Publications by authors named "Dong Zhang"

1,878 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Deactivation of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in drinking water by PMS/UV-C: efficiency and mechanisms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

The occurrence and infestations of chlorine-resistant invertebrates in drinking water distributions have attracted concerns on water quality in China, making effective deactivation imperative. This study presents a novel strategy for nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) deactivation using peroxymonosulfate (PMS)/UV-C. The results indicated that 100% deactivation efficiency was obtained under optimal conditions. An acidic pH and 0.25 mg/L Fe(II) were beneficial to the PMS/UV-C-triggered deactivation of nematodes. A mechanism study demonstrated that [Formula: see text] was activated by UV-C to produce ·OH and [Formula: see text], which resulted in oxidative stress and stimulated the occurrence of cell apoptosis, leading to nematode deactivation. The results reveal PMS/UV-C as an alternative to chlorination in water treatment plants (WTP) or an emergency application when chlorine-resistant invertebrates breed in a second-supply water tank is a promising strategy for disinfection. This approach possessed the advantages of avoiding the production of chlorine disinfection by-products (DBP) and greater efficacy of nematode deactivation. This work will provide ideas for on-going research efforts into chlorine-resistant invertebrate deactivation and eventually achieve the direct drinking of municipal tap water.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14312-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular mechanism of MdWUS2-MdTCP12 interaction in mediating cytokinin signaling to control axillary bud outgrowth.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Life Science, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Shoot branching is an important factor influencing apple tree architecture. Apple cultivar 'Fuji', which is grown on approximately 75% of the apple-producing area in China, exhibits poor natural branching. Cytokinin (CK) promotes axillary bud outgrowth. The TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) family genes BRANCHED1/2 (BRC1/2) are involved in integrating diverse factors that function locally to inhibit shoot branching. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the CK-mediated promotion of branching involving the repression of BRC1/2 remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that WUSCHEL2 (MdWUS2), which interacts with the co-repressor TOPLESS-RELATED9 (MdTPR9), is activated by CK and regulates branching by inhibiting MdTCP12 (BRC2 homolog) activity. Overexpressing MdWUS2 in Arabidopsis or Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in enhanced branching. The overexpression of MdTCP12 inhibited axillary bud outgrowth in Arabidopsis, indicating that MdTCP12 contributes to the regulation of branching. Additionally, we observed that MdWUS2 interacts with MdTCP12 in vivo and in vitro and suppresses the ability of MdTCP12 to activate the transcription of its target gene HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 53b (MdHB53b). Therefore, our data suggest that MdWUS2 is involved in the CK-mediated inhibition of MdTCP12 that controls bud outgrowth, providing new insights into the regulation of shoot branching by CK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab163DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Sleep With Risk of Alzheimer's Disease Mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Jun 10:7334648211019207. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

Objectives: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias contribute to one in three senior deaths. Lifestyle factors, including sleep, may contribute to AD risk and mortality; however, current evidence on sleep and AD mortality is mixed.

Methods: We used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Sleep duration and napping were self-reported and AD death were ascertained via linkage to the National Death Index.

Results: Long sleep and napping were both associated with increased AD mortality. Specifically, 9+ hr of sleep was associated with 50% increase (hazard ratio = 1.50, 95% CI = [1.17, 1.92]) in AD mortality when compared 7 to 8 hr, while napping for 1+ hr was associated with 29% increase (1.29 [1.08, 1.55]) when compared with no napping. Results appeared to be stronger in men and remained after removing AD deaths within first 5 years after baseline.

Discussion: Long sleep and napping may predict higher AD mortality in the older population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07334648211019207DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of hydroxyethyl cellulose soluble hemostatic gauze on hemostasis in facial contouring surgery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25847

16th Department, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Shijingshan District, Beijing, China.

Background: In facial contour surgery, due to the narrow field of vision in the oral approach and the abundant blood supply to the maxillofacial area, hemostasis is not easy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of soluble hemostatic gauze.

Methods: We organized a prospective randomized study of 282 patients receiving facial contouring surgery (4 types of procedures in total) during 2016.1.1 to 2018.12.30. For each type of procedure, patients were randomly divided into study group (received hemostatic gauze) and control group (received sterile gauze). Two groups were compared for each type of procedure regarding 5 major perioperative variables: intraoperative blood loss, operation time, 24-hour postoperative drainage volume, total postoperative drainage volume, and postoperative drainage time. Correlation between variables was analyzed.

Results: Compared with control group, the study group had higher amount of intraoperative blood loss in mandibular angle ostectomy (MAO) (P < .01) and mandibular angle-body-chin curved ostectomy procedures (P < .05), less total postoperative drainage volume in MAO (P < .01) but not in malarplasty with MAO and partial masseter muscle resection along with MAO procedures. No significant difference was observed between respective study and control groups regarding operation time, 24-hour postoperative drainage volume, and postoperative drainage time in any of the 4 types of surgery. In all 4 types of procedures, a strongly positive correlation was observed between total drainage volume and 24-hour drainage volume in both the study and control groups (r: 0.88-0.97, P < .01).

Conclusion: The effect of hydroxyethyl cellulose soluble hemostatic gauze on hemostasis in facial contouring surgery is associated with the type of surgery, which can reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding in MAO. However, for surgery with relatively large amount of intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, the hemostatic gauze had a limited postoperative hemostasis efficacy, which needs further evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133102PMC
May 2021

VISTA is an activating receptor in human monocytes.

