Publications by authors named "Dong Zhao"

857 Publications

Ant colony optimization with Cauchy and greedy Levy mutations for multilevel COVID 19 X-ray image segmentation.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 3;136:104609. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Key Laboratory of IntelligentTreatment and Life Support for Critical Diseases of Zhejiang Provincial, Wenzhou, China; Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Critical Care and Artificial Intelligence, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

This paper focuses on the study of multilevel COVID-19 X-ray image segmentation based on swarm intelligence optimization to improve the diagnostic level of COVID-19. We present a new ant colony optimization with the Cauchy mutation and the greedy Levy mutation, termed CLACO, for continuous domains. Specifically, the Cauchy mutation is applied to the end phase of ant foraging in CLACO to enhance its searchability and to boost its convergence rate. The greedy Levy mutation is applied to the optimal ant individuals to confer an improved ability to jump out of the local optimum. Furthermore, this paper develops a novel CLACO-based multilevel image segmentation method, termed CLACO-MIS. Using 2D Kapur's entropy as the CLACO fitness function based on 2D histograms consisting of non-local mean filtered images and grayscale images, CLACO-MIS was successfully applied to the segmentation of COVID-19 X-ray images. A comparison of CLACO with some relevant variants and other excellent peers on 30 benchmark functions from IEEE CEC2014 demonstrates the superior performance of CLACO in terms of search capability, and convergence speed as well as ability to jump out of the local optimum. Moreover, CLACO-MIS was shown to have a better segmentation effect and a stronger adaptability at different threshold levels than other methods in performing segmentation experiments of COVID-19 X-ray images. Therefore, CLACO-MIS has great potential to be used for improving the diagnostic level of COVID-19. This research will host a webservice for any question at https://aliasgharheidari.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254401PMC
July 2021

Association of Parenteral Anticoagulation Therapy with Outcomes in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Without Invasive Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Our previous study showed that parenteral anticoagulation therapy (PACT) in the context of aggressive antiplatelet therapy failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, the roles of PACT in patients managed medically remains unknown. This observational cohort study enrolled NSTE-ACS patients receiving medical therapy from November 2014 to June 2017 in the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome project. Eligible patients were included in the PACT group and non-PACT group. The primary outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality and major bleeding. The secondary outcome included minor bleeding. Among 23,726 patients, 8,845 eligible patients who received medical therapy were enrolled. After adjusting the potential confounders, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.71, P = 0.151). Additionally, PACT did not increase the incidence of major bleeding or minor bleeding (major bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.80-1.35, P = 0.763, minor bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.27, 95% CI, 0.91-1.75, P = 0.156). The propensity score analysis confirmed the primary analyses. In patients with NSTE-ACS receiving antiplatelet therapy, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality or a higher bleeding risk in NSTE-ACS patients receiving non-invasive therapies and concurrent antiplatelet strategies. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to reevaluate the safety and efficacy of PACT in all NSTE-ACS patients who receive noninvasive therapies and current antithrombotic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2370DOI Listing
July 2021

Increased subcortical region volume induced by electroconvulsive therapy in patients with schizophrenia.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been widely used to treat patients with schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of ECT remain unknown. In the present study, the treatment effects of ECT on brain structure in patients with schizophrenia were explored. Seventy patients with schizophrenia were scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Patients in the drug group were scanned at baseline (time 1) and follow-up (time 2, 6 weeks of treatment). Patients in the ECT group were scanned before ECT treatment (baseline, time 1) and 10-12 h after the last ECT treatment (time 2). Voxel-based morphometry was applied to analyze the imaging data. Patients in the ECT group showed significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the bilateral hippocampus/amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (STG)/middle temporal gyrus (MTG) after ECT combined with antipsychotic therapy at time 2. In contrast, patients in the drug group showed decreased GMV in widespread brain regions. Correlation analysis results showed significantly negative correlations between the increased GMV in the bilateral hippocampus/amygdala and PANSS scores at baseline in the ECT group. ECT may modulate brain structure in patients with schizophrenia. The GMV in distinct subcortical regions was related to the individual therapeutic response in patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-021-01303-6DOI Listing
July 2021

The association between atrial fibrillation and in-hospital outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the improving care for cardiovascular disease in China-acute coronary syndrome (CCC-ACS) project.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jul 17;21(1):345. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Renal Division, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 2 Anzhen Street, Chao yang District, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to explore the frequency and impact of AF on clinical outcomes in CKD patients with ACS.

Methods: CKD inpatients with ACS between November 2014 and December 2018 were included based on the improving care for cardiovascular disease in China-ACS (CCC-ACS) project. Included patients were divided into an AF group and a non-AF group according to the discharge diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders.

