Publications by authors named "Dong Sun"

493 Publications

Hippocampal astrocytic neogenin regulating glutamate uptake, a critical pathway for preventing epileptic response.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106;

Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder, is featured with recurrent seizures. Its underlying pathological mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence for loss of neogenin (NEO1), a coreceptor for multiple ligands, including netrins and bone morphological proteins, in the development of epilepsy. NEO1 is reduced in hippocampi from patients with epilepsy based on transcriptome and proteomic analyses. knocking out (KO) in mouse brains displays elevated epileptiform spikes and seizure susceptibility. These phenotypes were undetectable in mice, with selectively depleted NEO1 in excitatory (NeuroD6-Cre) or inhibitory (parvalbumin) neurons, but present in mice with specific hippocampal astrocytic KO. Additionally, neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus, a vulnerable region in epilepsy, in mice with astrocyte-specific KO show reductions in inhibitory synaptic vesicles and the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current(mIPSC), but increase of the duration of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current and tonic NMDA receptor currents, suggesting impairments in both GABAergic transmission and extracellular glutamate clearance. Further proteomic and cell biological analyses of cell-surface proteins identified GLAST, a glutamate-aspartate transporter that is marked reduced in KO astrocytes and the hippocampus. NEO1 interacts with GLAST and promotes GLAST surface distribution in astrocytes. Expressing NEO1 or GLAST in KO astrocytes in the hippocampus abolishes the epileptic phenotype. Taken together, these results uncover an unrecognized pathway of NEO1-GLAST in hippocampal GFAP astrocytes, which is critical for GLAST surface distribution and function, and GABAergic transmission, unveiling NEO1 as a valuable therapeutic target to protect the brain from epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022921118DOI Listing
April 2021

Roles of Genetic Predisposition in the Sex Bias of Pulmonary Pathophysiology, as a Function of Estrogens : Sex Matters in the Prevalence of Lung Diseases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1303:107-127

Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

In addition to studies focused on estrogen mediation of sex-different regulation of systemic circulations, there is now increasing clinical relevance and research interests in the pulmonary circulation, in terms of sex differences in the morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as inherent-, allergic- and inflammatory-based events. Thus, female predisposition to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is an inevitable topic. To better understand the nature of sexual differentiation in the pulmonary circulation, and how heritable factors, in vivo- and/or in vitro-altered estrogen circumstances and changes in the live environment work in concert to discern the sex bias, this chapter reviews pulmonary events characterized by sex-different features, concomitant with exploration of how alterations of genetic expression and estrogen metabolisms trigger the female-predominant pathological signaling. We address the following: PAH (Sect.7.2) is characterized as an estrogenic promotion of its incidence (Sect. 7.2.2), as a function of specific germline mutations, and as an estrogen-elicited protection of its prognosis (Sect.7.2.1). More detail is provided to introduce a less recognized gene of Ephx2 that encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to degrade epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs). As a susceptible target of estrogen, Ephx2/sEH expression is downregulated by an estrogen-dependent epigenetic mechanism. Increases in pulmonary EETs then evoke a potentiation of PAH generation, but mitigation of its progression, a phenomenon similar to the estrogen-paradox regulation of PAH. Additionally, the female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Sect. 7.3) and asthma (Sect.7.4), but less preference to COVID-19 (Sect. 7.5), and roles of estrogen in their pathogeneses are briefly discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63046-1_7DOI Listing
April 2021

Cell-penetrating peptides enhance the transduction of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 in the central nervous system.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 27;21:28-41. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) have been widely used in the gene therapy field for decades. However, because of the challenge of effectively delivering rAAV vectors through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), their applications for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are quite limited. In this study, we found that several cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can significantly enhance the transduction efficiency of AAV serotype 9 (AAV9), a promising AAV vector for treatment of CNS diseases, the best of which was the LAH4 peptide. The enhancement of AAV9 transduction by LAH4 relied on binding of the AAV9 capsid to the peptide. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the LAH4 peptide increased the AAV9 transduction in the CNS and after systemic administration. Taken together, our results suggest that CPP peptides can interact directly with AAV9 and increase the ability of this AAV vector to cross the BBB, which further induces higher expression of target genes in the brain. Our study will help to improve the applications of AAV gene delivery vectors for the treatment of CNS diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.02.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960505PMC
June 2021

The kinematic analysis of the lower limb during topspin forehand loop between different level table tennis athletes.

PeerJ 2021 12;9:e10841. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Background: Topspin is one of the most attacking stroke in table tennis sport. The aim of this research was to investigate the kinematic characteristics of the lower limb (driving leg) during topspin forehand loop in different playing level table tennis athletes.

Methods: Ten male table tennis athletes performed topspin forehand loop shots with maximal force to hit the ball that was played by a professional table tennis coach. The three-dimensional Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematic information.

