC and EAC are poor, and new therapeutic options are needed. Using a sensitive sequencing assay, we compared the genomic profiles of ESCC and EAC with attention to identification of therapeutically relevant genomic alterations.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation-based libraries to a median coverage depth of >650× for all coding exons of 315 cancer-related genes plus selected introns from 28 genes frequently rearranged in cancer. Results from a single sample were evaluated for all classes of genomic alterations (GAs) including point mutations, short insertions and deletions, gene amplifications, homozygous deletions, and fusions/rearrangements. Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as alterations linked to approved drugs and those under evaluation in mechanism-driven clinical trials.

Results: There were no significant differences by sex for either tumor type, and the median age for all patients was 63 years. All ESCCs and EACs were at an advanced stage at the time of sequencing. All 71 ESCCs and 231 EACs featured GAs on profiling, with 522 GAs in ESCC (7.4 per sample) and 1,303 GAs in EAC (5.6 per sample). The frequency of clinically relevant GAs in ESCC was 94% (2.6 per sample) and 93% in EAC (2.7 per sample). CRGAs occurring more frequently in EAC included KRAS (23% EAC vs. 6% ESCC) and ERBB2 (23% EAC vs. 3% ESCC). ESCC samples were enriched for CRGA in PIK3CA (24% ESCC vs. 10% EAC), PTEN (11% ESCC vs. 4% EAC), and NOTCH1 (17% ESCC vs. 3% EAC). Other GAs that differed significantly between histologic tumor types included SMAD4 (14% EAC vs. 1% ESCC), RB1 (14% ESCC vs. 2% EAC), SOX2 (18% ESCC vs. 1% EAC), and NFE2L2 (24% ESCC vs. 1% EAC).

Conclusion: ESCC and EAC share similarly high frequencies of overall and clinically relevant genomic alterations; however, the profiles of genomic alterations in the two diseases differ widely, with KRAS and ERBB2 far more frequently altered in EAC compared with ESCC and with mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway genes (PIK3CA and PTEN) and NOTCH1 more frequently altered in ESCC compared with EAC. Comprehensive genomic profiling highlights the promise of identifying clinically relevant genomic alterations in both ESCC and EAC and suggests new avenues for molecularly directed therapies in esophageal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591943PMC
October 2015

The distribution of BRAF gene fusions in solid tumors and response to targeted therapy.

Int J Cancer 2016 Feb 8;138(4):881-90. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Although the BRAF V600E base substitution is an approved target for the BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, BRAF gene fusions have not been investigated as anticancer drug targets. In our study, a wide variety of tumors underwent comprehensive genomic profiling for hundreds of known cancer genes using the FoundationOne™ or FoundationOne Heme™ comprehensive genomic profiling assays. BRAF fusions involving the intact in-frame BRAF kinase domain were observed in 55 (0.3%) of 20,573 tumors, across 12 distinct tumor types, including 20 novel BRAF fusions. These comprised 29 unique 5' fusion partners, of which 31% (9) were known and 69% (20) were novel. BRAF fusions included 3% (14/531) of melanomas; 2% (15/701) of gliomas; 1.0% (3/294) of thyroid cancers; 0.3% (3/1,062) pancreatic carcinomas; 0.2% (8/4,013) nonsmall-cell lung cancers and 0.2% (4/2,154) of colorectal cancers, and were enriched in pilocytic (30%) vs. nonpilocytic gliomas (1%; p < 0.0001), Spitzoid (75%) vs. nonSpitzoid melanomas (1%; p = 0.0001), acinar (67%) vs. nonacinar pancreatic cancers (<1%; p < 0.0001) and papillary (3%) vs. nonpapillary thyroid cancers (0%; p < 0.03). Clinical responses to trametinib and sorafenib are presented. In conclusion, BRAF fusions are rare driver alterations in a wide variety of malignant neoplasms, but enriched in Spitzoid melanoma, pilocytic astrocytomas, pancreatic acinar and papillary thyroid cancers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5049644PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29825DOI Listing
February 2016

EGFR Kinase Domain Duplication (EGFR-KDD) Is a Novel Oncogenic Driver in Lung Cancer That Is Clinically Responsive to Afatinib.

Cancer Discov 2015 Nov 18;5(11):1155-63. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Unlabelled: Oncogenic EGFR mutations are found in 10% to 35% of lung adenocarcinomas. Such mutations, which present most commonly as small in-frame deletions in exon 19 or point mutations in exon 21 (L858R), confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). In analyzing the tumor from a 33-year-old male never-smoker, we identified a novel EGFR alteration in lung cancer: EGFR exon 18-25 kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD). Through analysis of a larger cohort of tumor samples, we detected additional cases of EGFR-KDD in lung, brain, and other cancers. In vitro, EGFR-KDD is constitutively active, and computational modeling provides potential mechanistic support for its auto-activation. EGFR-KDD-transformed cells are sensitive to EGFR TKIs and, consistent with these in vitro findings, the index patient had a partial response to the EGFR TKI afatinib. The patient eventually progressed, at which time resequencing revealed an EGFR-dependent mechanism of acquired resistance to afatinib, thereby validating EGFR-KDD as a driver alteration and therapeutic target.

Significance: We identified oncogenic and drug-sensitive EGFR-KDD that is recurrent in lung, brain, and soft-tissue cancers and documented that a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring the EGFR-KDD derived significant antitumor response from treatment with the EGFR inhibitor afatinib. Findings from these studies will be immediately translatable, as there are already several approved EGFR inhibitors in clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631701PMC
November 2015

Durable clinical benefit to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic colon adenocarcinoma harboring ERBB2 amplification.

Oncoscience 2015 1;2(6):581-4. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

University of Florida College of Medicine Gainesville, FL, USA.

Somatic ERBB2 amplification or activating mutations occur in approximately 2-5% of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas and are presumed to be oncogenic drivers, but limited evidence exists to suggest these lesions are sensitive to targeted monotherapy in patients. Here we present the case of a patient with advanced CRC with pulmonary metastases, who had progressed on both standard of care cytotoxic chemotherapy and anti-EGFR targeted therapy. Comprehensive genomic profiling (FoundationOne(®)) identified amplification of ERBB2 and a TP53 mutation in the metastatic lesion. Treatment with trastuzumab with a chemotherapy backbone elicited stable disease/minor response in the patient over a one year course of therapy, reducing tumor burden and significantly improving quality of life. This report demonstrates the application of personalized targeted therapy guided by comprehensive genomic profiling in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506361PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncoscience.175DOI Listing
August 2015