Results: A total of 16,533 CKD patients with ACS were included. A total of 1418 (8.6%) patients had clinically recognized AF during hospitalization, 654 of whom had an eGFR of 45 to < 60 ml/min/1.73 m, and 764 had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 45 ml/min/1.73 m. Compared with the non-AF group, the AF group had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality [OR 1.250; 95% CI (1.001-1.560), P = 0.049] and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) [OR 1.361; 95% CI (1.197-1.547), P < 0.001]. We also found that compared with patients with eGFR 45 to < 60 ml/min/1.73 m, patients with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m had a 1.512-fold increased risk of mortality and a 1.435-fold increased risk of MACEs.

Conclusions: AF was a risk factor affecting the short-term prognosis of ACS patients in the CKD population. Furthermore, the lower the eGFR, the higher the risk of in-hospital mortality and MACEs in CKD patients with ACS.

Trial Registry: Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT02306616. Registered 29 November 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02306616?term=NCT02306616&draw=2&rank=1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02125-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285806PMC
July 2021

Revisiting the lipid paradox in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: findings from the CCC-ACS project.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052, China.

Aims: Previous observations revealed a negative association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction, i.e., the lower level the higher mortality, which was referred to as lipid paradox. We sought to re-evaluate this association in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in contemporary practice.

Methods And Results: We examined the association between admission LDL-C and in-hospital mortality among 44 563 STEMI patients enrolled from 2014 to 2019 in a nationwide registry in China. A total of 43 covariates, which were temporally classified into the following three domains were used for adjustment: (i) pre-admission characteristics; (ii) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related variables; and (iii) other in-hospital medications. In-hospital mortality was 2.01% (897/44 563). When no covariate adjustment was performed, an inversely 'J-shaped' curve was observed between admission LDL-C levels and in-hospital mortality by restricted cubic spline in logistic regression, with a threshold value of <75 mg/dL that associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality. However, a gradual attenuation for this association was noted when step-wise adjustments were performed, with the threshold values for LDL-C decreasing from 75 mg/dL to 70 mg/dL after accounting for pre-admission characteristics, further to 65 mg/dL after accounting for PCI-related variables, and finally to no statistical association after further adjustment for other in-hospital medications.

Conclusions: In a nationwide registry in China, our findings do not support the lipid paradox in terms of in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients in contemporary practice. Previous findings in this scenario are possibly due to inadequate control for confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab053DOI Listing
July 2021

Sustained rice yields and decreased N runoff in a rice-wheat cropping system by replacing wheat with Chinese milk vetch and sharply reducing fertilizer use.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 7;288:117722. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 50 Zhongling Road, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Pollution from the paddy fields has posed a threat to surface water quality, and the reactive N in runoff has been recognized as the dominant contributor. In the rice-wheat systems of eastern China, replacing wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Chinese milk vetch (CMV) (Astragalus sinicus) is known to reduce total fertilizer N use and associated N losses during winter; however, the function of the rice-CMV system in controlling the N runoff loss was overlooked during the summer rice-growing season. Over 6 years, we monitored soil mineral N, plant N accumulation, rice grain yield, N agronomic efficiency (AE), and N runoff in rice-CMV fertilizer N rate-response experiments and made comparisons with the conventional N inputs in rice-wheat rotation. Aboveground CMV residues added 65-116 kg N ha yr; therefore, by adjusting the fertilizer time, the rice in this system required 44-56% less N fertilizer to produce rice yields equivalent to the 270 kg N ha (district average, C270) used in the rice-wheat system. In all fertilizer N application treatments, 120 kg ha seemed to be the threshold that ensured the soil N supply, the N accumulation at rice critical stages, and consequently, the current level rice yield. The corresponding runoff N averaged 9.3 kg ha season, which was 51.8% less than that in C270 (19.3 kg ha season). Cumulative N runoff (total N and NH-N) correlated strongly with fertilizer N input for any single year (sample size = 108, P < 0.01). Application of 30-120 kg fertilizer N ha gave an equivalent AE, which indicated that the integration of CMV and fertilizer N could increase the agronomic efficiency of N fertilizer applied to the rice. Rotating paddy rice with CMV instead of wheat, together with the suitable adjustment of N fertilizer, could sustain rice yield and gain the utmost environmental benefits from rice-based agroecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117722DOI Listing
July 2021

Understanding and Calibration of Charge Storage Mechanism in Cyclic Voltammetry Curves.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Wuhan University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, 299 Bayi Road, 430072, Wuhan, CHINA.

Noticeable pseudo-capacitance behaviour out of charge storage mechanism (CSM) has attracted intensive studies because it can provide both high energy density and large output power. Although cyclic voltammetry is recognized as the feasible electrochemical technique to determine it quantitatively in the previous works, the results are inferior due to uncertainty in the definitions and application conditions. Herein, three successive treatments, including de-polarization, de-residual and de-background, as well as a non-linear fitting algorithm are employed for the first time to calibrate the different CSM contribution of three typical cathode materials, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4 and Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7, and achieve well-separated physical capacitance, pseudo-capacitance and diffusive contributions to the total capacity. This work can eliminate misunderstanding concepts and correct ambiguous results of the pseudo-capacitance contribution, and recognize the essence of CSM in electrode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104167DOI Listing
July 2021

Deciphering the effects of PYCR1 on cell function and its associated mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 1;17(9):2223-2239. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of pathology, Affiliated hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541001, Guangxi, China.