Results: The key findings from this research indicate that there were no significant differences in motion time between elite athletes (EA) and medium athletes (MA) during the entire phase ( = 0.784). EA showed significantly less knee ( < 0.001) as well as hip ( < 0.001) flexion in the BS stage when contrasted to MA, with a significant larger ankle varus ( = 0.003) as well as eversion ( < 0.001) than MA in the BS and FS phase, respectively. EA displayed a significant larger angular changing rate of ankle dorsiflexion ( < 0.001) and varus ( < 0.001) in the BS stage with ankle plantar flexion as well as eversion during the FS stage, with a significant larger ankle internal rotation ( = 0.003) and external rotation ( < 0.001) than MA in the BS and FS phase, respectively. Furthermore, EA showed significantly larger ankle dorsiflexion ( = 0.001) as well as plantarflexion ( < 0.001) ROM in the BS and FS phase respectively compared with MA.

Conclusion: Ankle activities in the all plane displayed significant differences in kinematic characteristics between EA and MA. MA should pay attention to the function that ankle played in the kinetic chain, such as training the lower limb muscle rapid reaction ability to improve the energy transfer efficiency and capability of the kinetic chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958893PMC
March 2021

High incidence of fractures after R-CHOP-like chemotherapy for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have a median age of 67, with 70% surviving over 5 years. Chemotherapy for aggressive NHL includes cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, and high doses of corticosteroids, which can impair bone health. By reviewing clinical characteristics and standard-of-care CT scans, we evaluate the prevalence and incidence of fractures and the clinical correlates of fractures in patients treated for aggressive B-cell NHL.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients seen at the University of California San Francisco lymphoma clinic from January 1, 2016, to March 31, 2017 who had (1) aggressive B-cell NHL, (2) received first-line therapy with R-CHOP-like regimens, and had (3) CT scans pre- and post-treatment available for review. Associations between clinical variables and vertebral, rib, and pelvic fracture outcomes were assessed, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of prevalent and incident fractures.

Results: We identified 162 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Median age at diagnosis was 60 years. Of the 162 patients, 38 patients (28%) had prevalent fractures prior to receiving chemotherapy. Within 1 year after treatment, 16 patients (10%) developed new fractures. Having a prevalent fracture strongly predicted developing a new fracture after treatment, with incident fractures occurring in 12 of 38 patients with prevalent fractures versus 4 of 124 without prevalent fractures (odds ratio 10.45, p<0.0005).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with aggressive B-cell NHL who receive R-CHOP-like therapy should be screened for fractures prior to treatment and those with existing fractures should be considered for therapy to decrease risk of new fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06120-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Retraction notice to "Interleukin-36 receptor antagonist is associated with the progression of renal cell carcinoma" [Int. Immunopharmacol. 84 (2020) 106474].

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 3:107483. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou 215002, Jiangsu, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107483DOI Listing
March 2021

Neddylation stabilizes Nav1.1 to maintain interneuron excitability and prevent seizures in murine epilepsy models.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr;131(8)

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

The excitability of interneurons requires Nav1.1, the α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel. Nav1.1 deficiency and mutations reduce interneuron excitability, a major pathological mechanism for epilepsy syndromes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Nav1.1 expression remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that neddylation is critical to Nav1.1 stability. Mutant mice lacking Nae1, an obligatory component of the E1 ligase for neddylation, in parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVINs) exhibited spontaneous epileptic seizures and premature death. Electrophysiological studies indicate that Nae1 deletion reduced PVIN excitability and GABA release and consequently increased the network excitability of pyramidal neurons (PyNs). Further analysis revealed a reduction in sodium-current density, not a change in channel property, in mutant PVINs and decreased Nav1.1 protein levels. These results suggest that insufficient neddylation in PVINs reduces Nav1.1 stability and thus the excitability of PVINs; the ensuing increased PyN activity causes seizures in mice. Consistently, Nav1.1 was found reduced by proteomic analysis that revealed abnormality in synapses and metabolic pathways. Our findings describe a role of neddylation in maintaining Nav1.1 stability for PVIN excitability and reveal what we believe is a new mechanism in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI136956DOI Listing
April 2021

Do Novice Runners Show Greater Changes in Biomechanical Parameters?

Appl Bionics Biomech 2021 4;2021:8894636. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, China.

Purpose: Examining and understanding the biomechanics of novice runners and experienced runners can further improve our knowledge within the field of running mechanics and running injuries. The purpose of this study was to classify the differences in lower limb biomechanics during a 3.3 m/s running task among both experienced runners and novice runners.

Method: Twenty-four participants (12 experienced runners and 12 novice runners) ran at 3.3 m/s across a force plate; kinematics and kinetics data were collected by the Vicon motion system and Kistler force plate. Group comparisons were made using an independent samples -test to identify differences in the impact peak, loading rate, contact time, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics and kinetics during the stance phase.