J Exp Med 2021 Aug 9;218(8). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

AbbVie Biotherapeutics Inc., Redwood City, CA.

As indicated by its name, V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is thought to serve primarily as an inhibitory protein that limits immune responses. VISTA antibodies can dampen the effects of several concomitantly elicited activation signals, including TCR and TLR activation, but it is currently unclear if VISTA agonism could singly affect immune cell biology. In this study, we discovered two novel VISTA antibodies and characterized their effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by scRNA/CITE-seq. Both antibodies appeared to agonize VISTA in an Fc-functional manner to elicit transcriptional and functional changes in monocytes consistent with activation. We also used pentameric VISTA to identify Syndecan-2 and several heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis genes as novel regulators of VISTA interactions with monocytic cells, adding further evidence of bidirectional signaling. Together, our study highlights several novel aspects of VISTA biology that have yet to be uncovered in myeloid cells and serves as a foundation for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201601DOI Listing
August 2021

Correction to: Reduction Mandibuloplasty Along with Partial Masseter Muscle Resection: Masseter Muscle Response and Bone Regeneration.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

16th Department, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100144, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02410-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Calcitonin increases hepatic hepcidin expression through the BMP6 of kidney in mice.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jun 1;68:126796. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Laboratory of Molecular Iron Metabolism, College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Osteoporosis is frequently accompanied by iron disorders. Calcitonin (CT) was approved as a clinical drug to treat osteoporosis. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the liver and controls body iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency leads to iron overload diseases. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of CT on hepatic hepcidin and the mechanism by which CT modulates hepatic hepcidin pathways and iron metabolism.

Method: RT-PCR, Western blot, ELISA and siRNA were used to detect the effect of CT on iron metabolism in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the regulatory signal molecules of hepcidin were measured to explore the molecular mechanism of its regulation.

Results: The results showed that CT strongly increased hepcidin expression and altered iron homeostasis, after mice were intraperitoneal injection of CT. In response to CT administration, BMP6 level in kidney and the serum BMP6 was increased significantly. The phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 proteins in liver was increased at 3 h and 6 h. Moreover, the Bmp inhibitor LDN-193,189 pretreatment significantly attenuated the CT-mediated increases in phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Hamp1 mRNA levels. Calcitonin receptor (CTR) siRNA transfection significant suppressed the role of CT on BMP6 expression in Caki-1 cells.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that CT strongly induces hepcidin expression and affected iron metabolism. It will provide a new strategy for the treatment of calcium iron related diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126796DOI Listing
June 2021

Improvement in Midline Shift Is a Positive Prognostic Predictor for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Patients Undergoing Decompressive Craniectomy.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:652827. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the risk factors of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) patients and explore an applicable prognostic predictor for MMCAI patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC). Clinical data from the period 2012-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Forty-three consecutive MMCAI patients undergoing DC were enrolled in this study. The 30-day mortality was assessed, and age, location, hypertension, pupil dilation, onset to operation duration, midline shift, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were identified by univariate analysis and binary logistic regression. In this retrospective study for DC patients, the 30-day mortality was 44.2%. In the univariate analysis, advanced age (≥60 years), right hemispheric location, hypertension, pupil dilation, shorter onset to operation duration (<48 h), improved midline shift ( = 4.214, < 0.01), and lower pre-operation GCS score were significant predictors of death within 30 days. In binary logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.141, 95% CI 1.011-1.287], the improvement of the midline shift (OR = 0.764, 95% CI 0.59-0.988), and pupillary dilation (OR = 15.10, 95% CI 1.374-165.954) were independent influencing factors. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the relationship between post-operation outcomes and midline shift improvement, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.844, and the cutoff point of midline shift improvement was 0.83 cm. Improved midline shift was a significant predictor of 30-day mortality. The improved midline shift of >0.83 cm indicated survival at 30 days.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.652827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176305PMC
May 2021

Mechanism of nitrite transporter NirC in motility, biofilm formation, and adhesion of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The Escherichia coli (E. coli) nirC gene encodes a nitrite transporter, which involved in transporting toxic nitrite (NO) from the environment into the bacteria. Although the deletion of nirC gene could cause changes in motility, adhesion in the previous study, and the virulence involved in the specified mechanism for pathogenic E. coli remains to be known. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the role of NirC in a serotype O2:K1:H7 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain. For this purpose, we generated a NirC-deficient mutant of APEC XM strain and examined its biological characteristics. The nirC gene deletion mutant enhanced ability of motility, decreased in biofilm formation, and it markedly reduced ability to adhere mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell b.End3 cells. For understanding its mechanism, sequentially we detected and found the stress regulator rpoS and its downstream genes csrA were up-regulated in NirC-deficient mutant while diguanylate cyclase gene dgcT was down-regulated. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, we demonstrated the concentration of intracellular 3',5'-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) significantly decrease in nirC gene deletion mutant. Taken data together, we may make a conclusion with a possible signal pathway clue, due to NirC mutation, environmental NO accumulation leads to nitrite stress and inactivates c-di-GMP synthesis by stimulating the stress regulator RpoS, resulting in changes of biological characteristics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02412-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Establishment of a nomogram prediction model for long diameter 10-15 mm gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency.

