Publications by authors named "Dong-Gu Shin"

93 Publications

Long-term effects of the mean hemoglobin A1c levels after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 Nov 14;36(6):1365-1376. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background/aims: The clinical benefit of strict blood glucose-lowering therapy for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still debated. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with diabetes who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), according to the mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level after PCI.

Methods: We evaluated 675 diabetes patients with CAD treated with PCI. We categorized the study population into three groups based on the mean observed HbA1c levels during the follow-up duration, as follows: aggressive control (AC) group (HbA1c level < 6.5%, n = 148), moderate control (MC) group (HbA1c level ≥ 6.5% and < 7.0%, n = 138), and uncontrolled (UC) group (HbA1c level ≥ 7.0%, n = 389). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, repeat target vessel revascularization, and stroke.

Results: The mean HbA1c level of the AC group was significantly lower than that of the MC and UC groups (6.04% ± 0.36% vs. 6.74% ± 0.14% vs. 8.39% ± 1.20%, p < 0.001). The incidence of MACCEs was significantly lower in the AC group than in the MC and UC groups (16.0% vs. 24.3% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.010), mostly driven by the incidence of stroke (4.4% vs. 14.0% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.013). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that only the AC group was associated with a reduced rate of MACCEs (hazard ratio, 0.499; 95% confidence interval, 0.316 to 0.786; p = 0.004) compared with the UC group.

Conclusion: Our study showed that intensive glycemic control (HbA1c level < 6.5%) is associated with improved clinical outcomes after PCI in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588978PMC
November 2021

Electrocardiographic Manifestations in Patients with COVID-19: Daegu in South Korea.

Korean Circ J 2021 Oct;51(10):851-862

Division of Cardiology, Daegu Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background And Objectives: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads worldwide, cardiac injury in patients infected with COVID-19 becomes a significant concern. Thus, this study investigates the impact of several electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Seven medical centers in Daegu admitted 822 patients with COVID-19 between February and April 2020. This study examined 267 patients among them who underwent an ECG test and evaluated their biochemical parameters like C-reactive protein (CRP), log N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac enzyme, and ECG parameters (heart rate, PR interval, QRS interval, T inversion, QT interval, and Tpe [the interval between peak to end in a T wave]).

Results: Those patients were divided into 3 groups of mild (100 patients), moderate (89 patients), and severe (78 patients) according to clinical severity score. The level of CRP, log NT-proBNP, and creatinine kinase-myocardial band were significantly increased in severe patients. Meanwhile, severe patients exhibited prolonged QT intervals (QTc) and Tpe (Tpe-c) compared to mild or moderate patients. Moreover, deceased patients (58; 21.7%) showed increased dispersion of QTc and Tpe-c compared with surviving patients (78.2±41.1 vs. 40.8±24.6 ms and 60.2±37.3 vs. 40.8±24.5 ms, both p<0.05, respectively). The QTc dispersion of more than 56.1 ms could predict the mortality in multivariate analysis (odd ratio, 11.55; 95% confidence interval, 3.746-42.306).

Conclusions: COVID-19 infections could involve cardiac injuries, especially cardiac repolarization abnormalities. A prolonged QTc dispersion could be an independent predictable factor of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2021.0116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484995PMC
October 2021

Clinical impact of blood pressure variability in patients with COVID-19 and hypertension.

Blood Press Monit 2021 Oct;26(5):348-356

Division of Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood pressure variability (BPV) and clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and hypertension.

Methods: A total of 136 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Patients were grouped according to the presence of hypertension and BPV. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) measured at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. was analyzed, and BPV was calculated as the coefficient of variation of MAP (MAPCV). High BPV was defined as MAPCV values above the median. We compared the age, level of C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), creatinine and in-hospital mortality and investigated the relationship among the groups.

Results: COVID-19 patients with hypertension were older (70 ± 12 vs. 53 ± 17 years; P < 0.001), had higher levels of CRP (9.4 ± 9.2 vs. 5.3 ± 8.2 mg/dL; P = 0.009), MAPCV (11.4 ± 4.8 vs. 8.9 ± 3.2; P = 0.002), and higher in-hospital mortality (19.6% vs. 5.9%; P = 0.013) than those without hypertension. There was a proportional relationship between BPV and age, levels of CRP, CK-MB, NT-proBNP, creatinine and in-hospital mortality (all, P < 0.05). In Cox regression analysis, advanced age [≥80 years, hazard ratio (HR) 10.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.264-47.772, P = 0.003] and higher MAPCV (HR 1.617, 95% CI, 1.281-2.040, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: High BPV in COVID-19 patients with hypertension is significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Advanced age and systemic inflammation are proportional to high BPV. Additional attention is needed for COVID-19 patients with hypertension and high BPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423029PMC
October 2021

Clinical Implication of 'Obesity Paradox' in Elderly Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Heart Lung Circ 2021 Apr 1;30(4):481-488. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Background: The clinical impact of body mass index (BMI), especially in the elderly with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), has not been sufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of BMI in very old patients (≥80 years) with AMI.

