Publications by authors named "Dony Maiguel"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of iliotibial band syndrome on pain sensitivity and gait kinematics in female runners: A preliminary study.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2020 06 30;76:105017. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

University of Calgary, Alberta, Calgary, Canada; Running Injury Clinic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Runners with iliotibial band syndrome display symptoms similar to chronic tendinopathy and distinct gait patterns compared to healthy controls. Although altered pain processing has been demonstrated in chronic tendinopathies, central pain processing and its relationship to motor control has not been measured in iliotibial band syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine pain sensitivity, hip strength, and gait kinematics in runners with and without iliotibial band syndrome.

Methods: Nine female runners with iliotibial band syndrome and eight healthy controls participated. Subjective pain was reported and pressure pain threshold measured at the bilateral foot, tibialis anterior, contralateral hand. Isometric hip strength was assessed. Three-dimensional joint angles were collected while running. Differences in pain and strength were determined using 1-way ANOVAs. Discrete hip and knee joint angles during stance phase were calculated and waveform analysis performed.

Findings: Runners with iliotibial band syndrome exhibited bilaterally diminished pain at the foot (injured-limb: 1.54 (SD = 0.51); non-injured limb: 1.54 (SD = 0.55); control: 4.01 (SD = 2.30) kg, P < .001) and ipsilateral tibialis anterior (injured-limb: 2.33 (SD = 1.10); control: 6.13 (SD = 4.89) kg, P = .03). Hip strength was not different between groups. Runners with iliotibial band syndrome had greater hip adduction at touchdown, knee internal rotation during loading, and knee abduction and flexion at toe-off than controls.

Interpretation: Runners with iliotibial band syndrome demonstrated expanded somatic pain sensitivity without hip strength differences, but concomitant with altered gait patterns. Bilateral pain symptoms and gait deviations exist in runners with iliotibial band syndrome even with unilateral symptoms, highlighting the importance of bilateral assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105017DOI Listing
June 2020

Nephrin Contributes to Insulin Secretion and Affects Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Independently of Insulin Receptor.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Apr 23;27(4):1029-41. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida;

Nephrin belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins with a well characterized function as modulators of cell adhesion and guidance, and nephrin may have a role in metabolic pathways linked to podocyte and pancreatic β-cell survival. However, this role is incompletely characterized. In this study, we developed floxed nephrin mice for pancreatic β-cell-specific deletion of nephrin, which had no effect on islet size and glycemia. Nephrin deficiency, however, resulted in glucose intolerance in vivo and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release ex vivo Glucose intolerance was also observed in eight patients with nephrin mutations compared with three patients with other genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome or nine healthy controls.In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate if nephrin affects autocrine signaling through insulin receptor A (IRA) and B (IRB), which are both expressed in human podocytes and pancreatic islets. Coimmunoprecipitation of nephrin and IRB but not IRA was observed and required IR phosphorylation. Nephrin per se was sufficient to induce phosphorylation of p70S6K in an phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent but IR/Src-independent manner, which was not augmented by exogenous insulin. These results suggest a role for nephrin as an independent modulator of podocyte and pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing in the fasting state and the potential of nephrin as a drug target in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015020210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814188PMC
April 2016

Alternative splicing of the RAGE cytoplasmic domain regulates cell signaling and function.

PLoS One 2013 8;8(11):e78267. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America.

The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor present on most cell types. Upregulation of RAGE is seen in a number of pathological states including, inflammatory and vascular disease, dementia, diabetes and various cancers. We previously demonstrated that alternative splicing of the RAGE gene is an important mechanism which regulates RAGE signaling through the production of soluble ligand decoy isoforms. However, no studies have identified any alternative splice variants within the intracellular region of RAGE, a region critical for RAGE signaling. Herein, we have cloned and characterized a novel splice variant of RAGE that has a truncated intracellular domain (RAGEΔICD). RAGEΔICD is prevalent in both human and mouse tissues including lung, brain, heart and kidney. Expression of RAGEΔICD in C6 glioma cells impaired RAGE-ligand induced signaling through various MAP kinase pathways including ERK1/2, p38 and SAPK/JNK. Moreover, RAGEΔICD significantly affected tumor cell properties through altering cell migration, invasion, adhesion and viability in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, C6 glioma cells expressing RAGEΔICD exhibited drastic inhibition on tumorigenesis in soft agar assays. Taken together, these data indicate that RAGEΔICD represents a novel endogenous mechanism to regulate RAGE signaling. Significantly, RAGEΔICD could play an important role in RAGE related disease states through down regulation of RAGE signaling.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0078267PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832623PMC
July 2014

Abatacept in B7-1-positive proteinuric kidney disease.

