Publications by authors named "Dong Sun Shin"

43 Publications

Anti-Aging Effects of (Edelweiss) Callus Culture Extract Through Transcriptome Profiling.

Genes (Basel) 2020 02 21;11(2). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Anti-Aging Research Institute of BIO-FD&C Co., Ltd., Incheon 21990, Korea.

Edelweiss () in the family is a wildflower that grows in rocky limestone places. Here, we investigated the efficacy of edelweiss callus culture extract ( callus culture extract; LACCE) using multiple assays from to as well as transcriptome profiling. Several assay results showed the strong antioxidant activity of LACCE in response to UVB treatment. Moreover, LACCE suppressed inflammation and wrinkling; however, moisturizing activity was increased by LACCE. The clinical test demonstrated that constant application of LACCE on the face and skin tissues improved anti-periorbital wrinkles, skin elasticity, dermal density, and skin thickness compared with the placebo. The RNA-Sequencing results showed at least 16.56% of human genes were expressed in keratinocyte cells. LACCE up-regulated genes encoding several KRT proteins; DDIT4, BNIP3, and IGFBP3 were involved in the positive regulation of the developmental process, programmed cell death, keratinization, and cornification forming skin barriers, which provide many advantages in the human skin. By contrast, down-regulated genes were stress-responsive genes, including metal, oxidation, wounding, hypoxia, and virus infection, suggesting LACCE did not cause any harmful stress on the skin. Our comprehensive study demonstrated LACCE is a promising agent for anti-aging cosmetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11020230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074254PMC
February 2020

Sectioned images and 3D models of a cadaver head with reference to dermal filler injection.

Ann Anat 2018 May 2;217:34-39. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University College of Dentistry, Daejeon, 35233, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to describe anatomical consideration with reference to dermal filler injection on sectioned images and three dimensional (3D) models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training purposes in the field of facial surgery. Serially sectioned images of the head were acquired from a cadaver. Anatomic structures related to dermal filler injection were 3D-reconstructed based on sectioned images, and additional structures were built on the basis of the established ones using a semi-automatic method. The anatomical 3D models were assembled and converted to a PDF file (66MB), which can be downloaded and used for free. In the PDF file, noticeable anatomical structures related with dermal filler injection can be identified on the 3D models as well as on the sectioned anatomical images. The 3D models in PDF were optimized and displayed in real time. These state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and 3D models will aid students and trainees to acquire a better understanding of the anatomy related to dermal filler injection, and will also improve medical understanding of patients and the general public. The 3D models in PDF files also can be used on dermal filler injection simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2018.02.001DOI Listing
May 2018

Surface Reconstruction and Optimization of Cerebral Cortex for Application Use.

J Craniofac Surg 2016 Mar;27(2):489-92

*Department of Orthopaedic Biomaterial Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan †Department of Emergency Medical Technology, Gachon University of College of Health Science, Incheon, South Korea.

For the purposes of virtual surgery, medical education, medical communication, and realistic surface models of anatomic structures are required. In the most involved method, surface models can be made using segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction procedures. Such models, however, are computationally expensive, and can be difficult to use. Therefore, optimization is often performed manually, but this is a time-consuming job that requires considerable artistic talent. In this article, the authors describe a method that uses Maya and ZBrush to construct optimized surface models of anatomic structures. The authors take 235 anatomic images generated from a cadaver, and perform segmentation and surface reconstruction using Photoshop and Mimics. Reconstructed surface models of the cerebral cortex are then optimized and divided by a morphing technique in Maya and ZBrush for use in medical applications. The optimized surface models do not require significant storage space, and are easily manufactured and modified. The resulting surface models can be displayed off-line and on-line in real time, as well as on smart phones. Using commercial software with the specialized functions described in this study, it is expected that the efficiencies produced by the proposed method will enable researchers to conveniently create surface models from serially sectioned images such as computed tomographs and magnetic resonance images. The surface models created in this research will also have widespread applications in both medical education and communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000002352DOI Listing
March 2016

Sectioned Images and Surface Models of a Cadaver for Understanding the Dorsalis Pedis Flap.