Surgery 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical indications for the treatment of gallbladder polyps are controversial. Evaluation of gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency and indications for cholecystectomy in patients with long diameter polyps of 10 to 15 mm require further analysis and discussion. In this study, our objective was to re-evaluate indications for the surgical resection of gallbladder polyps and construct a nomogram model for the prediction of gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency.

Methods: Clinicopathologic data of 2,272 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyps were collected from 11 medical centers in China. Risk factor analyses and nomogram prediction model for gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency were conducted.

Results: Excluding 311 patients with cholelithiasis and 488 patients with long diameter polyps ≤5 and >15 mm, factors that differed significantly among patients with gallbladder polyps having a long diameter of 6 to 9 mm (885 cases) and 10 to 15 mm (588 cases) were polyp detection time, CEA and CA19-9 levels, number of polyps, fundus, echogenicity, gallbladder wall thickness and postoperative pathologic features (P < .05). Among 588 patients with gallbladder polyps with a long diameter of 10 of 15 mm, multivariate analysis indicated the following independent risk factors of gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency: single polyps (OR = 0.286/P < .001), polyps with broad base (OR = 2.644/P = .001), polyps with medium/low echogenicity (OR = 2.387/P = .003), and polyps with short diameter of 7 to 9 or 10 to 15 mm (OR = 3.820/P = .005; OR = 2.220/P = .048, respectively). The C-index of the nomogram model and internal validation were .778 and .768, respectively. In addition, a sample online calculator for the nomogram prediction model had been created (https://docliqi.shinyapps.io/dynnom/).

Conclusion: Indications for cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder polyps with a long diameter of 10 to 15 mm should be assessed by combining the information on short diameter, number of polyps, fundus, and echogenicity. The nomogram model can be used to predict the risk for the development of gallbladder polyps with malignant tendency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.04.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Significance of Ultrasound-Based Hemodynamic Assessment of Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Posterior Cerebral Artery in Symptomatic and Angiographic Evolution of Moyamoya Disease: A Preliminary Study.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:614749. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To investigate the hemodynamic changes using ultrasound according to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings and explore the association between ultrasound parameters and clinical symptoms of moyamoya disease (MMD). Hemodynamic parameters of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated by ultrasound. According to DSA findings, EICA parameters among Suzuki stages (stage I-II, III-IV, and V-VI), and PCA parameters among leptomeningeal system scores (score 0-2, 3-4, and 5-6) were compared, respectively. ROC analysis was performed based on the ultrasound parameters to distinguish stroke from non-stroke patients. Forty patients with MMD were included in our study (16 men; median age, 37 years). The diameter (D), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and flow volume (FV) of EICA decreased as the Suzuki stage advanced (D: < 0.001; PSV: < 0.001; EDV: < 0.001; FV: < 0.001). The PSV and EDV of PCA increased as the leptomeningeal system scores advanced (PSV: < 0.001; EDV: < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that the area under the curves (AUCs) based on the D and FV of EICA, the PSV and EDV of PCA and their combination were 0.688, 0.670, 0.727, 0.684, and 0.772, respectively, to distinguish stroke from non-stroke patients. Ultrasound parameters were related to Suzuki stages and leptomeningeal system scores. Ultrasound may be useful in predicting the occurrence of stroke in patients with MMD. Future prospective studies with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.614749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165238PMC
May 2021

FSTL1 aggravates OVA-induced inflammatory responses by activating the NLRP3/IL-1β signaling pathway in mice and macrophages.

Inflamm Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Respiratory, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Jinan, China.

Objective: Asthma, a well-known disease with high morbidity, is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the allergic inflammation mechanisms of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) have not been elucidated. This study aims to investigate the effects of FSTL1 in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mice and macrophages on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/interleukin-1β (IL-1β) signaling pathway.

Methods: Mice were randomly divided into control-WT, OVA-WT, control-Fstl1, OVA-Fstl1. Histological changes were assessed by HE and PAS staining. The protein levels of Muc-5AC, FSTL1, NLRP3, and IL-1β in lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice and human serum samples were detected by ELISA. Then, mice were grouped into control, FSTL1, MCC950 + FSTL1 to further investigate the relationship between FSTL1 and NLRP3/IL-1β. Alveolar macrophage cells (MH-S cells) were separated into control, OVA, FSTL1, OVA + FSTL1, OVA + siNC, OVA + siFSTL1, MCC950, and FSTL1 + MCC950 groups to explore the effect of FSTL1 on the NLRP3/IL-1β signaling. The protein expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β in MH-S cells was detected by Western blot analysis.

Results: The present results uncovered that Fstl1 significantly ameliorated OVA-induced Muc-5AC production and mucus hypersecretion. Fstl1 was also found to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell infiltration in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of FSTL1 and IL-1β were higher in  asthma subjects than the health subjects, and Fstl1 ameliorated the production of NLRP3 and IL-1β in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Furthermore, mice by injected FSTL1 substantially stimulated the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β, while pretreatment with MCC950 in mice significantly weakened the production of NLRP3 and IL-1β induced by injection FSTL1. Pretreatment with siFSTL1 or MCC950 significantly reduced the production of NLRP3 and IL-1β induced by OVA or FSTL1 in MH-S cells.

Conclusions: The study results showed that FSTL1 played an important role in allergic airway inflammation by activating NLRP3/IL-1β. Hence, inhibition FSTL1 could be applied as a therapeutic agent against asthma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-021-01475-wDOI Listing
June 2021

ALT Positivity in Human Cancers: Prevalence and Clinical Insights.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA.

