Publications by authors named "Dongui Hong"

3 Publications

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The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 among 79 countries: cross-sectional comparison and their correlation with associated factors.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Sep 8:e2021061. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparison. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.

Methods: The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R2). The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.

Results: The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R2 between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.8520 for all ages and 0.9452 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly.

Conclusion: Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation between countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, prevention such as vaccination is more important especially for the elderly population to minimize the mortality rates in the elderly population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061DOI Listing
September 2021

Association between pyrethroids and prostate endpoints; stratified according to renal function.

Environ Int 2021 08 2;153:106489. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Health Policy and Management, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Pyrethroids, one of the most commonly used pesticide classes, are considered to be selectively toxic toward insects rather than toward humans. However, there are accumulating data about pyrethroids toxicity in humans, especially sex organs. Thus, we investigated whether pyrethroids affected reproductive organs, especially the prostate gland.

Methods: With 1305 subjects who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, several measurements were performed: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a common metabolite of pyrethroids; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); and other covariates. Both logistic and linear regression analyses were performed after stratifying according to kidney function, which was evaluated based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Results: By logistic regression, the ORs (95% CIs) of the highest quantile to the reference group for higher total PSA were 2.039 (1.018 - 4.084) in the total study population and 2.219 (1.083-4.548) in the high eGFR group. The ORs (95% CIs) of the highest quantile to the reference group for a lower PSA ratio were 1.979 (1.057 - 3.707) in the total study population and 2.101 (1.086 - 4.064) in the high eGFR group. By linear regression, a marginally significant positive correlation between urinary 3-PBA and total PSA (β ± Standard Error = 0.049 ± 0.026, p = 0.0712) and a significant positive correlation between urinary 3-PBA and PSA ratio (β ± Standard Error = 0.018 ± 0.007, p = 0.0191) among the low eGFR group were observed.

Conclusion: This study showed that exposure to pyrethroids was associated with either increased levels of total PSA or alterations in the PSA ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106489DOI Listing
August 2021

Types of COVID-19 clusters and their relationship with social distancing in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 17;106:363-369. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Center for Healthy Society and Education, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03087, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The complete contact tracing of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) cases in South Korea allows a unique opportunity to investigate cluster characteristics. This study aimed to investigate all reported COVID-19 clusters in the Seoul metropolitan area from January 23 to September 24, 2020.

Methods: Publicly available COVID-19 data was collected from the Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeonggi Province. Community clusters with ≥5 cases were characterized by size and duration, categorized using K-means clustering, and the correlation between the types of clusters and the level of social distancing investigated.

Results: A total of 134 clusters comprised of 4033 cases were identified. The clusters were categorized into small (type I and II), medium (type III), and large (type IV) clusters. A comparable number of daily reported cases in different time periods were composed of different types of clusters. Increased social distancing was related to a shift from large to small-sized clusters.

Conclusions: Classification of clusters may provide opportunities to understand the pattern of COVID-19 outbreaks better and implement more effective suppression strategies. Social distancing administered by the government may effectively suppress large clusters but may not effectively control small and sporadic clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.02.058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889017PMC
May 2021
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