Overexpression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) has been associated with the development of certain cancers; however, no studies have specifically examined the role of PYCR1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas expression array and meta-analysis conducted using the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we determined that was upregulated in HCC compared to adjacent nontumor tissues (P < 0.05). These data were verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, patients with low PYCR1 expression showed a higher overall survival rate than patients with high expression. Furthermore, PYCR1 overexpression was associated with the female sex, higher levels of alpha-fetoprotein, advanced clinical stages (III and IV), and a younger age (< 45 years old). Silencing of inhibited cell proliferation, invasive migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastatic properties in HCC and Using RNA sequencing and bioinformatics tools for data-dependent network analysis, we found binary relationships among PYCR1 and its interacting proteins in defined pathway modules. These findings indicated that PYCR1 played a multifunctional role in coordinating a variety of biological pathways involved in cell communication, cell proliferation and growth, cell migration, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, ion binding, . The structural characteristics of key pathway components and PYCR1-interacting proteins were evaluated by molecular docking, and hotspot analysis showed that better affinities between PYCR1 and its interacting molecules were associated with the presence of arginine in the binding site. Finally, a candidate regulatory microRNA, miR-2355-5p, for mRNA was discovered in HCC. Overall, our study suggests that PYCR1 plays a vital role in HCC pathogenesis and may potentially serve as a molecular target for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.58026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241733PMC
June 2021

Orexin-A inhibits cerebral ischaemic inflammatory injury mediated by the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway and alleviates stroke-induced immunodepression in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 30;174:296-304. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Zhangzhidong Road No. 99, Wuhan, 430060, China. Electronic address:

Cerebral ischaemia is accompanied by infectious complications due to immunosuppression, known as stroke-induced immunodepression (SIID). Orexin-A (OXA), a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, has been reported to have neuroprotective properties after stroke and is known to modulate inflammatory processes in peripheral tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orexin-A (OXA) on cerebral ischaemic inflammatory injury and SIID following experimental stroke. Cerebral ischaemia was induced in C57/BL6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). A mouse model of pneumonia and poststroke pneumococcal pneumonia was established by intratracheal inoculation with S. pneumoniae in a normal mouse or MCAO mouse model on the third day. We found that OXA postconditioning inhibited cerebral ischaemic inflammatory injury. The mechanism involved downregulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. In addition, OXA may serve as a potential treatment target for attenuating stroke-induced immunodepression in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.06.021DOI Listing
June 2021

Detection of autophagic flux in primary cerebral cortical neurons after oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) using various methods.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jun 29;117:101999. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University (NHC Key Laboratory of Prevention and Treatment of Central Asia High Incidence Diseases) Shihezi, 832000, China. Electronic address:

The current research hot spot in the field of autophagic flux is to explain and alleviate disease from the perspective of autophagy. A highly sophisticated, sensitive, quantifiable and comprehensive method is required to accurately determine the dynamic process of autophagic flux. There are very few methods in neuroscience that specifically examine autophagic flux. Therefore, primary cortical neurons were divided into oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) (group A) and OGD/R plus bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) (group B) groups. ① Transfection of the LC3 gene with the RFP-GFP tandem fluorescent label was performed. ② Direct quantification was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ③ Autophagy-related tools were used to detect the transformation of LC3I/II. ④ SQSTM1/P62 combined with the LC3 protein flip test was performed to comprehensively evaluate autophagic flux. Using method one, the ratio of autophagolysosomes to autophagosomes in group A was significantly increased based on fluorescence microscopy analysis. Using method two, the autophagy process in group A was more continuous and unobstructed based on TEM analysis, while only some partial processes were observed in group B, and the number of autophagosomes and autophagy lysosomes in group A was significantly greater more than that in group B. The LC3II/I ratio measured in method three was analysed in detail to explain the autophagic flux. The ratio of soluble p62 combined with the ratio of LC3II/I detected using method four reflected the activation of autophagy. In summary, each method has its own advantages, and different methods and indicators can be used to monitor different stages of autophagy. An understanding of these advantages and mastery of these methods, is a very promising strategy to systematically and objectively study central nervous system diseases, facilitate the rational use of drugs, and formulate effective treatment plans from the perspective of autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101999DOI Listing
June 2021

Neuroprotective Effect of Astersaponin I against Parkinson's Disease through Autophagy Induction.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Natural Product Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 25451, Republic of Korea.