Many exciting advances in cancer-related telomere biology have been made in the past decade. Of these recent advances, great progress has also been made with respect to the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway. Along with a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of this unique telomere maintenance pathway, many studies have also evaluated ALT activity in various cancer subtypes. We first briefly review and assess a variety of commonly used ALT biomarkers. Then, we provide both an update on ALT-positive (ALT+) tumor prevalence as well as a systematic clinical assessment of the presently studied ALT+ malignancies. Additionally, we discuss the pathogenetic alterations in ALT+ cancers, for example, the mutation status of and , and their correlations with the activation of the ALT pathway. Finally, we highlight important ALT+ clinical associations within each cancer subtype and subdivisions within, as well as their prognoses. We hope this alternative perspective will allow scientists, clinicians, and drug developers to have greater insight into the ALT cancers so that together, we may develop more efficacious treatments and improved management strategies to meet the urgent needs of cancer patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156225PMC
May 2021

Geometric Photon-Drag Effect and Nonlinear Shift Current in Centrosymmetric Crystals.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(19):197402

Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Republic of Singapore.

The nonlinear shift current, also known as the bulk photovoltaic current generated by linearly polarized light, has long been known to be absent in crystals with inversion symmetry. Here we argue that a nonzero shift current in centrosymmetric crystals can be activated by a photon-drag effect. Photon-drag shift current proceeds from a "shift current dipole" (a geometric quantity characterizing interband transitions) and manifests a purely transverse response in centrosymmetric crystals. This transverse nature proceeds directly from the shift-vector's pseudovector nature under mirror operation and underscores its intrinsic geometric origin. Photon-drag shift current can be greatly enhanced by coupling to polaritons and provides a new and sensitive tool to interrogate the subtle interband coherences of materials with inversion symmetry previously thought to be inaccessible via photocurrent probes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.197402DOI Listing
May 2021

Dual Modal Imaging-Guided Drug Delivery System for Combined Chemo-Photothermal Melanoma Therapy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 18;16:3457-3472. Epub 2021 May 18.

Shandong Engineering Research Center for Smart Materials and Regenerative Medicine, Weifang, 261053, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Malignant melanoma is one of the most devastating types of cancer with rapid relapse and low survival rate. Novel strategies for melanoma treatment are currently needed to enhance therapeutic efficiency for this disease. In this study, we fabricated a multifunctional drug delivery system that incorporates dacarbazine (DTIC) and indocyanine green (ICG) into manganese-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN(Mn)) coupled with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal imaging (PI), for achieving the superior antitumor effect of combined chemo-photothermal therapy.

Materials And Methods: MSN(Mn) were characterized in terms of size and structural properties, and drug loading and release efficiency MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC were analyzed by UV spectra. Photothermal imaging effect and MR imaging effect of MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC were detected by thermal imaging system and 3.0 T MRI scanner, respectively. Then, the combined chemo-phototherapy was verified in vitro and in vivo by morphological evaluation, ultrasonic and pathological evaluation.

Results: The as-synthesized MSN(Mn) were characterized as mesoporous spherical nanoparticles with 125.57±5.96 nm. MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC have the function of drug loading-release which loading ratio of ICG and DTIC could reach to 34.25±2.20% and 50.00±3.24%, and 32.68±2.10% of DTIC was released, respectively. Manganese doping content could reach up to 65.09±2.55 wt%, providing excellent imaging capability in vivo which the corresponding relaxation efficiency was 14.33 mMs. And outstanding photothermal heating ability and stability highlighted the potential biomedical applicability of MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC to kill cancer cells. Experiments by A375 melanoma cells and tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that the compound MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC have excellent biocompatibility and our combined therapy platform delivered a superior antitumor effect compared to standalone treatment in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that composite MSN(Mn)-ICG/DTIC could serve as a multifunctional platform to achieve a highly effective chemo-photothermal combined therapy for melanoma treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S306269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144848PMC
June 2021

Effects and safety of aspirin use in patients after cerebrovascular bypass procedures.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Object: Superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass is the most effective treatment for Moyamoya disease (MMD). In this study, we aimed to assess whether aspirin improves STA-MCA bypass patency and is safe in patients with MMD.

Methods: We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients with ischaemic-onset MMD who had undergone STA-MCA bypass at two hospitals between January 2011 and August 2018, to clarify the effects and safety of aspirin following STA-MCA bypass. The neurological status at the last follow-up (FU) was compared between patients with FU bypass patency and occlusion.Among 217 identified patients (238 hemispheres), the mean age was 41.4±10.2 years, and 51.8% were male; the indications for STA-MCA bypass were stroke (48.2%), followed by a transient ischaemic attack (44.0%). Immediate bypass patency was confirmed in all cases. During the FU period (1.5±1.5 y), 15 cases were occluded at FU imaging, resulting in an overall cumulative patency rate of 94%. The patency rates were 93% and 94% in the short-term FU group (n=131, mean FU time 0.5±0.2 years) and long-term FU group (n=107, mean FU time 4.1±3.5 years), respectively. The STA-MCA bypass patency rate in the aspirin group was higher than that in the non-aspirin group (98.7% vs 89.7%; HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.106 to 2.235; p=0.012). No significant difference in the FU haemorrhagic events was observed between the aspirin and non-aspirin groups.