Methods: The study analysed 2,489 AMI patients aged ≥80 years from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry and the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction (KAMIR/KorMI) registries between November 2005 and March 2012. The study population was categorised into four groups based on their BMI: underweight (n=301), normal weight (n=1,150), overweight (n=890), and obese (n=148). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation, and target vessel revascularisation.

Results: Baseline characteristics among the four groups were similar, except for hypertension (45.1 vs 58.4 vs 66.2 vs 69.9%, respectively; p<0.001) and diabetes (16.6 vs 23.6 vs 30.7 vs 35.1%, respectively; p<0.001). Coronary care unit length of stay was significantly different among the four groups during hospitalisation (5.3±5.9 vs 4.8±6.8 vs 4.2±4.0 vs 3.5±2.1 days; p=0.007). MACE (16.9 vs 14.9 vs 13.7 vs 8.8%; p=0.115) and cardiac death (10.3 vs 8.4 vs 7.9 vs 4.1%; p=0.043) less frequently occurred in the obese group than in other groups during the 1-year follow-up. A multivariate regression model showed obese status (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m) as an independent predictor of reduced MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.69; p=0.010) along with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%) as a predictor of increased MACE (HR,1.87; 95% CI, 1.31-2.68; p=0.001).

Conclusion: Body mass index in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction was significantly associated with coronary care unit stay and clinical cardiovascular outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2020.08.013DOI Listing
April 2021

A prospective, observational study of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: the XANAP Korea.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 07 11;36(4):906-913. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke accounts for 20% of ischemic strokes. Rivaroxaban use in AF patients for preventing stroke and systemic embolism was approved in 2013 in Korea. This study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban use in Korean patients with non-valvular AF in a real-world setting.

Methods: This was an analysis of the Korean patients in Xarelto for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia-Pacific (XANAP), which was a prospective, observational cohort study including patients with non-valvular AF starting rivaroxaban treatment to prevent stroke or non-central nervous system systemic embolism (non-CNS SE), conducted in 10 Asian countries.

Results: A total of 844 patients were enrolled in the Korean portion of the XANAP study. In XANAP Korea, the mean age was 70.1 years and 62.6% were males. The mean CHADS2 score was 2.5 and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.8. 47% of the patients had experienced prior stroke or non-CNS SE or transient ischemic attack. 73.6% of the patients had CHADS2 score ≥ 2. Incidence proportions of 0.8% of the patients (1.1 per 100 patient-years) developed adjudicated treatment-emergent major bleeding. Death was observed in 1.2% of the patients. The incidence of non-major bleeding as well as thromboembolic event were 8.4% (11.6 per 100 patient-years) and 1.5% (2.0 per 100 patient-years), respectively.

Conclusion: This study reaffirmed the consistent safety profile of rivaroxaban. We found consistent results with overall XANAP population for rivaroxaban in terms of safety in non-valvular AF patients for the prevention of stroke and non-CNS SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273835PMC
July 2021

Adherence to dabigatran and the influence of dabigatran-induced gastrointestinal discomfort in the real-world practice.

Int J Cardiol 2021 01 14;323:77-82. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Dabigatran-induced gastrointestinal discomfort (DGID) is an important factor influencing the adherence to dabigatran. We investigated the incidence and risk factors of DGID and its impact on the adherence and persistence to dabigatran.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled the patients prescribed with dabigatran in 10 tertiary hospitals of the South Korea. The adherence was assessed using the percentage of the prescribed doses of the medication presumably taken by the patient (PDT by pill count). We evaluated the relationship between DGID and the baseline GI symptoms or the previous GI disease history using a questionnaire.

Results: A total of 474 patients (mean age 67.8 ± 9.3 years, male 68.6%, and mean CHADS-VASc score 2.2 ± 1.2) were enrolled. The adherence assessed by the PDT was 93.5 ± 5.5% at 1-month and 96.4 ± 8.4% at 6-months among the persistent patients. During the 6-month follow-up, 82 (18.1%) patients discontinued dabigatran, and the most common reason for dabigatran discontinuation was DGID (49, 59.8%). Sixty-eight (14.3%) patients experienced DGID, and there was no difference in the clinical factors between those with or without DGID. Among the patients who experienced DGID, 42 discontinued dabigatran (61.8%). In a multivariate analysis, DGID was the only predictor of dabigatran discontinuation and a low adherence.