N Engl J Med 2013 Dec 8;369(25):2416-23. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

From the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (C.-C.Y., A.W., S.H., D.B., M.A.A., A.G., P.M.), Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School (A.W.), and Division of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Boston (P.F.) - all in Boston; the Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine (C.-C.Y.), and Department of Internal Medicine (J.-M.C., H.-C.C.), Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension (A.F., D.M., M.H.F., C.F., V.G.) and Lilian Jean Kaplan Division of Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation, Miami Transplant Institute, Department of Surgery (J.S., L.C., G.C., G.W.B.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami; the Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (K.N.C.); and Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (J.O.).

Abatacept (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein [CTLA-4-Ig]) is a costimulatory inhibitor that targets B7-1 (CD80). The present report describes five patients who had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (four with recurrent FSGS after transplantation and one with primary FSGS) and proteinuria with B7-1 immunostaining of podocytes in kidney-biopsy specimens. Abatacept induced partial or complete remissions of proteinuria in these patients, suggesting that B7-1 may be a useful biomarker for the treatment of some glomerulopathies. Our data indicate that abatacept may stabilize β1-integrin activation in podocytes and reduce proteinuria in patients with B7-1-positive glomerular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1304572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951406PMC
December 2013

Podocyte-specific GLUT4-deficient mice have fewer and larger podocytes and are protected from diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetes 2014 Feb 7;63(2):701-14. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900538PMC
February 2014

Cyclodextrin protects podocytes in diabetic kidney disease.

Diabetes 2013 Nov 8;62(11):3817-27. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease despite multifactorial intervention. We demonstrated that increased cholesterol in association with downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 occurs in normal human podocytes exposed to the sera of patients with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria (DKD(+)) when compared with diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DKD(-)) and similar duration of diabetes and lipid profile. Glomerular downregulation of ABCA1 was confirmed in biopsies from patients with early DKD (n = 70) when compared with normal living donors (n = 32). Induction of cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin (CD) but not inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin prevented podocyte injury observed in vitro after exposure to patient sera. Subcutaneous administration of CD to diabetic BTBR (black and tan, brachiuric) ob/ob mice was safe and reduced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, kidney weight, and cortical cholesterol content. This was followed by an improvement of fasting insulin, blood glucose, body weight, and glucose tolerance in vivo and improved glucose-stimulated insulin release in human islets in vitro. Our data suggest that impaired reverse cholesterol transport characterizes clinical and experimental DKD and negatively influences podocyte function. Treatment with CD is safe and effective in preserving podocyte function in vitro and in vivo and may improve the metabolic control of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806621PMC
November 2013

Rearrangement of microtubule network under biochemical and mechanical stimulations.

Methods 2013 Apr 4;60(2):195-201. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Cells are constantly under the influence of various external forces in their physiological environment. These forces are countered by the viscoelastic properties of the cytoskeleton. To understand the response of the cytoskeleton to biochemical and mechanical stimuli, GFP-tubulin expressing CHO cells were investigated using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Cells treated with nocodazole revealed disruption in the microtubule network within minutes of treatment while keeping the cell shape intact. By contrast, trypsin, a proteolytic agent, altered the shape of CHO cells by breaking the peptide bonds at adhesion sites. CHO cells were also stimulated mechanically by applying an indentation force with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber. Mechanical stimulation applied using AFM showed two distinct cytoskeletal responses to the applied force: an immediate response that resulted in the depolymerization and displacement of the microtubules out of the contact zone, and a slower response characterized by tubulin polymerization at the periphery of the indented area. Flow chamber experiments revealed that shear force did not induce formation of new microtubules in CHO cells and that detachment of adherent cells from the substrate occurred independent from the flow direction. Overall, the experimental system described here allows real-time characterization of dynamic changes in cell cytoskeleton in response to the mechano-chemical stimuli and, therefore, provides better understanding of the biophysical and functional properties of cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.02.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3669668PMC
April 2013

Dynamin-mediated Nephrin phosphorylation regulates glucose-stimulated insulin release in pancreatic beta cells.