J Craniofac Surg 2015 Jul;26(5):1656-9

*Department of Orthopaedic Biomaterial Science, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan †Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul ‡Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University College of Dentistry, Daejeon §Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to represent the dorsalis pedis (DP) flap on sectioned images and surface models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the foot were obtained from a cadaver. The important structures in the sectioned images were outlined and stacked to create a surface model. The PDF file (53 MB) of the assembled models is accessible for free download on the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine Web site (http://anatomy.co.kr). In this file, the significant anatomic structures of the DP flap can be inspected in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures of the DP flap are described in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees gain a better understanding of the DP flap anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001618DOI Listing
July 2015

Virtual Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Exploration of Stomach Wall Based on a Cadaver's Sectioned Images.

J Korean Med Sci 2015 May 15;30(5):658-61. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

We intended to determine that virtual endoscopy and laparoscopy of the stomach based on serially sectioned cadaver images is beneficial. Therefore, the outlines between the gastric wall and lumen were traced using the new female data of the Visible Korean to build a volume model. While the outlines were expanded at appropriate thicknesses, the stomach was observed endoscopically and laparoscopically in comparison with a chosen sectioned image. Four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa) of the stomach were discernible by their proper colors in the sectioned images. All layers except the submucosa were identified in the endoscopic and laparoscopic views by using consistent colors. The stepwise expansion of the outlines revealed thickness of each layer as well as whether the thickness was uniform. Our ideas and the Visible Korean images could be a robust resource of virtual reality learning for medical students and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.5.658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414653PMC
May 2015

Whole courses of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, identified in sectioned images and surface models.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2015 Feb 22;298(2):436-43. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

Department of Anatomy, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 1095 Dalgubeol-daero, Daegu, 704-701, Republic of Korea.

In medicine, the neuroanatomy of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens nerves (VI) is learned essentially by cadaver dissection, histological specimens, and MRI. However, these methods have many limitations and it is necessary to compensate for the insufficiencies of previous methods. The aim of this research was to present sectioned images and surface models that allow the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures to be observed in detail. To achieve this, the structures of whole courses of III, IV, and VI were traced on the sectioned images, and surface models of the structures were reconstructed. As a result, nucleus of III, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, nucleus of IV, and nucleus of VI and their fibers were identified on brainstem in the sectioned images. In the sectioned images, III, IV, and VI passed both sides of the cavernous sinus and entered at the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. In the sectioned images, III, IV, and VI innervated extraocular muscles in orbit. In surface models, the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures could be explored freely three-dimensionally. The greatest advantage of the sectioned images was that they allowed the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures to be observed as real colored in an unbroken line. In addition, the surface models allowed the stereoscopic shapes and positions of III, IV, and VI to be comprehended. The sectioned images and surface models could be applied for medical education purposes or training tools. All data generated during this study is available free of charge at anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/cn/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23048DOI Listing
February 2015

Improved sectioned images and surface models of the whole dog body.

Ann Anat 2014 Sep 9;196(5):352-9. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University School of Medicine, 87 Dongdae-ro, Gyeongju 780-350, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The objective of this research was to produce high-quality sectioned images of a whole dog which can be used to create sectional anatomy atlases and three-dimensional (3D) models. A year old female beagle was sacrificed by potassium chloride injection and frozen. The frozen dog was then serially ground using a cryomacrotome. Sectioned surfaces were photographed using a digital camera to create 3555 sectioned images of whole dog body (intervals, 0.2 mm; pixel size, 0.1 mm; 48 bit color). In a sectioned image, structures of dimension greater than 0.1mm could be identified in detail. Photoshop was used to make segmented images of 16 structures. Sectioned and segmented images were stored in browsing software to allow easy access. Segmented images were reconstructed to make surface models of 16 structures using Mimics software and stored in portable document format (PDF) using Adobe 3D Reviewer software. In this research, state-of-art sectioned images and surface models were produced for the dog. The authors hope that the sectioned images produced will become a useful source of software for basic and clinical veterinary medicine, and therefore, are distributing the sectioned images and surface models through browsing software and PDF file available free of charge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2014.05.036DOI Listing
September 2014

Sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver for understanding the deep circumflex iliac artery flap.