Conclusion: Overall adherence of dabigatran was excellent, but those with DGID showed low adherence and persistence. Furthermore, it was challenging to predict DGID by clinical parameters. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the patients closely to check for DGID when prescribing dabigatran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.032DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Impact of Dysglycemia in Patients with an Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Diabetes Metab J 2021 03 16;45(2):270-274. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

This study aimed to determine the impact of dysglycemia on myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction in acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs). From 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,593 patients with AMIs who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. The patients were classified into five groups according to the admission glucose level: ≤80, 81 to 140, 141 to 200, 201 to 260, and ≥261 mg/dL. The clinical and echocardiographic parameters and 30-day mortality were analyzed. The peak troponin I and white blood cell levels had a positive linear relationship to the admission glucose level. The left ventricular ejection fraction had an inverted U-shape trend, and the E/E' ratio was U-shaped based on euglycemia. The 30-day mortality also increased as the admission glucose increased, and the cut-off value for predicting the mortality was 202.5 mg/dL. Dysglycemia, especially hyperglycemia, appears to be associated with myocardial injury and could be another adjunctive parameter for predicting mortality in patients with AMIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024153PMC
March 2021

Clinical Impact of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy and Mortality Prediction Model for Effective Primary Prevention in Korean Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Mar 9;35(9):e49. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Studies on the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention in Asian patients are relatively lacking compared to those for secondary prevention. Also, it is important to stratify which patients will benefit from ICD therapy for primary prevention.

Methods: Of 483 consecutive patients who received new implantation of ICD in 9 centers in Korea, 305 patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or documented ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia were enrolled and divided into primary (n = 167) and secondary prevention groups (n = 138).

Results: During mean follow-up duration of 2.6 ± 1.6 years, appropriate ICD therapy occurred in 78 patients (25.6%), and appropriate ICD shock and anti-tachycardia pacing occurred in 15.1% and 15.1% of patients, respectively. Appropriate ICD shock rate was not different between the two groups (primary 12% vs. secondary 18.8%, = 0.118). However, appropriate ICD therapy rate including shock and anti-tachycardia pacing was significantly higher (primary 18% vs. secondary 34.8%, = 0.001) in the secondary prevention group. Type of prevention and etiology, appropriate and inappropriate ICD shock did not affect all-cause death. High levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association functional class, low levels of estimated glomerular filtration ratio, and body mass index were associated with death before appropriate ICD shock in the primary prevention group. When patients were categorized in 5 risk score groups according to the sum of values defined by each cut-off level, significant differences in death rate before appropriate ICD shock were observed among risk 0 (0%), 1 (3.6%), 2 (3%), 3 (26.5%), and 4 (40%) ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: In this multicenter regional registry, the frequency of appropriate ICD therapy is not low in the primary prevention group. In addition, combination of poor prognostic factors of heart failure is useful in risk stratification of patients who are not benefiting from ICD therapy for primary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061144PMC
March 2020

Impact of Oxidative Stress on Long-Term Heart Rate Variability: Linear Versus Non-Linear Heart Rate Dynamics.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 Aug 10;29(8):1164-1173. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a widely used non-invasive and quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic control. Elevated oxidative stress (OS) and reduced HRV have been proven in specific disease subsets. However, the impact of OS on the long-term heart rate dynamics of both conventional linear and non-linear origin in the general population is not known.

Methods: The 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings and plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels as an OS marker were acquired simultaneously in 71 consecutive patients. The conventional time and frequency domain HRV parameters and non-linear parameters were measured.

Results: The 8-iso-PGF2α is a significant determinant of most long-term conventional time and frequency domain HRV parameters and standard deviation (SD1, perpendicular to the line of identity; SD2, along the line of identity) descriptors from Poincaré plot analysis, but not of non-linear complexity and fractal parameters. Patients with a high OS burden had lower absolute low-frequency and high-frequency powers during both the night and morning periods, with a significant decrease in high-frequency power in the morning.

Conclusions: Oxidative stress is one of the significant determinants of the HRV. The severity of OS is reflected in the conventional time and frequency domain HRV parameters, but not in the non-linear measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2019.06.726DOI Listing
August 2020

Status of international normalized ratio control and treatment patterns in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation taking vitamin K antagonist with or without antiplatelet therapy: Results from KORAFII registry.

J Arrhythm 2019 Aug 17;35(4):593-601. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Biostatistics College of Medicine Korea University Seoul Korea.

Background: Studies have shown that the concomitant use of a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and an antiplatelet (APL) drug increased the bleeding risk and was less effective at preventing ischemic events. This study aimed to investigate the control status of international normalized ratio (INR) and the discontinuation rate of a VKA in patients taking VKA plus an APL drug compared with those taking a VKA alone.

Methods: Data were extracted from the KORean Atrial Fibrillation Investigation II registry, a multicenter noninterventional prospective observational study. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with CHADS scores ≥ 1 who newly started (within 3 months) a VKA were enrolled and followed up for 1 year.

Results: A total of 866 NVAF patients (mean age, 67.7 years; 60.3% men) without a bleeding history were divided into the VKA+APL (n = 229) and VKA alone (n = 637) groups. During follow-up, mean INR level was lower in the VKA+APL group than in the VKA alone group (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 1.9 ± 0.9,  = 0.0005). INR levels were poorly controlled in both groups (66.1% and 64.7%, respectively). Patients in the VKA+APL group more frequently discontinued VKA than patients in the VKA alone group (28.8% vs 24.2%,  = 0.045). Major causes of VKA discontinuation were uncontrolled INR level and patient dissatisfaction or concerns.