J Biol Chem 2012 Aug 20;287(34):28932-42. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami L. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

We have previously demonstrated a role for Nephrin in glucose stimulated insulin release (GSIR). We now hypothesize that Nephrin phosphorylation is required for GSIR and that Dynamin influences Nephrin phosphorylation and function. MIN6-C3 Nephrin-deficient pancreatic beta cells and human islets were transfected with WT-Nephrin or with a mutant Nephrin in which the tyrosine residues responsible for SH2 domain binding were substituted with phenylalanine (3YF-Nephrin). GSIR and live images of Nephrin and vesicle trafficking were studied. Immunoprecipitation experiments and overexpression of WT-Dynamin or dominant negative Dynamin mutant (K44A-Dynamin) in WT-Nephrin, 3YF-Nephrin, or Nephrin siRNA-transfected cells were utilized to study Nephrin-Dynamin interaction. In contrast to WT-Nephrin or to single tyrosine mutants, 3YF-Nephrin did not positively affect GSIR and led to impaired cell-cell contacts and vesicle trafficking. K44A-Dynamin prevented the effect of Nephrin on GSIR in the absence of protein-protein interaction between Nephrin and Dynamin. Nephrin gene silencing abolished the positive effects of WT-Dynamin on GSIR. The effects of protamine sulfate and vanadate on Nephrin phosphorylation and GSIR were studied in MIN6 cells and human islets. WT-Nephrin phosphorylation after glucose occurred at Tyr-1176/1193 and resulted in improved GSIR. On the contrary, protamine sulfate-induced phosphorylation at Tyr-1176/1193/1217 was associated with Nephrin degradation and impaired GSIR. Vanadate, which prevented Nephrin dephosphorylation after glucose stimulation, improved GSIR in human islets and MIN6 cells. In conclusion, Dynamin-dependent Nephrin phosphorylation occurs in response to glucose and is necessary for Nephrin-mediated augmentation of GSIR. Pharmacological modulation of Nephrin phosphorylation may thus facilitate pancreatic beta cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.389452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3436561PMC
August 2012

Small molecule-mediated activation of the integrin CD11b/CD18 reduces inflammatory disease.

Sci Signal 2011 Sep;4(189):ra57

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

The integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1), which is a heterodimer of the α(M) (CD11b) and β(2) (CD18) subunits, is critical for leukocyte adhesion and migration and for immune functions. Blocking integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion, although beneficial in experimental models, has had limited success in treating inflammatory diseases in humans. Here, we used an alternative strategy of inhibiting leukocyte recruitment by activating CD11b/CD18 with small-molecule agonists, which we term leukadherins. These compounds increased the extent of CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion of transfected cells and of primary human and mouse neutrophils, which resulted in decreased chemotaxis and transendothelial migration. Leukadherins also decreased leukocyte recruitment and reduced arterial narrowing after injury in rats. Moreover, compared to a known integrin antagonist, leukadherins better preserved kidney function in a mouse model of experimental nephritis. Leukadherins inhibited leukocyte recruitment by increasing leukocyte adhesion to the inflamed endothelium, which was reversed with a blocking antibody. Thus, we propose that pharmacological activation of CD11b/CD18 offers an alternative therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.2001811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507414PMC
September 2011