J Craniofac Surg 2014 Mar;25(2):626-9

From the *Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Daejeon Dental Hospital, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Daejeon; †Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon; ‡Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul; and §Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to describe the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap from sectioned images and stereoscopic anatomic models using Visible Korean, for the benefit of medical education and clinical training in the field of oromandibular reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the pelvic area were obtained from a cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. The PDF (portable document format) file (size, 30 MB) of the constructed models is available for free download on the Web site of the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine (http://anatomy.co.kr). In the PDF file, the relevant structures of the DCIA flap can be seen in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures associated with the DCIA flap are displayed in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees better understand the anatomy associated with DCIA flap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000000645DOI Listing
March 2014

Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

Anat Cell Biol 2013 Sep 30;46(3):210-6. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2013.46.3.210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811851PMC
September 2013

Laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of the ascending colon wall based on a cadaver sectioned images.

Anat Sci Int 2014 Jan 24;89(1):21-7. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 Worldcup-ro, Suwon, 443-380, Republic of Korea,

For realistic virtual dissection, the sectioned images of a cadaver are a desirable material because of their high resolution and real body color. After a volume model is made of the sectioned images, it can be piled or peeled at the intended thickness as if a structure's surface is expanded and shrunken. The purpose of our study was to confirm whether laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of the processed volume model plays a part in anatomy investigation. The ascending colon was outlined in serially sectioned images and accumulated to build a volume model. While the volume model was being piled or peeled, the ascending colon was observed laparoscopically and endoscopically in comparison with the original sectioned image. The trial efficiently demonstrated layers of the colon wall and surrounding tissues which could not be visualized by conventional macroscopic or microscopic techniques. The availability and contribution of this new method will be confirmed by application to other various organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12565-013-0191-0DOI Listing
January 2014

Accessible and informative sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the ear.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2013 Aug 27;296(8):1180-6. Epub 2013 May 27.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

In our previous research, we created state-of-the-art sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the human ear. Our ear data would be more beneficial and informative if they were more easily accessible. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to distribute the browsing software and the PDF file in which ear images are to be readily obtainable and freely explored. Another goal was to inform other researchers of our methods for establishing the browsing software and the PDF file. To achieve this, sectioned images and color-coded images of ear were prepared (voxel size 0.1 mm). In the color-coded images, structures related to hearing, equilibrium, and structures originated from the first and second pharyngeal arches were segmented supplementarily. The sectioned and color-coded images of right ear were added to the browsing software, which displayed the images serially along with structure names. The surface models were reconstructed to be combined into the PDF file where they could be freely manipulated. Using the browsing software and PDF file, sectional and three-dimensional shapes of ear structures could be comprehended in detail. Furthermore, using the PDF file, clinical knowledge could be identified through virtual otoscopy. Therefore, the presented educational tools will be helpful to medical students and otologists by improving their knowledge of ear anatomy. The browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded without charge and registration at our homepage (http://anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/ear/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.22719DOI Listing
August 2013

Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.

Anat Sci Educ 2013 Sep-Oct;6(5):316-23. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.1342DOI Listing
May 2014

Three-dimensional templating arthroplasty of the humeral head.

Surg Radiol Anat 2013 Oct 26;35(8):685-8. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Orthopaedic Department of Chosun University Hospital, 588, Seoseok-dong, Dong-ku, Gwangju, 501-717, South Korea.

Background: No anatomical study has been conducted over Asian population to design humeral head prosthesis for the population concerned. This study was done to evaluate the accuracy of commercially available humeral head prosthetic designs, in replicating the humeral head anatomy.

Methods: CT scan data of 48 patients were taken and their 3D CAD models were generated. Then, humeral head prosthetic design of a BF shoulder system produced by a standardized, commercially available company (Zimmer) was used for templating shoulder arthroplasty and the humeral head size having the perfect fit was assessed. These data were compared with the available data in the literature.

Results: All the humeral heads were perfectly matched by one of the sizes available. The average head size was 48.5 mm and the average head thickness was 23.5 mm. The results matched reasonably well with the available data in the literature.