Conclusions: The conditions of NVAF patients were inadequately controlled with VKA with or without an APL. These findings suggest that other antithrombotic treatment options are warranted in NVAF patients to achieve INR control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joa3.12183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686287PMC
August 2019

Long-term clinical outcomes according to the mean observed blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease after drug-eluting stent implantation.

J Hypertens 2019 09;37(9):1898-1905

Yeungnam University College of Medicine.

Background: A recent guideline emphasized strict blood pressure (BP) control for the patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. However, there are little data about the relationship between BP control and clinical outcome in Korea. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the mean observed BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who had undergone drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation.

Methods: We reviewed records of 1010 CAD patients with DES from 2010 through 2011. After excluding in-hospital mortality cases (n = 79), we categorized patients into two groups based on the average SBP (SBP) at the outpatient clinic: mean SBP 120 mmHg or less (n = 290) and mean SBP greater than 120 mmHg (n = 641). Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, repeat target vessel revascularization, or stroke. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline clinical variables. Median follow-up duration was 77.7 (36.6-87.3) months.

Results: The mean SBP greater than 120 mmHg had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes (38.4 vs. 27.2%, P = 0.001), hypertension (58.8 vs. 32.4%, P < 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (3.3 vs. 1.0%, P = 0.043) than mean SBP 120 mmHg or less. MACCE incidence was significantly lower in the mean SBP 120 mmHg or less than in the mean SBP greater than 120 mmHg (14.3 vs. 22.0%, P = 0.007) at 77.7 months. Even after propensity score matching, the mean SBP 120 mmHg or less showed significantly reduced MACCE rate (14.3 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.007).

Conclusion: Mean observed SBP 120 mmHg or less was associated with a lower incidence of future adverse outcomes in CAD patients with DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002127DOI Listing
September 2019

Rationale, design, and endpoints of the 'DEvice-Detected CArdiac Tachyarrhythmic Events and Sleep-disordered Breathing (DEDiCATES)' study: Prospective multicenter observational study of device-detected tachyarrhythmia and sleep-disordered breathing.

Int J Cardiol 2019 04 15;280:69-73. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Cardiology, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Few studies have investigated the prognostic value of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)-detection of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) for risk stratification of cardiovascular events. In the Device-Detected CArdiac Tachyarrhythmic events and Sleep-disordered breathing (DEDiCATES) study, we aim to determine whether device-detected SDB events are associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods And Design: Six-hundred patients (300 patients with low-voltage pacing devices and 300 with high-voltage defibrillator devices) who have dual chamber CIEDs with AP Scan™ function (Boston Scientific Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA) are planned to be enrolled in this study. AP Scan reports the average number of sleep disturbance events per hour per night in the form of a Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI). The daily RDI values are to be used for quantitative measurement of the severity and burden of SDB. CIED-detected atrial high rate episodes (AHREs) and clinical atrial tachyarrhythmia will be assessed as the primary outcomes over a follow-up period of 2 years. Correlations between CIED-detected SDB and AHRE burdens will be analyzed. The secondary outcomes are CIED-detected or clinical ventricular arrhythmic events, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, mortality, and quality of life.

Conclusion: This study will determine the prognostic value of automated diagnostic function of CIED for SDB, which will help to improve the cardiovascular prognoses of CIED patients by enabling convenient and accurate assessments of SDB events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.045DOI Listing
April 2019

Quality of Anticoagulation and Treatment Satisfaction in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Vitamin K Antagonist: Result from the KORean Atrial Fibrillation Investigation II.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Dec 21;33(49):e323. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) to prevent thromboembolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients has limitations such as drug interaction. This study investigated the clinical characteristics of Korean patients treated with VKA for stroke prevention and assessed quality of VKA therapy and treatment satisfaction.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, non-interventional study. Patients with CHADS ≥ 1 and treated with VKA (started within the last 3 months) were enrolled from April 2013 to March 2014. Demographic and clinical features including risk factors of stroke and VKA treatment information was collected at baseline. Treatment patterns and international normalized ratio (INR) level were evaluated during follow-up. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) > 60% indicated well-controlled INR. Treatment satisfaction on the VKA use was measured by Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) after 3 months of follow-up.

Results: A total of 877 patients (age, 67; male, 60%) were enrolled and followed up for one year. More than half of patients (56%) had CHADS ≥ 2 and 83.6% had CHADS-VASc ≥ 2. A total of 852 patients had one or more INR measurement during their follow-up period. Among those patients, 25.5% discontinued VKA treatment during follow-up. Of all patients, 626 patients (73%) had poor-controlled INR (TTR < 60%) measure. Patients' treatment satisfaction measured with TSQM was 55.6 in global satisfaction domain.