Circulating urokinase receptor as a cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Nat Med 2011 Jul 31;17(8):952-60. Epub 2011 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of proteinuric kidney disease, compromising both native and transplanted kidneys. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown serum factors. Here we report that serum soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is elevated in two-thirds of subjects with primary FSGS, but not in people with other glomerular diseases. We further find that a higher concentration of suPAR before transplantation underlies an increased risk for recurrence of FSGS after transplantation. Using three mouse models, we explore the effects of suPAR on kidney function and morphology. We show that circulating suPAR activates podocyte β(3) integrin in both native and grafted kidneys, causing foot process effacement, proteinuria and FSGS-like glomerulopathy. Our findings suggest that the renal disease only develops when suPAR sufficiently activates podocyte β(3) integrin. Thus, the disease can be abrogated by lowering serum suPAR concentrations through plasmapheresis, or by interfering with the suPAR-β(3) integrin interaction through antibodies and small molecules targeting either uPAR or β(3) integrin. Our study identifies serum suPAR as a circulating factor that may cause FSGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.2411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089394PMC
July 2011

High-throughput screening based identification of small molecule antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 ligand binding.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Mar 25;394(1):194-9. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high-throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065194PMC
March 2010

Identification of novel agonists of the integrin CD11b/CD18.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Dec 22;19(24):6902-6. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine and University of Miami, Miami, FL 33176, USA.

We report the identification of novel small molecule agonists of integrin CD11b/CD18, which increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the adhesion of the integrin CD11b/CD18 expressing cells to two physiologically relevant ligands: Fibrinogen and iC3b. Compound 6 showed an ex vivo EC(50) of 10.5 microM and in vitro selectivity for binding to the recombinant alphaA-domain of CD11b/CD18. In silico docking experiments suggest that the compounds recognized a hydrophobic cleft in the ligand-binding alphaA-domain, implying an allosteric mechanism of modulation of integrin affinity by this novel compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.10.077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818319PMC
December 2009

Proteomic and phospho-proteomic profile of human platelets in basal, resting state: insights into integrin signaling.

PLoS One 2009 Oct 27;4(10):e7627. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

During atherogenesis and vascular inflammation quiescent platelets are activated to increase the surface expression and ligand affinity of the integrin alphaIIbbeta3 via inside-out signaling. Diverse signals such as thrombin, ADP and epinephrine transduce signals through their respective GPCRs to activate protein kinases that ultimately lead to the phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail of the integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and augment its function. The signaling pathways that transmit signals from the GPCR to the cytosolic domain of the integrin are not well defined. In an effort to better understand these pathways, we employed a combination of proteomic profiling and computational analyses of isolated human platelets. We analyzed ten independent human samples and identified a total of 1507 unique proteins in platelets. This is the most comprehensive platelet proteome assembled to date and includes 190 membrane-associated and 262 phosphorylated proteins, which were identified via independent proteomic and phospho-proteomic profiling. We used this proteomic dataset to create a platelet protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and applied novel contextual information about the phosphorylation step to introduce limited directionality in the PPI graph. This newly developed contextual PPI network computationally recapitulated an integrin signaling pathway. Most importantly, our approach not only provided insights into the mechanism of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation in resting platelets but also provides an improved model for analysis and discovery of PPI dynamics and signaling pathways in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007627PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762604PMC
October 2009

Identification of tubby and tubby-like protein 1 as eat-me signals by phage display.

Exp Cell Res 2010 Jan 22;316(2):245-57. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1638 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Phagocytosis is an important process for the removal of apoptotic cells or cellular debris. Eat-me signals control the initiation of phagocytosis and hold the key for in-depth understanding of its molecular mechanisms. However, because of difficulties to identify unknown eat-me signals, only a limited number of them have been identified and characterized. Using a newly developed functional cloning strategy of open reading frame (ORF) phage display, we identified nine putative eat-me signals, including tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1). This further led to the elucidation of tubby as the second eat-me signal in the same protein family. Both proteins stimulated phagocytosis of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and macrophages. Tubby-conjugated fluorescent microbeads facilitated RPE phagocytosis. Tubby and Tulp1, but not other family members, enhanced the uptake of membrane vesicles by RPE cells in synergy. Retinal membrane vesicles of Tubby mice and Tulp1(-/-) mice showed reduced activities for RPE phagocytosis, which were compensated by purified tubby and Tulp1, respectively. These data reveal a novel activity of tubby and Tulp1, and demonstrate that unbiased identification of eat-me signals by the broadly applicable strategy of ORF phage display can provide detailed insights into phagocyte biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789476PMC
January 2010

The fatty acid transport protein (FATP) family: very long chain acyl-CoA synthetases or solute carriers?