Conclusions: The humeral head anatomy can be recreated reasonably well by the commercially available humeral head prosthetic designs and sizes. Their dimensions are similar to that of the published literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-013-1090-8DOI Listing
October 2013

Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

J Korean Med Sci 2012 Aug 25;27(8):849-56. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2012.27.8.849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410230PMC
August 2012

Three types of the serial segmented images suitable for surface reconstruction.

Anat Cell Biol 2012 Jun 30;45(2):128-35. Epub 2012 Jun 30.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Stereoscopic surface models of human organs can be manipulated in real time. This is a significant feature of an interactive simulation system used for clinical practice. Objective surface models are obtainable from the accumulation of each structure's serial outlines, followed by surface reconstruction. The segmented images including the outlines can be divided into outlined images, white-filled images, and color-filled images. The purpose of this study was to report the benefits of the three types of segmented images for surface reconstruction. For the raw data, sectioned images of a male cadaver head were used. In the sectioned images, 91 structures were delineated for the preparation of 234 serial outlined images. The outlined images were converted into white-filled and color-filled images; the reverse conversion was also possible. The outlined images, including the original sectioned images, could be the source not only of surface models but also of volume models. The white-filled images, with a minimal file size, were preferred for separate surface reconstruction of the individual structures. The color-filled images, which allowed for recognition of the entire outlined structures simultaneously, were regarded as a good choice for the construction of several surface models. For the process, we employed a variety of software packages including those for animation, where the images were compatible. This information can be used by other investigators to build their own three-dimensional models. In addition, the surface models of detailed structures in the head, accompanied by the corresponding sectioned and segmented images, will hopefully contribute to various simulations that can be useful to clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2012.45.2.128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3398175PMC
June 2012

Accessible and informative sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head.

J Craniofac Surg 2012 Jul;23(4):1176-80

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head in the Visible Korean Project would be more beneficial if they were accessible and informative. To this aim, 3 policies were established: (1) the data are promptly obtainable and observable; (2) the graphic data are accompanied by explaining the anatomic terms; and (3) two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models are shown together. According to the policies, the following were attempted. Two hundred thirty-five couples of sectioned images and outlined images (intervals, 1 mm) of the head were prepared. Browsing software was developed where the 2 corresponding images were displayed simultaneously. In addition, the structures in the images were recognized with the aid of automatic labeling. From the outlined images, surface models of 178 head structures were constructed. The two-dimensional surface models including the sectioned images were embedded into the three-dimensional surface models. All the models were categorized into systems and arranged to be inputted to a PDF (portable document format) file. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive head data could be explored on Adobe Reader. If the user clicked on the surface models, their anatomic names were highlighted. The sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models in the browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) free of charge. The state-of-the-art graphic information will hopefully assist medical students in learning head anatomy. In addition, the raw data are expected to contribute to the various clinical practice simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e31825657d8DOI Listing
July 2012

The Visible Human Projects in Korea and China with improved images and diverse applications.

Surg Radiol Anat 2012 Aug 10;34(6):527-34. Epub 2012 Mar 10.

Department of Anatomy, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Purpose: The Visible Human Projects, which were launched in the United States, have also been developed in Korea and China during the past decade. This article includes the new trials to promote a variety of their applications.

Methods: In a Korean laboratory, whole bodies of two cadavers were serially sectioned (Visible Korean), while two Chinese institutes have sectioned nine cadavers (Chinese Visible Human and Virtual Chinese Human). For acquiring sectioned images and stereoscopic models of better quality, appropriate cadavers were chosen; equipments and techniques for embedding, sectioning, photography, and computer processing were continuously improved in the two countries. To facilitate the research, Korean and Chinese scientists have visited each other.

Results: The sectioned images with thinner intervals (0.2 mm or less) and higher resolution were obtained. From the advanced data, the segmented images of comprehensive structures were prepared to construct three-dimensional models. Then, cross-sectional images and models were offered for medical education and clinical practice such as electronic anatomy atlas and virtual lumbar puncture.

Conclusion: Every project has its strengths and weaknesses with regard to the image data; users in the world can choose the project that best suits their needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-012-0945-8DOI Listing
August 2012

Systematized methods of surface reconstruction from the serial sectioned images of a cadaver head.