Conclusion: INR was poorly controlled in Korean NVAF patients treated with VKA. VKA users also showed low treatment satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262187PMC
December 2018

Relationship between consciousness and injury of ascending reticular activating system in patients with hypoxic ischaemic brain injury.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 04 9;90(4):493-494. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-318366DOI Listing
April 2019

Corrigendum: Hemorheologic Alterations in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Presented with an Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Diabetes Metab J 2018 06;42(3):254

Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

This corrects the article on p. 155 in vol. 42, PMID: 29676545.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015959PMC
June 2018

Hemorheologic Alterations in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Presented with an Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Diabetes Metab J 2018 Apr;42(2):155-163

Department of Chemical Pathology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Hemorheologic indices are known to be related to vascular complications in variable clinical settings. However, little is known about the associations between hemorheologic parameters and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the changes of hemorheologic environment inside of blood using hemorheologic parameters, especially the elongation index (EI) and critical shear stress (CSS) in diabetics with versus without AMI.

Methods: A total of 195 patients with T2DM were enrolled. Patients were divided into the study group with AMI (AMI+, n=77) and control group (AMI-, n=118) who had no history of coronary artery disease. Hemorheologic parameters such as EI and CSS were measured and compared between the two groups.

Results: The EI was lower (30.44%±1.77% in AMI+ and 31.47%±1.48% in AMI-, P<0.001) but the level of CSS was higher (316.13±108.20 mPa in AMI+ and 286.80±85.34 mPa in AMI-, P=0.040) in the AMI+. The CSS was significantly related to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R²=0.497, P<0.001) and use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (R²=0.574, P=0.048).

Conclusion: Diabetics with AMI resulted in adverse hemorheologic changes with lower EI and higher CSS compared to diabetic subjects without AMI. Evaluation of the hemorheologic parameters may provide valuable supplementary information for managing patients with AMI and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.2.155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911519PMC
April 2018

Discordant Relationships between Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Burden of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Korean Circ J 2017 Sep 14;47(5):752-761. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) by amplifying the inflammatory cascade, wherein augmented inflammation facilitates the atrial electrical remodeling process. Few studies have investigated the possible link between systemic inflammation and OS in AF.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 220 consecutive patients with AF (117 patients) or healthy controls (103 patients) were enrolled. Among the 117 AF patients, 65 paroxysmal AF (PaAF) and 52 persistent AF (PeAF) patients were included. The level of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was measured as a marker of OS burden. We evaluated the correlations between 3 systemic inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW), and 8-iso-PGF2α.

Results: The 8-iso-PGF2α concentration in both PaAF and PeAF patients was higher than that of controls (p<0.001 and p=0.024, respectively). The NLR and RDW of PeAF patients were higher than those of both control and PaAF patients (p=0.041 and p=0.031 for NLR, p=0.057 and p=0.031 for RDW, respectively). There were no correlations between specific inflammatory markers and the 8-iso-PGF2α in AF. The 8-iso-PGF2α level decreased gradually with an increase in AF duration (p=0.008), contrary to the graded increase in hsCRP. Multiple regression analysis indicated that AF duration persisted as a significant determinant of 8-iso-PGF2α (β=-0.249, p=0.044).

Conclusion: Systemic inflammatory marker levels were not proportional to the levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, an OS marker, in AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2017.0024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5614951PMC
September 2017

Comparison of Fixed-dose Combinations of Amlodipine/Losartan Potassium/Chlorthalidone and Amlodipine/Losartan Potassium in Patients With Stage 2 Hypertension Inadequately Controlled With Amlodipine/Losartan Potassium: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter, Phase III Study.

Clin Ther 2017 Oct 19;39(10):2049-2060. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Department of cardiology cardiovascular center, Seoul Medical center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine/losartan potassium/chlorthalidone (A/L/C) and A/L in Korean patients with stage 2 hypertension inadequately controlled by A/L.

Methods: This study was an 8-week, randomized double-blind, multicenter, phase III clinical trial. Three hundred forty volunteer patients with stage 2 hypertension were randomized to receive A/L/C or A/L. The primary end point was a change in sitting systolic blood pressure (SitSBP) after 8 weeks of treatment. As secondary end points, the change in SitSBP after 2 weeks of treatment and the change in sitting diastolic blood pressure (SitDBP) were compared between treatment groups. All patients were assessed for adverse events, clinical laboratory data, and vital signs.

Findings: Of 330 patients from 33 medical centers, 328 patients who had available efficacy data were analyzed. After 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, the mean (SD) changes in SitSBP at 8 weeks were -16.4 (0.9) mm Hg and -6.9 (1.0) mm Hg in the A/L/C and A/L groups, respectively. A/L/C had a statistically superior blood pressure-lowering effect compared with that of A/L (mean [SD] difference, 9.5 [1.3] mm Hg; P < 0.001). The mean (SD) change in SitDBP at 8 weeks was significantly greater with A/L/C (-8.0 [0.6] mm Hg) than with A/L (-3.6 [0.6] mm Hg) (P < .001). In terms of the mean (SD) change in SitDBP at 2 weeks compared with baseline, A/L/C (-5.9 [0.5] mm Hg) was statistically different from A/L (-2.9 [0.5] mm Hg) (P < .001). Mean (SD) SitSBP change from baseline to week 2 was -13.2 (0.9) and -5.5 (0.9) in the A/L/C and A/L groups, respectively, with a statistically significant blood pressure-lowering effect (P < 0.001). The number of participants who achieved target blood pressure at week 8 was significantly higher in the A/L/C group (93 patients [55.7%]) than in the A/L group (48 [29.8%]) (P < 0.001). Adverse drug reactions were observed in 23 patients (7.0%), and the incidence of dizziness was significantly higher in the A/L/C group than in the A/L group (4.8% vs 0.6%, P = 0.037) There were no serious adverse events associated with the study drugs.