Conclusions: Among adult patients with ischaemic-onset MMD undergoing STA-MCA bypass procedures, aspirin might increase the bypass patency rate, without increasing the bleeding risk. FU bypass patency may be associated with a better outcome. Additional studies, especially carefully designed prospective studies, are needed to address the role of aspirin after bypass procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000770DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptome analysis reveals the promotive effect of potassium by hormones and sugar signaling pathways during adventitious roots formation in the apple rootstock.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Aug 20;165:123-136. Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Horticulture, Yangling Subsidiary Center Project of the National Apple Improvement Center, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Apples are economically valuable and widely consumed fruits. The adventitious roots (ARs) formation is gridlock for apple trees mass propagation. The possible function of multiple hormones and sugar signaling pathways regulating ARs formation has not been completely understood in apple. In this study, B9 stem cuttings were treated with KCl treatment, where the highest root numbers (220) and maximum root length of 731.2 cm were noticed in KCl-treated cuttings, which were 98.2% and 215% higher than control cuttings. The content of endogenous hormones: IAA, ZR, JA, GA, and ABA were detected higher in response to KCl at most time-points. To figure out the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, we investigated transcriptome analysis. In total, 4631 DEGs were determined, from which about 202 DEGs were considerably enriched in pathways associated with hormone signaling, sugar metabolism, root development, and cell cycle-related and were thereupon picked out on their potential involvements in ARs formation. Though, IAA accumulation and up-regulation of various genes contribute to induce AR formation. These results suggest that AR formation is a complex biological process in apple rootstocks, influenced mainly by the auxin signaling pathway and sugar metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.05.015DOI Listing
August 2021

Mdm-MIR393b-mediated adventitious root formation by targeted regulation of MdTIR1A expression and weakened sensitivity to auxin in apple rootstock.

Plant Sci 2021 Jul 22;308:110909. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Horticulture, Yangling Subsidiary Center Project of the National Apple Improvement Center, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Adventitious root (AR) formation is of great significance for apple rootstock breeding. It is widely accepted that miR393 influences AR formation in many plant species; however, the molecular mechanism by which factors regulate AR formation remains insufficient. In this study, the evolutionary relationship of mdm-miR393 and candidate target genes MdTIR1/AFB was systematically identified, and the expression patterns were analysed. Multisequence alignment analysis of miR393 family members suggests that miR393 conservatively evolved between different species. The evolutionary relationship of the TIR1/AFBs can be divided into G1, G2 and G3 subgroups. During AR formation, the expression level of mdm-miR393a/b/c was significantly upregulated at 1 d and 7 d by exogenous auxin treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of MdTIR1A, MdTIR1D, MdAFB1, MdAFB2, MdAFB3, MdAFB4 and MdAFB8 also appeared to be significantly changed by exogenous auxin induction. Subsequently, tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the expression levels of mdm-miR393 and MdTIR1/AFBs in different tissues exhibited significant differences. The promoter of mdm-miR393 contains multiple elements that respond to ABA, adversity and light signals; auxin treatment can activate the mdm-MIR393b promoter but is obviously inhibited by NPA treatment. The targeting relationship between mdm-MIR393b and MdTIR1A was verified by expression patterns, degradation group data, transient tobacco conversion results, and genes functions experiments. Heterologous overexpression of mdm-MIR393b (35S::mdm-MIR393b) decreased the number of ARs in the phenotype and reduced the expression level of the target gene NtTIR1 in tobacco. Compared to the wild type, the 35S::mdm-MIR393b transgenic plants demonstrated insensitivity to auxin. Furthermore, tir1 mutant exhibited reduced root system structure relative to the control. The above results illustrated that mdm-MIR393b is involved in mediating AR formation by targeted regulation of MdTIR1A expression in apple rootstock.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.110909DOI Listing
July 2021

Bone Sclerostin and Dickkopf-related protein-1 are positively correlated with bone mineral density, bone microarchitecture, and bone strength in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 25;22(1):480. Epub 2021 May 25.

Orthopedic Department, Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Wnt-catenin signaling antagonists sclerostin and dickkopf-related protein-1 (Dkk-1) inhibit bone formation and are involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). However, the association between sclerostin and Dkk-1 and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with PO remains unclear.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between sclerostin and Dkk-1 and BMD, bone microarchitecture, and bone strength in PO.

Methods: Trabecular bone specimens were obtained from the femoral heads of 76 Chinese women with PO who underwent hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) was used to assess the BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone. Subsequently, a mechanical test was performed. Finally, sclerostin and Dkk-1 in the bone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (Elisa) assay. Serum ionized serum ionised calcium, propeptide of type 1 collagen, C-terminal β-telopeptide of type-1 collagen, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were also detected.

Results: Bone sclerostin was positively correlated with serum ionised calcium, serum sclerostin, BMD, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), maximum compressive force, and yield strength (r = 0.32, 0.906, 0.355, 0.401, 0.329, 0.355, and 0.293, respectively, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with age and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) (r = - 0.755 and - 0.503, respectively, P < 0.05). Bone Dkk-1 was positively correlated with serum ionised calcium, serum Dkk-1, BMD, BV/TV, trabecular thickness, Tb.N, maximum compressive force, yield strength, and Young's modulus (r = 0.38, 0.809, 0.293, 0.293, 0.228, 0.318, 0.352, 0.315, and 0.266, respectively, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with age and Tb.Sp (r = - 0.56 and - 0.38, respectively, P < 0.05). Serum levels of sclerostin and Dkk-1 reflected the levels of sclerostin and Dkk-1 in the bone.