An active compound, triterpene saponin, astersaponin I (AKNS-2) was isolated from Nakai (AKNS) and the autophagy activation and neuroprotective effect was investigated on and Parkinson's disease (PD) models. The autophagy-regulating effect of AKNS-2 was monitored by analyzing the expression of autophagy-related protein markers in SHSY5Y cells using Western blot and fluorescent protein quenching assays. The neuroprotection of AKNS-2 was tested by using a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridium ion (MPP)-induced PD model in SH-SY5Y cells and an MPTP-induced PD model in mice. The compound-treated SH-SY5Y cells not only showed enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and decreased sequestosome 1 (p62) expression but also showed increased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-Erk), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and phosphorylated unc-51-like kinase (p-ULK) and decreased phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) expression. AKNS-2-activated autophagy could be inhibited by the Erk inhibitor U0126 and by AMPK siRNA. In the MPP-induced PD model, AKNS-2 reversed the reduced cell viability and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and reduced the induced α-synuclein level. In an MPTP-induced PD model, AKNS-2 improved mice behavioral performance, and it restored dopamine synthesis and TH and α-synuclein expression in mouse brain tissues. Consistently, AKNS-2 also modulated the expressions of autophagy related markers in mouse brain tissue. Thus, AKNS-2 upregulates autophagy by activating the Erk/mTOR and AMPK/mTOR pathways. AKNS-2 exerts its neuroprotective effect through autophagy activation and may serve as a potential candidate for PD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.004DOI Listing
July 2021

PM promotes β cell damage by increasing inflammatory factors in mice with streptozotocin.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 3;22(2):832. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Research, Centre for Endocrine Metabolic and Immune Disease, Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 101149, P.R. China.

Emerging evidence indicates that exposure to fine particulate matter contributes to the onset of diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of particulate matters (PM) affecting glucose homeostasis in mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Male C57BL/6 mice were housed under filtered air (FA) or PM for 12 weeks and then received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg) or acetic buffer daily for 5 days. At 4 weeks after the last injection, fasting glucose was tested. In the plasma and liver, cholesterol levels were determined by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase and triglyceride levels were determined by triglycerophosphate oxidase-peroxidase. Homeostasis model assessment of β cell function (Homa-β) was computed based on fasting insulin and glucose levels. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels in plasma, visceral adipose tissues, RAW264.7 macrophages and MIN6 pancreatic β cells treated with PM (0-50 µg/ml) were quantified via ELISA. Before STZ injection, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were similar between FA and PM groups. After STZ injection, FBG levels were higher in mice pre-exposed to PM compared with those pre-exposed to FA. When taking FBG levels ≥7 mmol/l as the criteria for impaired glucose level, its incidence was 53.3% and 77.8% in FA and PM groups, respectively. Independent of STZ injection, IL-1β levels in the adipose tissue were upregulated in mice pre-exposed to PM compared with FA. The addition of PM stimulated IL-1β and TNFα production in macrophages and pancreatic β cells, and inhibited the secretion of insulin from MIN6 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, pre-exposure of PM impaired pancreatic β cells in mice upon STZ injection, partially via enhanced inflammation, and suppressed the secretion of insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200811PMC
August 2021

In-hospital acute kidney injury and atrial fibrillation: incidence, risk factors, and outcome.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):949-957

Division of Nepphrology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: The incidence and the risk factors of in-hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for atrial fibrillation (AF) were unclear.

Methods: The Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-AF (CCC-AF) project is an ongoing registry and quality improvement project, with 240 hospitals recruited across China. We selected 4527 patients hospitalized for AF registered in the CCC-AF from January 2015 to January 2019. Patients were divided into the AKI and non-AKI groups according to the changes in serum creatinine levels during hospitalization.

Results: Among the 4527 patients, the incidence of AKI was 8.0% (361/4527). Multivariate logistic analysis results indicated that the incidence of in-hospital AKI in patients with AF on admission was 2.6 times higher than that in patients with sinus rhythm (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.77-3.81). Age (per 10-year increase, OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.38), atrial flutter/atrial tachycardia on admission (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.12-4.15), diuretics therapy before admission (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04) and baseline hemoglobin (per 20 g/L decrease, OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32) were independent risk factors for in-hospital AKI. β blockers therapy given before admission (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.87) and non-warfarin therapy during hospitalization (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of in-hospital AKI. After adjustment for confounders, in-hospital AKI was associated with a 34% increase in risk of major adverse cardiovascular (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.90,  = 0.023).

Conclusions: Clinicians should pay attention to the monitoring and prevention of in-hospital AKI to improve the prognosis of patients with AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2021.1939049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218696PMC
December 2021

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mediates bone resorption in periodontitis.

BMC Oral Health 2021 06 12;21(1):299. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Stomatology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8th Gongti South Road, Beijing, China.

Background: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an important immune factor that mediates bone metabolism by regulating the functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Bone loss is a serious and progressive result of periodontitis. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of G-CSF on periodontal inflammation have yet not been completely elucidated. Here, we examined whether an anti-G-CSF antibody could inhibit bone resorption in a model of experimental periodontitis and investigated the local expression of G-CSF in periodontal tissues.

Methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice using ligatures. The levels of G-CSF in serum and bone marrow were measured; immunofluorescence was then performed to analyze the localization and expression of G-CSF in periodontal tissues. Mice with periodontitis were administered anti-G-CSF antibody by tail vein injection to assess the inhibition of bone resorption. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed to measure bone destruction-related parameters via micro-computed tomography analysis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the presence of osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe osteoclast activity in alveolar bone.