J Craniofac Surg 2012 Jan;23(1):190-4

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Three-dimensional models have played important roles in medical simulation and education. Surface models can be manipulated in real time and even online; surface models have significant features for an interactive simulation system. The objective surface models are obtainable from accumulation of each structure's outlines, followed by surface reconstruction. The aim of this research was to suggest the arranged methods of surface reconstruction, which might be applied to building surface models from serial images, such as computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. We used recent state-of-the-art sectioned images of a cadaver head in which several structures were delineated. Four reconstruction methods were regulated according to the structure's morphology: all outlines of a structure are overlapped and singular (method 1), overlapped and not singular (method 2), not overlapped but singular (method 3), and neither overlapped nor singular (method 4). From the trials with various kinds of head structures, we strongly suggested methods 1 and 2, in which volume reconstruction before surface reconstruction accelerated the processing speed on 3D-DOCTOR. So as to use methods 1 and 2, how to make the neighboring outlines overlapped in advance was discussed. The surface models of detailed head structures prepared in this investigation will hopefully contribute to various simulations for clinical practice. The value of the surface models are enhanced if they are placed over the original sectioned images, outlined images, and magnetic resonance images of the same cadaver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182418e87DOI Listing
January 2012

Browsing software of the Visible Korean data used for teaching sectional anatomy.

Anat Sci Educ 2011 Nov-Dec;4(6):327-32. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The interpretation of computed tomographs (CTs) and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) to diagnose clinical conditions requires basic knowledge of sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy has traditionally been taught using sectioned cadavers, atlases, and/or computer software. The computer software commonly used for this subject is practical and efficient for students but could be more advanced. The objective of this research was to present browsing software developed from the Visible Korean images that can be used for teaching sectional anatomy. One thousand seven hundred and two sets of MRIs, CTs, and sectioned images (intervals, one millimeter) of a whole male cadaver were prepared. Over 900 structures in the sectioned images were outlined and then filled with different colors to elaborate each structure. Software was developed where four corresponding images could be displayed simultaneously; in addition, the structures in the image data could be readily recognized with the aid of the color-filled outlines. The software, distributed free of charge, could be a valuable tool to teach medical students. For example, sectional anatomy could be taught by showing the sectioned images with real color and high resolution. Students could then review the lecture by using the sectioned and color-filled images on their own computers. Students could also be evaluated using the same software. Furthermore, other investigators would be able to replace the images for more comprehensive sectional anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.249DOI Listing
March 2012

Outlining of the detailed structures in sectioned images from Visible Korean.

Surg Radiol Anat 2012 Apr 25;34(3):235-47. Epub 2011 Sep 25.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Worldcup-ro 164, Suwon, 443-749, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Sectioned images of cadavers enable creation of realistic three-dimensional (3D) models. In order to build a 3D model of a structure, the structure has to be outlined in the sectioned images. The outlining process is time consuming; therefore, users want to be provided with outlined images. The more detailed structures are outlined, the greater potential for wider application of the outlined images.

Methods: In the Visible Korean, sectioned images (intervals 0.2 mm) of the entire body of a male cadaver were prepared. In the available 1,702 sectioned images (intervals 1 mm), 937 structures were outlined over a period of 8 years. The outlined images were altered to black-filled images for each structure; black-filled images were selected for distribution in order to maintain small file sizes.

Results: We attempted to determine whether black-filled images could be used in various situations. The outlines of these images were interpolated for production of new images at 0.2 mm intervals. The outlines were then filled with different colors for construction of color-filled images of all structures. Volume and surface reconstructions of the black-filled images were executed in order to build volume and surface models.

Conclusion: The black-filled images with corresponding sectioned images presented here are the source of realistic 3D models for use in medical simulation systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-011-0870-2DOI Listing
April 2012

Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software.