Implications: The results of this study suggest that A/L/C had a significantly increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy compared with that of A/L and had a good safety profile. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02916602.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2017.08.013DOI Listing
October 2017

Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a persistent left superior vena cava.

Europace 2018 07;20(7):1168-1174

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, 56, Dalseong-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu, Korea.

Aims: A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly. This venous anomaly can impact the evaluation and treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVA). The aim of this study was to assess the proportion and characteristics of PLSVC in adult SVA patients.

Methods And Results: From July 2002 to July 2012, clinical and procedural data from databases of 10 cardiac electrophysiology laboratories in the Yeungnam region of the Republic of Korea were reviewed. Of 6662 adult SVA patients who underwent an EP study or catheter ablation of SVA during the 10-year study period, 18 patients had PLSVC (mean age 47.6 ± 14.8 years, 10 men). The proportion of PLSVC in adult SVA patients was 0.27% (18/6662). SVA type and procedural outcomes of radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation in these patients were investigated and the results were as follows: successful slow pathway modification in six of seven patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), successful ablation of accessory pathway in three of four patients with atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, and successful ablation of atrial tachycardia (cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent in two, septal macroreentry in one, focal from the PLSVC in one) in three of four patients. In one patient with junctional tachycardia, catheter ablation failed. In two patients with atrial fibrillation, catheter ablation was successful.

Conclusion: Among adult SVA patients who underwent an EP study or RF catheter ablation during the 10-year study period, 0.27% had PLSVC. The most common type of SVA was AVNRT. The success rate of catheter ablation was 82% in SVA patients with PLSVC. There were no procedure-related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/eux164DOI Listing
July 2018

Normative Values of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Parameters in Koreans and Their Clinical Value for the Prediction of Mortality.

Heart Lung Circ 2018 May 17;27(5):576-587. Epub 2017 May 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an important clinical tool for characterising cardiac autonomic status. We sought to determine the normative values and characteristics of the HRV parameters derived from a short-term study in Koreans and to determine their clinical role in predicting mortality.

Methods: A total of 1828 consecutive patients (range 20-84 years, men 64.8%) with no serious comorbid conditions were recruited. The RR intervals from 10-minute electrocardiograms were used for computation of the following HRV parameters: conventional time- and frequency-domain measures and nonlinear measures.

Results: A greater age-dependence of most conventional parameters, including the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers, was observed than that of the Shannon entropy (ShanEn), approximate entropy (ApEn), and sample entropy. Fifty-four patients (14 cardiac deaths) died during a 10-year follow-up period. The LF/HF ratio (odds ratio [OR], 0.876; p=0.025), ShanEn (OR, 0.372; p=0.028), and ApEn (OR, 0.093; p=0.030) were found to be predictors of all-cause mortality in the multivariate regression analysis. Age was also a powerful risk factor for all-cause mortality (OR, 1.141; p<0.001).

Conclusions: We presented the normative values and characterised the short-term HRV parameters in Koreans. Among the short-term nonlinear parameters, the ShanEn and ApEn were adjunctive parameters for predicting the all-cause mortality in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2017.04.009DOI Listing
May 2018

Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy for Heart Failure Patients according to Ischemic or Non-Ischemic Etiology in Korea.

Korean Circ J 2017 Jan 27;47(1):72-81. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea.

Background And Objectives: This study was performed to describe clinical characteristics of patients with left ventriculars (LV) dysfunction and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), and to evaluate the effect of ICD therapy on survival in Yeongnam province of Korea.

Subjects And Methods: From a community-based device registry (9 centers, Yeongnam province, from November 1999 to September 2012), 146 patients with LV dysfunction and an ICD implanted for primary or secondary prophylaxis, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, based on the etiology (73 with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 73 with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy), and indication for the device implantation (36 for primary prevention and 110 for secondary prevention). The cumulative first shock rate, all cause death, and type and mode of death, were determined according to the etiology and indication.

Results: Over a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, the overall ICD shock rate was about 39.0%. ICD shock therapy was significantly more frequent in the secondary prevention group (46.4% vs. 16.7%, p=0.002). The cumulative probability of a first appropriate shock was higher in the secondary prevention group (p=0.015). There was no significant difference in the all-cause death, cardiac death, and mode of death between the groups according to the etiology and indication.

Conclusion: Studies from this multicenter regional registry data shows that in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, the ICD shock therapy rate was higher in the secondary prevention group than primary prevention group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2016.0242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5287190PMC
January 2017

The efficacy and safety of co-administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin to patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 01 5;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148, Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, 08308, Republic of Korea.

Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the co-administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in patients with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

Methods: We conducted a randomized double-blind and parallel-group trial. Patients who met eligible criteria after 4 weeks of therapeutic life change were randomly assigned to the following groups. 1) co-administration of fimasartan 120 mg/rosuvastatin 20 mg (FMS/RSV), 2) fimasartan 120 mg (FMS) alone 3) rosuvastatin 20 mg (RSV) alone. Drugs were administered once daily for 8 weeks.

Results: Of 140 randomized patients, 135 for whom efficacy data were available were analyzed. After 8 weeks of treatment, the FMS/RSV treatment group showed greater reductions in sitting systolic (siSBP) and diastolic (siDBP) blood pressures than those in the group receiving RSV alone (both p < 0.001). Reductions in siSBP and siDBP were not significantly different between the FMS/RSV and FMS alone groups (p = 0.500 and p = 0.734, respectively). After 8 weeks of treatment, FMS/RSV treatment showed greater efficacy in percentage reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level from baseline than that shown by FMS alone treatment (p < 0.001). The response rates of siSBP with FMS/RSV, FMS alone, and RSV alone treatments were 65.22, 55.56, and 34.09%, respectively (FMS/RSV vs. RSV, p = 0.006). The LDL-C goal attainment rates with FMS/RSV, RSV alone, and FMS alone treatments were 80.43%, 81.82%, and 15.56%, respectively (FMS/RSV vs. FMS, p < 0.001). Incidence of adverse drug reactions with FMS/RSV treatment was 8.33%, which was similar to those associated with FMS and RSV alone treatments.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the co-administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin to patients with both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was efficacious and safe.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02166814 . 16 June 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-016-0112-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217661PMC
January 2017

Five-year clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents according to on-label and off-label use.

Korean J Intern Med 2016 Jul 25;31(4):678-84. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Background/aims: To compare the clinical outcomes of 'on-label' and 'off-label' drug-eluting stents (DESs) over a 5-year follow-up period.

Methods: A total of 929 patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to on-label (n = 449) and off-label (n = 480) indications. Off-label use was defined as implantation of DESs for acute myocardial infarction (MI), very small vessel, a long stenotic lesion, chronic total occlusion, a bifurcation lesion, an ostial lesion, left main coronary artery disease, multivessel disease, a saphenous vein graft lesion, and a lesion with thrombus. Endpoints were composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), which included all-cause death, ischemic-driven target vessel revascularization (Id-TVR), MI, and stent thrombosis (ST). Clinical outcomes in the two groups were compared for up to 5 years postimplantation.

Results: At 1 year postimplantation, the off-label group had higher incidences of total MACEs (8.2% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.005), Id-TVR (5.0% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.004), and ST (1.7% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.042), and at 5 years postimplantation, the off-label group continued to have higher incidences of total MACEs (17.5% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.001), Id-TVR (13.1% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.024), and ST (2.1% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.021). Multivessel disease and diabetes were found to be independent risk factors of MACE in patients with an off-label indication.

Conclusions: Patients treated with an on-label DES had better long-term clinical outcomes than those treated with an off-label DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2015.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939495PMC
July 2016

Genetic Variation of SCN5A in Korean Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome.

Korean Circ J 2016 Jan 14;46(1):63-71. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Due to recent studies that have shown an association between the genetic variation of SCN5A and sick sinus syndrome (SSS), we sought to determine if a similar correlation existed in Korean patients with SSS.

Subjects And Methods: We enrolled 30 patients with SSS who showed a sinus pause (longer than 3.0 s) in Holter monitoring, in addition to 80 controls. All exons including the putative splicing sites of the SCN5A gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced either directly or following subcloning. Wild-type and single nucleotide polymorphisms were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, and the peak sodium current (INa ) was analyzed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.

Results: A total of 9 genetic variations were identified: 7 variations (G87A-A29A, IVS9-3C>A, A1673G-H558R, G3823A-D1275N, T5457C-D1819D, T5963G-L1988R, and C5129T-S1710L) had been previously reported, and 2 variants (A3075T-E1025D and T4847A-F1616Y) were novel; the potential structural effects of F1616Y were analyzed in a three-dimensional model of the SCN5A domain. Patch-clamp studies at room temperature demonstrated that the peak INa was significantly increased by 140% in HEK cells transfected with F1616Y compared with wild-type (-335.13 pA/pF±24.04, n=8 vs. -139.95 pA/pF±23.76, n=7, respectively). Furthermore, the voltage dependency of the activation and steady-state inactivation of F1616Y were leftward-shifted compared with wild-type (Vh activation=-55.36 mv±0.22, n=8 vs. Vh activation=-44.21 mV±0.17, n=7; respectively; Vh inactivation=-104.47 mV±0.21, n=7 vs. Vh inactivation=-84.89 mV±0.09, n=12, respectively).