Results: The level of G-CSF in serum was significantly elevated in mice with periodontitis. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that G-CSF was mostly expressed in the cell membrane of gingival epithelial cells; this expression was enhanced in the periodontitis group. Additionally, systemic administration of anti-G-CSF antibody significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, as evidenced by improvements in bone volume/total volume, bone surface area/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular spacing, and trabecular pattern factor values. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed an enhanced number of osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts, while TRAP staining revealed reduction of osteoclast activity.

Conclusions: G-CSF expression levels were significantly up-regulated in the serum and gingival epithelial cells. Together, anti-G-CSF antibody administration could alleviates alveolar bone resorption, suggesting that G-CSF may be one of the essential immune factors that mediate the bone loss in periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01658-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196459PMC
June 2021

Fascin promotes the invasion of pituitary adenoma through partial dependence on epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

J Mol Histol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, North 2 Road, Shihezi, 832000, Xinjiang, China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and potential regulatory mechanisms of fascin in the invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of pituitary adenoma cells. A total of 30 specimens were assessed in the present study. The expression levels of fascin in the invasive pituitary adenoma group and non-invasive pituitary adenoma group were determined by immunochemistry. Fascin was downregulated via small interfering RNA in mouse pituitary AtT-20 cells. The proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of AtT-20 cells were assessed using Cell Counting Kit‑8 and flow cytometry. The invasion of AtT-20 cells was detected using a Transwell assay. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to observe the ultrastructure of AtT-20 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were utilized to detect the expression levels of fascin and EMT markers. In the present study, fascin expression and clinical characteristics were not significantly correlated in pituitary adenoma. The protein expression level of fascin in invasive pituitary adenoma was higher than that in non-invasive pituitary adenoma, as assessed by immunochemistry. Downregulation of fascin resulted in significant decreases in cell viability, proliferation and invasion, arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and increased apoptosis. In addition, downregulation of fascin significantly decreased the expression levels of N-cadherin, the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin and the transcription factor Twist but significantly increased the expression levels of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. Further experiments revealed that overexpression of E-cadherin resulted in significant decreases in cell viability, proliferation, invasion, and the expression of fascin and transcription factor Twist and also arrested the cell cycle at the G2 phase. The results of the present study suggest that suppressing the expression level of fascin could regulate the invasion, proliferation and apoptosis of pituitary tumour cells and alter the expression level of various EMT markers. The present study identified that fascin effectively promotes the invasion, proliferation and apoptosis of pituitary tumour cells partially via the EMT pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-021-09995-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Pediatric living-donor liver transplantation using right posterior segment grafts.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 6;21(1):249. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 160 Pujian Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: The right posterior segment (RPS) graft was introduced to overcome graft size discrepancy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, it was very rarely used in pediatric patients. Here we presented 4 pediatric LDLT cases receiving RPS graft between January 2015 and April 2020 in our center. A total of 1868 LDLT procedures were performed in this period.

Methods: Recipients included 1 boy and 3 girls with a median age of 45 months (range from 40 to 93 months). They were diagnosed with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, propionic academia, ornithine transcarbamylase and biliary atresia, respectively. Four donors were all mothers with a median age of 32.5 years (31-38 years). Computer tomography angiography indicated posterior right branches branched off separately from main portal veins (type III variation). Three of these donor livers had 1 orifice of right hepatic veins (RHV). In the remaining 1 donor liver, the RHV showed 3 orifices and an outflow patch plastic was performed. Inferior right hepatic veins weren't found in four donor grafts. The median graft weight was 397.5 g (352-461 g) and the median graft-to-recipient weight ratio was 2.38% (1.44-2.80%).

Results: Postoperative complications occurred in neither donors nor recipients. Within the median follow-up duration of 29 months (14-64 months), four children are all alive with normal liver function.

Conclusion: In summary, for older children weighed more than 15 kg with donors' variation of type III portal veins, the use of RPS grafts could be a feasible and favorable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01835-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183075PMC
June 2021

Prognostic Significance of Blood-Based Multi-cancer Detection in Plasma Cell-Free DNA.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Purpose: We recently reported the development of a cell-free DNA (cfDNA) targeted methylation (TM)-based sequencing approach for a multi-cancer early detection (MCED) test that includes cancer signal origin prediction. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of cancer detection by the MCED test using longitudinal follow-up data.

Experimental Design: As part of a Circulating Cell-free Genome Atlas (CCGA) substudy, plasma cfDNA samples were sequenced using a TM approach, and machine learning classifiers predicted cancer status and cancer signal origin. Overall survival (OS) of cancer participants in the first 3 years of follow-up was evaluated in relation to cancer detection by the MCED test and clinical characteristics.