J Mol Neurosci 2007 Sep;33(1):25-31

Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Cellular fatty acids typically derive from uptake from the extracellular milieu and, to a lesser extent, de novo synthesis. Extracellular fatty acids must traverse the plasma membrane, after which they are activated to their CoA thioesters for subsequent metabolism. Both uptake and metabolism are rapid processes, and there has been considerable debate as to whether transport of fatty acids across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane proceeds by diffusion or requires transport proteins. One group of proteins proposed to translocate fatty acids is the six-member Fatty Acid Transport Protein (FATP) family. These proteins were designated as such because when overexpressed, host cells exhibited higher rates of accretion of radioactive or fluorescent fatty acids. However, one member of this family, FATP2, is identical to an enzyme with very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSVL) activity. This enzyme (ACSVL1 or FATP2), was isolated using classical protein purification techniques. In fact, the six-member ACSVL protein family is identical to the six-member FATP family. We and others have established that all six proteins have acyl-CoA synthetase activity. It remains to be established whether they participate in the physical translocation process, or facilitate transport by trapping, as CoA derivatives, fatty acids that enter cells by diffusion. To characterize the biological functions of the ACSVLs, we are investigating the properties of the overexpressed proteins and the endogenous proteins. We observed that for many ACSVLs, the subcellular location of the overexpressed protein differs from that of the endogenous protein. Using RNA interference (siRNA), we knocked down expression of FATP4 (proposed name: ACSVL5) in Neuro2a cells. Activation of both long-chain (C16:0) and very long-chain fatty acids (C24:0) was decreased when FATP4 was depleted. Despite decreased enzyme activity, initial rates of uptake of [14C]C16:0 were not affected when FATP4 was depleted. In contrast, COS-1 cells overexpressing FATP4 showed enhanced [14C]C16:0 uptake. Neither endogenous (Neuro2a) nor overexpressed (COS-1) FATP4 was localized to plasma membrane under routine cell culture conditions, but rather were found in intracellular membrane compartments. We conclude that, in the cell lines studied, endogenous FATP4 does not function to translocate FA across the plasma membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-007-0038-zDOI Listing
September 2007

Evidence for 26 distinct acyl-coenzyme A synthetase genes in the human genome.

J Lipid Res 2007 Dec 30;48(12):2736-50. Epub 2007 Aug 30.

Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSs) catalyze the fundamental, initial reaction in fatty acid metabolism. "Activation" of fatty acids by thioesterification to CoA allows their participation in both anabolic and catabolic pathways. The availability of the sequenced human genome has facilitated the investigation of the number of ACS genes present. Using two conserved amino acid sequence motifs to probe human DNA databases, 26 ACS family genes/proteins were identified. ACS activity in either humans or rodents was demonstrated previously for 20 proteins, but 6 remain candidate ACSs. For two candidates, cDNA was cloned, protein was expressed in COS-1 cells, and ACS activity was detected. Amino acid sequence similarities were used to assign enzymes into subfamilies, and subfamily assignments were consistent with acyl chain length preference. Four of the 26 proteins did not fit into a subfamily, and bootstrap analysis of phylograms was consistent with evolutionary divergence. Three additional conserved amino acid sequence motifs were identified that likely have functional or structural roles. The existence of many ACSs suggests that each plays a unique role, directing the acyl-CoA product to a specific metabolic fate. Knowing the full complement of ACS genes in the human genome will facilitate future studies to characterize their specific biological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M700378-JLR200DOI Listing
December 2007

Nucleophosmin sets a threshold for p53 response to UV radiation.

Mol Cell Biol 2004 May;24(9):3703-11

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, School of Medicine, and Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-1503, USA.