Anat Cell Biol 2011 Jun 30;44(2):151-9. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2011.44.2.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145844PMC
June 2011

Segmentation and surface reconstruction of the detailed ear structures, identified in sectioned images.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2011 Apr 1;294(4):559-64. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

Multimedia and Computer Architecture Lab, Graduate School of Information and Communication, Ajou University, Worldcup-ro 206, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The structure of the ear, which intervenes between gross anatomy and histology in size, can be best understood by means of three-dimensional (3D) surface models on a computer. Furthermore, surface models are the source of interactive simulation for clinical trials, such as tympanoplasty. The objective of this research was to elaborate the surface models of detailed ear structures, which contribute to learning anatomy or the practice of otology. We produced sectioned images of a cadaver head (pixel size, 0.1 mm; 48-bit color). In the sectioned images, the external, middle, and internal ear structures and other related components were delineated on Photoshop to acquire segmented images at 0.5-mm intervals. Segmented images of each structure were stacked, and the surface was reconstructed to generate a 3D-surface model on commercial software. Thirty surface models showed fine ear topographic anatomy (e.g., semicircular ducts), as expected. Herein, we present the corresponding sectioned images, segmented images, and surface models of ear structures that will be released together. It is hoped that these image data will stimulate the development of medical simulations. The efficient technique of segmentation and surface reconstruction enables the manufacture of surface models from other serial images (e.g., CTs and MRIs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.21343DOI Listing
April 2011

Improved analysis of palm creases.

Anat Cell Biol 2010 Jun 30;43(2):169-77. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea.

Palm creases are helpful in revealing anthropologic characteristics and diagnosing chromosomal aberrations, and have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. However, previous methods of analyzing palm creases were not objective so that reproducibility could not be guaranteed. In this study, a more objective morphologic analysis of palm creases was developed. The features of the improved methods include the strict definition of major and minor palm creases and the systematic classification of major palm creases based on their relationships, branches, and variants. Furthermore, based on the analysis of 3,216 Koreans, palm creases were anthropologically interpreted. There was a tendency for palm creases to be evenly distributed on the palm, which was acknowledged by the relationship between major and minor creases as well as by the incidences of major creases types. This tendency was consistent with the role of palm creases to facilitate folding of palm skin. The union of major palm creases was frequent in males and right palms to have powerful hand grip. The new method of analyzing palm creases is expected to be widely used for anthropologic investigation and chromosomal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2010.43.2.169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2998791PMC
June 2010

Segmentation of cerebral gyri in the sectioned images by referring to volume model.

J Korean Med Sci 2010 Dec 24;25(12):1710-5. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea.

Authors had prepared the high-quality sectioned images of a cadaver head. For the delineation of each cerebral gyrus, three-dimensional model of the same brain was required. The purpose of this study was to develop the segmentation protocol of cerebral gyri by referring to the three-dimensional model on the personal computer. From the 114 sectioned images (intervals, 1 mm), a cerebral hemisphere was outlined. On MRIcro software, sectioned images including only the cerebral hemisphere were volume reconstructed. The volume model was rotated to capture the lateral, medial, superior, and inferior views of the cerebral hemisphere. On these four views, areas of 33 cerebral gyri were painted with colors. Derived from the painted views, the cerebral gyri in sectioned images were identified and outlined on the Photoshop to prepare segmented images. The segmented images were used for production of volume and surface models of the selected gyri. The segmentation method developed in this research is expected to be applied to other types of images, such as MRIs. Our results of the sectioned and segmented images of the cadaver brain, acquired in the present study, are hopefully utilized for medical learning tools of neuroanatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2010.25.12.1710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995222PMC
December 2010

Three-dimensional surface models of detailed lumbosacral structures reconstructed from the Visible Korean.

Ann Anat 2011 Feb 17;193(1):64-70. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Worldcup-ro 164, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea.