Results: Cancers not detected by the MCED test had significantly better OS ( < 0.0001) than cancers detected, even after accounting for other covariates, including clinical stage and method of clinical diagnosis (i.e., standard-of-care screening or clinical presentation with signs/symptoms). Additionally, cancers not detected by the MCED test had better OS than was expected when data were adjusted for age, stage, and cancer type from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. In cancers with current screening options, the MCED test also differentiated more aggressive cancers from less aggressive cancers ( < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Cancer detection by the MCED test was prognostic beyond clinical stage and method of diagnosis. Cancers not detected by the MCED test had better prognosis than cancers detected and SEER-based expected survival. Cancer detection and prognosis may be linked by the underlying biological factor of tumor fraction in cfDNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0417DOI Listing
June 2021

Design of a controllable Am-Be neutron source: A Geant4 simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109775. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, China.

In this work, a controllable Am-Be neutron source with self-safety structure was developed. The basic design of the neutron source is composed of AmO layer, air layer and Be layer. The AmO layer and Be layer are placed parallelly in a stainless-steel tank. The yield and safety of the designed neutron source can be controlled through changing the vacuum level of air layer between the AmO layer and Be layer. Geant4 toolkit was used to optimize the geometrical size of each layer and the optimized thickness of the AmO layer, air layer and Be layer were 5 μm, 3.4 cm and 300 μm, respectively. When the vacuum level of the air layer was set to 1 kPa, the neutron yield was 5.61 n/10α. For an Am-241 alpha activity of 9.313 × 10 Bq, the maximum neutron flux emitted from the Be layer was 4.122 × 10 n·cm·s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109775DOI Listing
August 2021

Orexin A improves the cognitive impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Aug 27;173:203-210. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

The orexin neuron in lateral hypothalamus (LH) was involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycle. However, the effect of orexin A (OXA) on cognitive impairment resulting from diverse diseases remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of OXA on cognitive impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in mice. Adult (10 weeks old) male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: normoxia control (NC)+normal saline (NS), NC + OXA, CIH + NS and CIH + OXA group. Following the CIH mice models establishment, OXA was injected into the right lateral ventricles of mice by a micro-injection system. Water maze test was used to assess spatial memory abilities of the mice. The expression of OXA and c-Fos in LH were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in hippocampus were evaluated using multiple methods including TUNEL, western blot and biochemical analysis. Behavioral tests revealed that CIH significantly increased the escape latency and time of arriving platform, of which were markedly decreased by OXA treatment. Similarly, the CIH + NS group was worse than NC + NS group in terms of the number of platform crossing and time in the target quadrant, of which were also significantly improved by OXA treatment. The number of OXA + neuron in LH was decreased, but the percentage of c-Fos+/OXA + neuron in LH was remarkably increased by CIH. Furthermore, we found that micro-injection of OXA attenuated CIH-induced apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Our results suggested that OXA might improve cognitive impairment induced by CIH through inhibiting hippocampal apoptosis and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.05.022DOI Listing
August 2021

Lateral ventricular medulloepithelioma in children: a case report.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Apr;10(4):1020-1025

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, China.

Medulloepithelioma is an extremely rare highly malignant and rapidly growing tumor that occurs in the central nervous system. There are few reports of medulloepithelioma located in the ventricle. Medulloepithelioma is common in young children and adolescence. Herein, we described an unusual case of vomiting in a 4-year-old male patient with medulloepithelioma, presenting with enlarging head circumference. Because of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head showed signs of brain tumors and hydrocephalus, and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence showed increased heterogeneity and honeycomb-like changes on the mass after the administration of a contrast agent, the patient was first diagnosed as choroid plexus papilloma. After undergoing a surgical craniotomy, the patient was diagnosed as medulloepithelioma through pathological examination. We hope that this work will provide more understanding and knowledge of intracranial medulloepithelioma. For medulloepithelioma that occurs in the central nervous system, radiological examination is not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of the tumor. Pathological examination can confirm the diagnosis of medulloepithelioma and distinguish it from other central system tumors. Surgical resection is a safe and effective method that can prolong the life of patients. However, the prognosis of medulloepithelioma is still poor, and further research is needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107848PMC
April 2021

A Mortise-and-Tenon Joint Inspired Mechanically Interlocked Network.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 07 15;60(29):16224-16229. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, P. R. China.

Mortise-and-tenon joints have been widely used for thousands of years in wooden architectures in virtue of their artistic and functional performance. However, imitation of similar structural and mechanical design philosophy to construct mechanically adaptive materials at the molecular level is a challenge. Herein, we report a mortise-and-tenon joint inspired mechanically interlocked network (MIN), in which the [2]rotaxane crosslink not only mimics the joint in structure, but also reproduces its function in modifying mechanical properties of the MIN. Benefiting from the hierarchical energy dissipative ability along with the controllable intramolecular movement of the mechanically interlocked crosslink, the resultant MIN simultaneously exhibits notable mechanical adaptivity and structural stability in a single system, as manifested by decent stiffness, strength, toughness, and deformation recovery capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105620DOI Listing
July 2021

Perovskite-Derived CsSnCl-Silica Composites as Advanced Waste Forms for Chloride Salt Wastes.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 11;55(11):7605-7614. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York 12180, United States.