Conclusion: Bone sclerostin and Dkk-1 were positively correlated with BMD in women with PO, and higher levels of bone sclerostin and Dkk-1 might predict better BMD, bone microarchitecture, and bone strength. The potential molecular mechanisms still require further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04365-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152077PMC
May 2021

Reduction Mandibuloplasty Along with Partial Masseter Muscle Resection: Masseter Muscle Response and Bone Regeneration.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

16th Department, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100144, China.

Objective: To compare the masseter muscle changes and bone regeneration between reduction mandibuloplasty along with partial masseter muscle resection and reduction mandibuloplasty alone.

Methods: Forty-seven patients who complained of prominent mandibular angle and hypertrophy masseter muscles (MMH) were divided into group 1 treated with reduction mandibuloplasty along with partial masseter muscle resection, and group 2 treated with reduction mandibuloplasty alone. Pre-5 days and long-term postoperative computed tomography data were collected, and the masseter muscle volume, hemi-mandible volume, and unilateral lower face width were measured. Patient satisfaction and complication were also evaluated.

Results: At long-term follow-up, group 1 showed a greater decrease in masseter volume (p < 0.001), and lower face width (p < 0.001), and less bone regeneration (p < 0.001) than group 2. Furthermore, patients in group 1 had higher satisfaction with the surgical outcome (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Reduction mandibuloplasty along with partial masseter muscle resection can achieve a slender frontal appearance and significantly decrease bone generation. For patients with MMH, reduction mandibuloplasty along with partial masseter muscle resection is an effective and predictable lower face reshaping surgery.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine Ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02356-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow drift tube ion mobility spectrometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 12;1163:338507. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, TX, 79409-1061, Lubbock, USA. Electronic address:

In this work, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) ambient desorption/ionization source has been coupled with stand-alone Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry (DTIMS) for the first time. A tip repeller electrode, modified to allow higher bias potential still below the Townsend's breakdown, was implemented at the FAPA/DTIMS interface to overcome the opposing potentials and facilitate ion transmission. The effect of the lab-built DTIMS and FAPA's operating conditions (such as plasma voltage, current, gas flow rate, repeller's potential and positioning, FAPA orientation, etc.) on the signal of selected analytes was studied, for both gas-phase injection and desorption. The FAPA reactant ion peak (RIP) reduced mobility coefficient (K) corresponds to protonated water clusters (HO)H. The FAPA-DTIMS spectra of several selected compounds showed that their K agrees with literature values. Moreover, quantitative characterization of acetaminophen and 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (2,6-DTBP) based on desorption or gas-phase injection yield limits of detection (LODs) of 0.03 μg and 18 ppb, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338507DOI Listing
June 2021

Transcriptome landscape of double negative T cells by single-cell RNA sequencing.

J Autoimmun 2021 Jul 19;121:102653. Epub 2021 May 19.

General Surgery Department, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China; National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases, Beijing, 100050, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Tolerance Induction and Organ Protection in Transplantation, Beijing, 100050, China; Immunology Research Center for Oral and Systemic Health, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, China; Beijing Clinical Research Institute, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

CD4 and CD8 coreceptor double negative TCRαβ T (DNT) cells are increasingly being recognized for their critical and diverse roles in the immune system. However, their molecular and functional signatures remain poorly understood and controversial. Moreover, the majority of studies are descriptive because of the relative low frequency of cells and non-standardized definition of this lineage. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 28,835 single immune cells isolated from mixed splenocytes of male C57BL/6 mice using strict fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data was replicated in a subsequent study. Our analysis revealed five transcriptionally distinct naïve DNT cell clusters, which expressed unique sets of genes and primarily performed T helper, cytotoxic and innate immune functions. Anti-CD3/CD28 activation enhanced their T helper and cytotoxic functions. Moreover, in comparison with CD4, CD8 T cells and NK cells, Ikzf2 was highly expressed by both naïve and activated cytotoxic DNT cells. In conclusion, we provide a map of the heterogeneity in naïve and active DNT cells, addresses the controversy about DNT cells, and provides potential transcription signatures of DNT cells. The landscape approach herein will eventually become more feasible through newer high throughput methods and will enable clustering data to be fed into a systems analysis approach. Thus the approach should become the "backdrop" of similar studies in the myriad murine models of autoimmunity, potentially highlighting the importance of DNT cells and other minor lineage of cells in immune homeostasis. The clear characterization of functional DNT subsets into helper DNT, cytotoxic DNT and innate DNT will help to better understand the intrinsic roles of different functional DNT subsets in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection, and thereby may facilitate diagnosis and therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102653DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of blood supply of the external carotid artery in moyamoya disease using super-selective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling technique.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Radiology Department, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.119 South Fourth Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of super-selective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ss-pCASL) at depicting external carotid artery (ECA) perfusion territory in moyamoya disease (MMD).

Methods: In total, 103 patients with MMD who underwent both ss-pCASL and digital subtraction angiography (DSA, the reference standard) were included. There were 3, 184, and 19 normal, preoperative, and postoperative MMD hemispheres, respectively. The ss-pCASL results were interpreted by two different visual inspection criteria: presence or absence and definite or indefinite ECA perfusion territory. The performance of ss-pCASL at depiction of ECA perfusion territory was compared to that of DSA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. The κ statistic was used to assess intermodality and inter-reader agreement.