Because activation of p53 can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, it is necessary for a cell to suppress this activation until it is absolutely required for survival. The mechanisms underlying this important regulatory event are poorly understood. Here we show that nucleophosmin (NPM) acts as a natural repressor of p53 by setting a threshold for p53 activation in response to UV radiation. NPM binds to the p53 N terminus and inhibits p53 transcriptional activity by more than 70%. Our data indicate that the levels of NPM in a cell determine the UV dose at which the tumor suppressor p53 can be phosphorylated on Ser15. Moreover, we show that NPM is a substrate for the UV-activated protein kinase ATR and inhibits the UV-induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser15. In addition, NPM forms a complex with p53 and ATR in vivo. These data suggest that NPM is an early responder to DNA damage that prevents premature activation of p53. In normal cells, NPM could contribute to suppressing p53 activation until its functions are absolutely required while in cancer cells overexpression of NPM could contribute to p53 inactivation and tumor progression.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC387774PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mcb.24.9.3703-3711.2004DOI Listing
May 2004

Phosphorylation regulates nucleophosmin targeting to the centrosome during mitosis as detected by cross-reactive phosphorylation-specific MKK1/MKK2 antibodies.

Biochem J 2004 Mar;378(Pt 3):857-65

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Phosphorylation-specific antibodies provide a powerful tool for analysing the regulation and activity of proteins in the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and other signalling pathways. Using synchronized cells, it was observed that phosphorylation-specific antibodies developed against the active form of MKK1/MKK2 (MAP kinase kinase-1 and -2) reacted with a protein that was approx. 35 kDa during G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Failure of the 35 kDa protein to react with phosphorylation-independent MKK1/MKK2 antibodies suggested that this protein was not related to MKK1 or MKK2. Thus the 35 kDa protein was isolated by immunoprecipitation with the phospho-MKK1/MKK2 antibody and identified by MS. Peptide sequence analysis revealed matches with NPM (nucleophosmin/B23), a phosphoprotein involved in nucleolar assembly, centrosome duplication and ribosome assembly and transport. Biochemical and immunocytochemistry analyses verified that the phospho-MKK1/MKK2 antibodies cross-reacted with NPM that was phosphorylated at Thr234 and Thr237 during G2/M-phase, which are the same sites that are targeted by Cdc2 (cell division cycle protein-2) during mitosis. Using phosphorylation site mutants, we show that phosphorylation of Thr234 and Thr237 is required for NPM immunoreactivity with the phospho-MKK1/MKK2 antibody. Moreover, phosphorylation of Thr234 and Thr237 was demonstrated to regulate NPM localization to the centrosome after nuclear envelope breakdown in mitotic cells. These findings reveal a new insight into the role of phosphorylation in regulating NPM targeting during mitosis. However, caution should be used when using commercially available phospho-MKK1/MKK2 antibodies to examine the regulation of MKK1/MKK2 during mitotic transitions, owing to their cross-reactivity with phosphorylated NPM at this time of the cell cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20031173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1224030PMC
March 2004

Identification of nucleolin and nucleophosmin as genotoxic stress-responsive RNA-binding proteins.

Nucleic Acids Res 2002 May;30(10):2251-60

University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Medicine, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, 108 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-1503, USA.

Genotoxic stress (DNA damage) can elicit multiple responses in mammalian cells, including the activation of numerous cascades of signal transduction that result in the activation of cellular genes involved in growth control, DNA repair and apoptosis. In an earlier report, we have shown that DNA-damaging agents can also induce the RNA-binding activity of several specific proteins that favor a double stem-loop RNA structure. Here we report the purification and identification of nucleophosmin (NPM) and nucleolin as two genotoxic stress-responsive RNA-binding proteins. UV radiation induces the protein expression levels and RNA-binding activity of NPM while nucleolin RNA-binding activity increases after UV or ionizing radiation exposure. Moreover, we have identified 40 mRNA ligands that are potentially regulated by nucleolin, several of which are stress-responsive transcripts. In addition, our data indicate that activation of nucleolin RNA-binding activity by genotoxic stress is mediated by stress-activated protein kinase p38. Our findings suggest that activation of the RNA-binding properties of nucleolin and NPM is part of the cellular response to genotoxic stress.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC115285PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/30.10.2251DOI Listing
May 2002