Advanced materials and processes are required to separate halides and fission products from complex salt waste streams associated with the chemical reprocessing of used nuclear fuels and molten salt reactor technologies for immobilization into chemically durable waste forms. In this work, we explore an innovative concept using metal halide perovskites as advanced host phases to incorporate Cs and Cl with very high waste loadings. Wet chemistry-synthesized CsSnCl powders from CsCl salt solutions are successfully encapsulated into a silica matrix to form a composite using low-temperature spark plasma sintering with tunable Cs and Cl loadings up to 31 and 26 wt %, respectively. Chemical durability testing of the composite waste forms by semi-dynamic leaching experiments demonstrates that an incongruent leaching mechanism dominates the release of Cs and Cl. The metal halide perovskite-silica composite waste forms display exceptional chemical durability with the long-term release rates of Cs and Cl comparable to or outperforming the state-of-the-art waste form materials but with significantly higher waste loadings. The scalable synthesis of the metal halide perovskite from wet chemistry processes opens up new opportunities in designing advanced waste forms for salt wastes with very high waste loadings and exceptional chemical durability for the sustainable development of advanced fuel cycles and next-generation reactor technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07724DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in attentional inhibition among migraine patients: an event-related potential study using the Stroop task.

J Headache Pain 2021 May 3;22(1):34. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 100853, Beijing, China.

Background: As a disorder of brain dysfunction, migraine has been associated with cognitive decline. However, no consistent results with respect to the attention function in migraineurs have been found, and the relationship between attentional inhibition and migraine is also unclear. In this study, the attentional inhibition function was evaluated using event-related potentials (ERPs) while migraine patients and healthy controls were performing the color-word Stroop task.

Methods: In this study, 75 migraine patients and 41 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The Stroop task was performed, and both behavioral and ERP data were analyzed.

Results: As to the behavioral data, the migraine group had a longer reaction time compared to the control group, but no difference in Stroop effect was observed. With respect to ERP components, the amplitudes of both early and late medial frontal negativity (MFN) were decreased in the migraine group. Additionally, obvious differences in the early MFN and sustained potential (SP) amplitudes were found between patients with and without allodynia.

Conclusions: At the behavioral level, migraine patients exhibited decreased executive ability but no obvious decline in inhibition. By contrast, a decline in attentional inhibition during the migraine interictal phase was confirmed by the analysis of ERP components, mainly those associated with changes in the conflict-monitoring stage, independent of confounding factors such as age, education, medication and mood disorders. Migraine patients with allodynia exhibited some significant differences in early MFN and SP compared to those without, supporting the hypothesis that migraine chronification aggravates the decline in attentional inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-021-01242-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091750PMC
May 2021

Fault detection for linear discrete time-varying systems with multiplicative noise based on parity space method.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Electrical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

This paper addresses the robust fault diagnosis problem for a class of linear discrete time-varying systems with multiplicative noise based on parity space method. A novel fault detection performance index, in terms of stochastic robustness/sensitivity ratio, is proposed to establish the residual generator. A computationally attractive recursive algorithm, is put forward to obtain the complex matrix involved in the aforementioned fault detection performance index. Drawing support of random matrix analysis and calculation, the corresponding solution is derived in an analytical form via solving a multi-objective optimization problem. By means of Randomized Algorithms, two fault detection threshold setting algorithms are provided subsequently to achieve residual performance assessment by taking into account the fault detection rate and false alarm rate in the probabilistic framework. Two illustrative examples are finally provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.04.018DOI Listing
April 2021

Hyoid Bone Syndrome With Sympathetic Symptoms.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun;78(6):757-758

Department of Neurology, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0750DOI Listing
June 2021

Complex Crystal Structure Determination and Anti-non-small Cell Lung Cancer Activity of Hsp90 Inhibitor SNX-2112.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:650106. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease, Institute of Basic & Translational Medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, China.

SNX-2112, as a promising anticancer lead compound targeting heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), absence of complex crystal structure of Hsp90 -SNX-2112 hindered further structural optimization and understanding on molecular interaction mechanism. Herein, a high-resolution complex crystal structure of Hsp90 -SNX-2112 was successfully determined by X-ray diffraction, resolution limit, 2.14 Å, PDB ID 6LTK, and their molecular interaction was analyzed in detail, which suggested that SNX-2112 was well accommodated in the ATP-binding pocket to disable molecular chaperone activity of Hsp90, therefore exhibiting favorable inhibiting activity on three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (IC, 0.50 ± 0.01 μM for A549, 1.14 ± 1.11 μM for H1299, 2.36 ± 0.82 μM for H1975) by inhibited proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and aggravated cell apoptosis. SNX-2112 exhibited high affinity and beneficial thermodynamic changes during the binding process with its target Hsp90 confirmed by thermal shift assay (TSA, ΔTm, and -9.51 ± 1.00°C) and isothermal titration calorimetry ( , 14.10 ± 1.60 nM). Based on the complex crystal structure and molecular interaction analysis, 32 novel SNX-2112 derivatives were designed, and 25 new ones displayed increased binding force with the target Hsp90 verified by molecular docking evaluation. The results would provide new references and guides for anti-NSCLC new drug development based on the lead compound SNX-2112.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.650106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039390PMC
March 2021

Serum resolvin E1 levels and its relationship with thyroid autoimmunity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a preliminary study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 13;21(1):66. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) produce lipid mediators with both anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties, including resolvins. The purpose of this study was to detect serum resolvin E1 (RVE1) levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients and healthy controls (HCs) and to evaluate the relationship of RVE1 with thyroid autoimmunity.