Results: When interpreted as presence or absence, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of ss-pCASL for depicting ECA perfusion territory were 78.3 %, 79.6 %, 92.5 %, 53.4 %, and 78.6 %, respectively, and the intermodality and inter-reader agreement were κ = 0.49 (CI: 0.43 - 0.55, p < 0.01) and 0.71 (CI: 0.66 - 0.76, p < 0.01), respectively. When interpreted as definite or indefinite, the respective values were 61.1%, 100%, 100%, 44.5%, 70.4%, κ = 0.42 (CI: 0.37 - 0.47, p < 0.01), and 0.90 (CI: 0.87 - 0.93, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: ss-pCASL has substantial sensitivity and specificity compared with DSA for depicting the presence versus absence of ECA perfusion territory in MMD. As a noninvasive method in which no ion radiation or contrast medium is needed, ss-pCASL may potentially reduce the need for repeated DSA examination.

Key Points: • Super-selective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ss-pCASL) is a noninvasive vessel-selective MR technique to demonstrate perfusion territory of a single cerebral artery. • Compared with digital subtraction angiography, ss-pCASL has substantial sensitivity and specificity for depicting the perfusion territory of the external carotid artery in brain parenchyma in moyamoya disease. • ss-pCASL may potentially reduce the need for repeated DSA examination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07893-yDOI Listing
May 2021

pH-Driven Reversible Assembly and Disassembly of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles.

Front Chem 2021 29;9:675491. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), dynamic manipulation of optical properties through the structure evolution of plasmonic nanoparticles has been intensively studied for practical applications. This paper describes a novel method for direct reversible self-assembly and dis-assembly of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in water driven by pH stimuli. Using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the capping ligand and pH-responsive agent, the APTES hydrolyzes rapidly in response to acid and then condenses into silicon. On the contrary, the condensed silicon can be broken down into silicate by base, which subsequently deprotonates the APTES on AuNPs. By controlling condensation and decomposition of APTES, the plasmonic coupling among adjacent AuNPs could be reversible tuned to display the plasmonic color switching. This study provides a facile and distinctive strategy to regulate the reversible self-assembly of AuNPs, and it also offers a new avenue for other plasmonic nanoparticles to adjust plasmonic properties reversible self-assembly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.675491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116534PMC
April 2021

Monitoring Treatment Efficacy of Antiangiogenic Therapy Combined With Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs Online Using Functional MRI.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:672047. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in monitoring tumor responses to antiangiogenic therapy combined with hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs).

Materials And Methods: Establishing colon cancer xenograft model by subcutaneously injecting the HCT116 cell line into BALB/C nude mice. Twenty-four tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into four groups and injected with bevacizumab combined with TH-302 (A), bevacizumab (B), TH-302 (C), or saline (D) on days 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13. Functional MRI was performed before and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days after treatment. Pathologic examinations, including HE staining, HIF-1α and CD31 immunohistochemical staining, and TUNEL and Ki-67 immunofluorescent staining, were performed after the last scan.

Results: At the end of the study, Group A showed the lowest tumor volume, followed by Groups B, C, and D (F=120.652, P<0.001). For pathologic examinations, Group A showed the lowest percentage of CD31 staining (F=73.211, P<0.001) and Ki-67 staining (F=231.170, P<0.001), as well as the highest percentage of TUNEL staining (F=74.012, P<0.001). Moreover, the D* and f values exhibited positive correlations with CD31 (r=0.868, P<0.001, and r=0.698, P=0.012, respectively). R2* values was positively correlated with HIF-1α (r=0.776, P=0.003). D values were positively correlated with TUNEL (r=0.737, P=0.006) and negatively correlated with Ki-67 (r=0.912, P<0.001). The standard ADC values were positive correlated with TUNEL (r=0.672, P=0.017) and negative correlated with Ki-67 (r=0.873, P<0.001).

Conclusion: Anti-angiogenic agents combined with HAP can inhibit tumor growth effectively. In addition, IVIM-DWI and BOLD-MRI can be used to monitor the tumor microenvironment, including perfusion, hypoxia, cell apoptosis and proliferation, in a noninvasive manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.672047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120295PMC
April 2021

Impacts of lockdown on dietary patterns among youths in China: the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 17:1-12. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Objective: To assess changes in dietary patterns among youths in China after COVID-19 lockdown.

Design: This study was based on the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS), a national retrospective survey established in early May 2020. The questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms. The sociodemographic information and routine dietary patterns before and after lockdown of participants were investigated. t tests and χ2 tests were used to compare the differences in consumption patterns of twelve major food groups and beverages between sex and across educational levels before and after lockdown. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the main dietary patterns.

Settings: China.

Participants: A total of 10 082 youths.

Results: A significant decrease was observed in the average weekly frequency of rice intake, while significant increases were observed in the frequency of intake of wheat products, other staple foods, fish, eggs, fresh vegetables, preserved vegetables, fresh fruit and dairy products (all P values < 0·01). Heterogeneities of average weekly frequency existed between sex and across educational levels to different extents. The three main dietary patterns derived were loaded most heavily on dairy products, rice and wheat products, separately; the rice pattern became more dominant than the wheat products pattern after lockdown. The frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption had decreased, while the frequency of other beverages had increased.

Conclusions: Our timely survey would inform policymakers and health professionals of these significant changes in youths' dietary patterns after lockdown, with heterogeneities observed to different extents between sex and across educational levels, for better policy-making and public health practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020005170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144820PMC
May 2021

Female lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) recognize their mates based on olfactory cues.