Unlike volume models, surface models representing hollow, three-dimensional images have a small file size; allowing them to be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Therefore, surface models of lumbosacral structures can be effectively used for interactive simulation of, e.g., virtual lumbar puncture, virtual surgery of herniated lumbar discs, and virtual epidural anesthesia. In this paper, we present surface models of extensive lumbosacral structures which can be used in medical simulation systems. One-hundred and thirty-eight chosen structures included the spinal cord, lumbar and sacral nerves, vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments, muscles, arteries, and skin. The structures were outlined in the sectioned images from the Visible Korean. From these outlined images, serial outlines of each structure were stacked. Adopting commercial software (3D-DOCTOR, Maya), an advanced surface reconstruction technique was applied to create a surface model of the structure. In the surface models, we observed the anatomical relationships of the lumbosacral structures (e.g., cauda equina and ligaments) in detail. Additionally, the portions of some spinal nerves that could not be outlined were drawn and added to the surface models. These constructed models will hopefully facilitate development of high quality medical simulation of the lumbosacral region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2010.09.001DOI Listing
February 2011

Advanced features of whole body sectioned images: Virtual Chinese Human.

Clin Anat 2010 Jul;23(5):523-9

Department of Anatomy, Southern Medical University, China.

Serially sectioned images of whole cadavers have become available through the work of four projects: the Visible Human Project, the Visible Korean, the Chinese Visible Human, and the Virtual Chinese Human (VCH). For the VCH, new techniques and equipment were developed and applied to two female and two male cadavers to overcome some of the limitations noted in previous studies. In this article on the VCH, the procedures described are those used on a male cadaver. The cadaver was young with little to no pathology; there were no flat back artifacts because the cadaver was frozen and embedded in the upright position. Sectioned images (intervals, 0.2 mm) were of exceptional quality and resolution (0.1 mm-sized pixels). Several specific structures were outlined (intervals, 0.6 mm) to acquire segmented images, from which surface models were constructed. The VCH data are to be distributed worldwide and are expected to encourage other investigators to produce useful three-dimensional images and develop interactive simulation programs for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.20975DOI Listing
July 2010

A proposal of new reference system for the standard axial, sagittal, coronal planes of brain based on the serially-sectioned images.

J Korean Med Sci 2010 Jan 26;25(1):135-41. Epub 2009 Dec 26.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea.

Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2010.25.1.135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800020PMC
January 2010

Surface model of the gastrointestinal tract constructed from the Visible Korean.

Clin Anat 2009 Jul;22(5):601-9

Department of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Most currently available three-dimensional surface models of human anatomic structures have been artistically created to reflect the anatomy being portrayed. We have recently undertaken, as part of our Visible Korean studies, to build objective surface models based on cross-sectional images of actual human anatomy. Objective of the present study was to elaborate surface models of the GI tract and neighboring structures that are helpful to medical simulation. The GI tract from stomach to anal canal was outlined and reconstructed from sectioned images of the Visible Korean (acomputer database containing the digitized transverse sectional images of a 33-year-old Korean man). The outlining procedure was supported by computational filtering and interpolation using commercially available software. The GI tract was divided into several parts, and each of these parts was surface reconstructed and then united with neighboring parts to produce a surface model of the complete GI tract. Surface models of about 100 neighboring structures were also prepared. The surface models produced will hopefully facilitate the development of interactive simulations for a variety of virtual abdominal surgical procedures or other educational programs. In addition, it is hoped that the improved outlining and surface reconstruction techniques described will encourage other researchers to construct similar surface models based on images obtained from different subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.20823DOI Listing
July 2009

Advanced surface reconstruction technique to build detailed surface models of the liver and neighboring structures from the Visible Korean Human.

J Korean Med Sci 2009 Jun 12;24(3):375-83. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have small file size, so that they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in a real time. For the reason, the surface models of liver and neighboring structures can be effectively applied to virtual hepatic segmentectomy, virtual laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and so on. The purpose of this research is to present surface models of detailed structures inside and outside the liver, which promote medical simulation systems. Forty-seven chosen structures were liver structures such as portal triad, hepatic vein, and neighboring structures such as the stomach, duodenum, muscles, bones, and skin. The structures were outlined in the serially sectioned images from the Visible Korean Human to prepare segmented images. From the segmented images, serial outlines of each structure were stacked; on the popular commercial software, advanced surface reconstruction technique was applied to build surface model of the structure. A surface model of the liver was divided into eight models of hepatic segments according to distribution of the portal vein. The surface models will be distributed to encourage researchers to develop the various kinds of medical simulation of the abdomen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2009.24.3.375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2698180PMC
June 2009
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