Conclusion: F1616Y may be associated with SSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2016.46.1.63DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720851PMC
January 2016

Cor Triatriatum Sinister - Source of Unusual Thrombogenesis in Mitral Stenosis.

Circ J 2016 1;80(1):256-7. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Division of Cardiology, Yeungnam University Medical Center.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0729DOI Listing
October 2016

Increased variability of the coupling interval of premature ventricular contractions as a predictor of cardiac mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

Circ J 2015 10;79(11):2360-6. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Cardiovascular Division, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center.

Background: The characteristics and prognostic value of the variability of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling intervals (CIs) for cardiac mortality are not yet decisive.

Methods and results: In 133 consecutive patients (58±14 years old, 53 women) who had left ventricular dysfunction (LVD: ejection fraction <50%) and frequent PVCs (≥10/h) who underwent 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography (AECG) recording and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography simultaneously, the heart rate turbulence onset, slope, and T-wave alternans were analyzed from the 24-h AECG. The CI of the PVCs (MEANNV), standard deviation of the CI of the PVCs (SDNV) as an index of the variability of the PVC CI, and their ratio to the preceding N-N intervals (SDNV/SDNN) were calculated from constructed Poincaré plots using the annotated 24-h AECG QRS data. The primary endpoint was cardiac mortality. The mean follow-up period was 63 months. Among 133 patients, 114 survived (group 1) and 19 (14%, group 2) died during the follow-up. The MEANNVand SDNVwere higher in group 2 (539±104 vs. 599±114 ms, P=0.021; 64±34 vs. 83±37 ms, P=0.022, respectively). The SDNV, PVC count, and delayed heart/mediastinum ratio remained as significant predictors of cardiac mortality in the binary logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the SDNVcould be another adjunctive parameter for predicting cardiac mortality in LVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0732DOI Listing
August 2016

Randomized clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring and physician care in reducing office blood pressure.

Hypertens Res 2015 Jul 19;38(7):491-7. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

LG Electronics, Seoul, Korea.

The effectiveness of remote patient monitoring and physician care for the treatment of hypertension has not been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring with or without remote physician care in reducing office blood pressure in patients with hypertension. A total of 374 hypertensive patients over 20 years of age were randomized into the following three groups: group (1) control, the patients received usual clinical care with home BP monitoring; group (2) the patients were remotely monitored and received office follow-up; and group (3) the patients received remote monitoring without physician office care using the remote monitoring device. For each group, in-office follow-up care was scheduled every 8 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the difference in sitting SBP at the 24-week follow-up. No difference between the three groups was observed in the primary end point (adjusted mean sitting SBP was as follows: group 1: -8.9±15.5 mm Hg, group 2: -11.3±15.9 mm Hg, group 3: -11.6±19.8 mm Hg, (NS). Significant differences in achieving the target BP at the 24th week of follow-up were observed between groups 1 and 2. The subjects over 55-years old had a significant decrease in the adjusted mean sitting SBP in groups 2 and 3 compared with that of the control group. Remote monitoring alone or remote monitoring coupled with remote physician care was as efficacious as the usual office care for reducing blood pressure with comparable safety and efficacy in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.32DOI Listing
July 2015

Treatment patterns and their outcomes of acute aortic intramural hematoma in real world: multicenter registry for aortic intramural hematoma.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2014 Aug 19;14:103. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, 170, Hyeonchung-ro, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-717, Republic of Korea.

Background: Intramural hematoma of the aorta (IMH), a variant of classic aortic dissection, shows very dynamic process in the early phase. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with acute aortic IMH from real world registry data.

Methods: We analyzed 165 consecutive patients with acute IMH from five medical centers in Korea. All patients were divided into two groups; type A (n = 61, 37.0%) and type B (n = 104, 63.0%) according to the Stanford classification. Clinical outcomes and morphological evolution by CT were analyzed for 2 years.

Results: Most of the patients (77.0% of type A and 99.0% of type B, P < 0.001) were treated medically during their initial hospitalization. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (4.9% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.671) and 2-year mortality (13.1% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.765) between two groups. During the 2-year follow up period, progression to aortic dissection (18.0% vs. 6.7%, P = 0.037) and surgical treatment (29.5% vs. 2.9%, P < 0.001) were higher in type A. For the type A patients, there were no significant difference in in-hospital mortality (7.1% of surgery vs. 4.3% of medical, P = 0.428) and 2-year mortality (7.1% of surgery vs. 14.9% of medical, P = 0.450) in terms of initial treatment strategy.

Conclusion: For real world practice in Korea, most of IMH patients were treated medically at presentation and showed favorable outcomes. Thus, even in type A acute IMH, early medical treatment with alternative surgical conversion for selected, complicated cases would be a favorable treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-14-103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4144028PMC
August 2014

"Optimal" cutoff value of heart rate; appraisal based on heart rate variability and C-reactive protein.

Int J Cardiol 2014 Sep 12;176(2):497-9. Epub 2014 Jul 12.

Cardiovascular Division, Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu 705-717, South Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.061DOI Listing
September 2014
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