Behav Processes 2021 May 12;189:104419. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, 200090, China.

Recognition of mates from others is crucial for monogamous species to maintain their long-term pair bonds. The seahorse is widely recognized as a monogamous species, and its mate recognition cue is still not well understood. In the present study, we used the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) as an experimental animal and investigated the effect of blocking olfactory, visual or behavioral (i.e., greeting) cues on mate recognition. Our results show that as long as the female seahorse can smell her mate, she will remain faithful to her mate and persistently select her mate as her next mating partner, regardless of whether the visual and/or behavioral cues between her and her mate are blocked. This finding implies that olfaction is a critical cue for a female seahorse to recognize her mate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2021.104419DOI Listing
May 2021

CD2 T-helper 17-like cells differentiated from a CD133 subpopulation of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells promote the growth of lung carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):687

Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) give rise to a diverse variety of differentiated cells, which comprise the bulk of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the exact multi-directional differentiation potential of CSCs has not been fully clarified. This study was designed to explore whether CSCs differentiate into cellular components of the TME to promote the growth of lung carcinoma.

Methods: The present of CD133, CD2, and CD133CD2 cells in both clinical lung adenocarcinoma tissue and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Array, flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistofluorescence (IF). Stem-like properties of CD133 cells and CD2 cells were detected by sphere formation assay, IF, and western blot. Colony formation and xenograft tumors experiments were performed to assess the malignant behaviors of CD2 cells. The differentiation of CD133 cells to CD2 Th17-like cells was observed by FCM. The interleukin (IL)-2/phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 5 (pSTAT5)/retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) signaling pathway was evaluated by western blot and FCM.

Results: We found that CD133 cells within both clinical lung adenocarcinoma tissue and NSCLC cell lines included a subset of CD2-expressing cells, which were correlated with the grade of malignancy (r=0.7835, P<0.01) and exhibited stem-like properties. Then, we determined the tumorigenic effects of CD2 on the growth of transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC1) in C57/BL6 mice. The results indicated that CD2 cells were effective in promoting tumor growth (P<0.01). Furthermore, we obtained direct evidence of an ability of CD133 cells to transform to T-helper 17-like cells via an intermediate CD133CD2 progenitor cell that is able to secrete IL-17A and IL-23. Furthermore, we found that IL-2 can inhibit the production of T-helper 17-like cells (P<0.001) by modulating the activation of STAT5 signaling pathways to downregulate the expression of RORγt (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Our data demonstrates that Th17-like cells generated from CSCs support cancer progression. These findings enrich the definition of multidirectional differentiation potential of CSCs and improve the understanding of the role of CSCs in cancer progression, which aids the improvement and creation of therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106049PMC
April 2021

Effects of Gasterophilus pecorum infestation on the intestinal microbiota of the rewilded Przewalski's horses in China.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251512. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Horse botflies have been a threat to the Przewalski's horses in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve in Xinjiang of China since their reintroduction to the original range. As larvae of these parasites could infest the intestine of a horse for months, they could interact with and alter the structure and composition of its intestinal microbiota, affecting adversely its health. Nonetheless, there are no such studies on the rewilded Przewalski's horses yet. For the first time, this study characterizes the composition of the intestinal microbiota of 7 rewilded Przewalski's horses infected severely by Gasterophilus pecorum following and prior to their anthelmintic treatment. Bioinformatics analyses of the sequence data obtained by amplicon high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that G. pecorum infestation significantly increased the richness of the intestinal microbial community but not its diversity. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were found the dominant phyla as in other animals, and the parasitic infestation decreased the F/B ratio largely by over 50%. Large reduction in relative abundances of the two genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus observed with G. pecorum infestation suggested possible changes in colic and digestion related conditions of the infected horses. Variations on the relative abundance of the genus groups known to be pathogenic or symbiotic showed that adverse impact of the G. pecorum infestation could be associated with reduction of the symbiotic genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that are probiotics and able to promote immunity against parasitic infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251512PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112688PMC
May 2021

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate the immunosuppressive functions of PD-1PD-L1 Bregs through PD-L1/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB axis in breast cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 9;12(5):465. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cancer Immunology and Biotherapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 300060, China.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that are closely related to tumor immune escape, but the mechanism by which MDSCs regulate B cells has not been elucidated. Our previous studies revealed that breast cancer-derived MDSCs could induce a group of PD-1PD-L1 Bregs with immunosuppressive functions. Here, we reported that blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interaction between MDSCs and B cells could reverse the immunosuppressive functions of PD-1PD-L1 Bregs. The activation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway is essential for PD-1PD-L1 Bregs to exert immunosuppressive effects. MDSCs activated the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway in B cells via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Furthermore, inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 or PI3K/AKT signaling suppressed both tumor growth and the immunosuppressive functions of PD-1PD-L1 Bregs. Dual suppression of PD-1/PD-L1 and PI3K/AKT exerted better antitumor effect. Finally, MDSCs and PD-1PD-L1 Bregs were colocalized in breast cancer tissues and PD-1PD-L1 Bregs were positively correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, MDSC-educated PD-1PD-L1 Bregs and their regulatory mechanisms could contribute to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Our study proposes a novel mechanism for MDSC-mediated regulation of B cell immunity, which might shed new light on tumor immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03745-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107179PMC
May 2021