Methods: A total of 57 participants were recruited, including 30 untreated HT patients and 27 age- and sex-matched HCs. The levels of RVE1 in serum were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used for the measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4 (TT4), TT3, free T4 (FT4), FT3, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) levels. Hemogram tests and routine biochemical analyses were performed on each sample.

Results: The serum level of RVE1 of HT patients (24.09, 15.76-34.38 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (28.51, 20.76-51.23 pg/mL) (P = 0.027). RVE1 levels showed a downward trend with increasing TgAb levels (P for trend = 0.001). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that RVE1 levels were negatively correlated with increasing TgAb levels in both the unadjusted (OR = 0.9446, 95 % CI = 0.9111-0.9782, P = 0.002) and adjusted models (OR = 0.9380, 95 % CI = 0.8967-0.9811, P = 0.005).

Conclusions: Decreased RVE1 levels might be a sign that HT is associated with inflammatory resolution dysfunction. RVE1 may serve as a protective factor against increased TgAb levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00730-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045210PMC
April 2021

Biochemical and synergistic properties of a novel alpha-amylase from Chinese nong-flavor Daqu.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Apr 7;20(1):80. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 9 Section 4, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Daqu is the most important fermentation starter for Chinese liquor, with large number of microbes and enzymes being openly enriched in the Daqu system over thousands of years. However, only a few enzymes have been analyzed with crude protein for total liquefying power and saccharifying power of Daqu. Therefore, the complex enzymatic system present in Daqu has not been completely characterized. Moreover, their pivotal and complicated functions in Daqu are completely unknown.

Results: In this study, a novel α-amylase NFAmy13B, from GH13_5 subfamily (according to the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database, CAZy) was successfully heterologous expressed by Escherichia coli from Chinese Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. It exhibited high stability ranging from pH 5.5 to 12.5, and higher specific activity, compared to other GH13_5 fungal α-amylases. Moreover, NFAmy13B did not show activity loss and retained 96% residual activity after pre-incubation at pH 11 for 21 h and pH 12 for 10 h, respectively. Additionally, 1.25 mM Ca significantly improved its thermostability. NFAmy13B showed a synergistic effect on degrading wheat starch with NFAmy13A (GH13_1), another α-amylase from Daqu. Both enzymes could cleave maltotetraose and maltopentaose in same degradation pattern, and only NFAmy13A could efficiently degrade maltotriose. Moreover, NFAmy13B showed higher catalytic efficiency on long-chain starch, while NFAmy13A had higher catalytic efficiency on short-chain maltooligosaccharides. Their different catalytic efficiencies on starch and maltooligosaccharides may be caused by their discrepant substrate-binding region.

Conclusions: This study mined a novel GH13_5 fungal α-amylase (NFAmy13B) with outstanding alkali resistance from Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. Furthermore, its synergistic effect with NFAmy13A (GH13_1) on hydrolyzing wheat starch was confirmed, and their possible contribution in NF Daqu was also speculated. Thus, we not only provide a candidate α-amylase for industry, but also a useful strategy for further studying the interactions in the complex enzyme system of Daqu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01571-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028695PMC
April 2021

The 3D-Printed Honeycomb Metamaterials Tubes with Tunable Negative Poisson's Ratio for High-Performance Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

The synthesized understanding of the mechanical properties of negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) convex-concave honeycomb tubes (CCHTs) under quasi-static and dynamic compression loads is of great significance for their multifunctional applications in mechanical, aerospace, aircraft, and biomedical fields. In this paper, the quasi-static and dynamic compression tests of three kinds of 3D-printed NPR convex-concave honeycomb tubes are carried out. The sinusoidal honeycomb wall with equal mass is used to replace the cell wall structure of the conventional square honeycomb tube (CSHT). The influence of geometric morphology on the elastic modulus, peak force, energy absorption, and damage mode of the tube was discussed. The experimental results show that the NPR, peak force, failure mode, and energy absorption of CCHTs can be adjusted by changing the geometric topology of the sinusoidal element. Through the reasonable design of NPR, compared with the equal mass CSHTs, CCHTs could have the comprehensive advantages of relatively high stiffness and strength, enhanced energy absorption, and damage resistance. The results of this paper are expected to be meaningful for the optimization design of tubular structures widely used in mechanical, aerospace, vehicle, biomedical engineering, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14061353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000550PMC
March 2021
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