Results: No significant differences were observed between novice and experienced runners for both ankle and knee joint kinetics except that the ankle joint plantar flexion torque was significantly greater in the novice runners. However, the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, range of motion (ROM), plantar flexion torque, and max angular velocity of ankle joint significantly increased in novice runners than inexperienced runners. Additionally, the flexion angle and range of motion of the hip joint were observed to be larger in the novice runners. Moreover, the maximum extension torque and the maximum extension power in the hip joint were significantly increased in the experienced runners. There were no significant differences in the first peak, contact time, and average vertical loading rate. Novice runners showed a larger vertical instantaneous loading rate than experienced runners.

Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that novice runners are prone to running injuries in comparison to experienced runners. Novice runners showed larger kinematics and kinetic parameters in the joint of the ankle and hip. Novice runners should enhance muscle strength in the hip and choose scientific training methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8894636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801088PMC
January 2021

Enhanced renoprotective effect of GDNF-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on renal interstitial fibrosis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 7;12(1):27. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, 99 West Huai-hai Road, Xuzhou, 221002, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue on renal interstitial fibrosis has been demonstrated by several groups. However, the way to enhance the renoprotective effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and the possible mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-modified AMSCs hold an enhanced protective effect on renal fibrosis.

Methods: AMSCs were isolated and purified for culture. The gene GDNF has been constructed to transfect into AMSCs. The ability of GFP-AMSCs and GDNF-AMSCs supernatants to promote tube formation of endothelial cells, repair damaged endothelial cell junctions, and improve endothelial cell function was compared by using tube formation assay, immunofluorescence techniques, and vascular ring assay, respectively. Furthermore, HE and Masson staining were used to observe the histological morphology of the kidney in vivo. Peritubular capillary changes were detected and analyzed by fluorescence microangiography (FMA). Meanwhile, the hypoxia, oxidative stress, fibrotic markers, and PI3K/Akt pathway proteins were measured by western blot or qRT-PCR technics.

Results: Compared with GFP-AMSCs only, GDNF-AMSCs could enhance the repair of injured endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis through secreting more growth factors in the supernatant of GDNF-AMSC culture media demonstrated in vitro studies. Studies in vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced mice were injected with transfected AMSCs through their tail veins. We showed that enhanced homing of AMSCs was observed in the GDNF-AMSC group compared with the GFP-AMSC group. The animals treated with GDNF-AMSCs exhibited an improvement of capillary rarefaction and fibrosis induced by obstructed kidney compared with the GFP-AMSC group. Furthermore, we reported that GDNF-AMSCs protect renal tissues against microvascular injuries via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, GDNF-AMSCs further ameliorated the tissue hypoxia, suppressed oxidative stress, and finally inhibited endothelial to mesenchymal transition noting by decreased coexpression of endothelial cell (CD31) and myofibroblast (a-SMA) markers.

Conclusion: Collectively, our data indicated that the GDNF gene enhances the ability of AMSCs in improving renal microcirculation through PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and afterward inhibit the EndMT process and kidney fibrogenesis, which should have a vast of implications in designing future remedies for chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02049-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792009PMC
January 2021

Multigenerational reproduction and developmental toxicity, and HPG axis gene expression study on environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol in zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;764:144259. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Nonylphenol (NP) is a toxic xenobiotic compound, which is persistent in the aquatic environment and is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of its toxic effect are well understood, the multigenerational reproduction and multigenerational - gene expression changes caused by NP still remain unclear. The following work investigated the effect of NP on four consecutive generations of zebrafish by examining their growth and several reproductive parameters, the degree of gonad damage, and the expression of related reproduction related genes. The results showed that high concentrations (20 and 200 μg·L) of NP could decrease growth and induce gonad damage in zebrafish. In addition, gnrh2 and gnrh3 genes were up-regulated, and fshβ and lhβ genes were downregulated in the hypothalamus in male zebrafish; while in female fish, the fshβ and lhβ were upregulated in P and F1 generations, and then down-regulated in the F2 generation. Meanwhile, the cyp19a1a gene was downregulated in the gonad of male fish, while the genes of fshr, lhr and esr showed a downward trend in females. Compared to P generation, F2 generation was more tolerant to higher NP concentrations (20 and 200 μg·L), as was also more sensitive to lower concentrations of NP (2 μg·L). Consequently, stress and damage caused by environmentally-relevant concentrations of aquatic pollutants in a vertebrate model were measured and predicted. Prevention and control measures can be actively and effectively proposed, which might be transversal to other exposed organisms, including humans. After several generations, typical transgenerational genetic phenomena might occur, which should be addressed by further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144259DOI Listing
April 2021

Radiological and clinical outcomes using induced membrane technique combined with bone marrow concentrate in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of immature patients.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Jan;10(1):31-40

National & Regional United Engineering Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Aims: Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (COM) for young patients remains a challenge. Large bone deficiencies secondary to COM can be treated using induced membrane technique (IMT). However, it is unclear which type of bone graft is optimal. The goal of the study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of bone marrow concentrator modified allograft (BMCA) versus bone marrow aspirate mixed allograft (BMAA) for children with COM of long bones.

Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2017, 26 young patients with COM were enrolled. Different bone grafts were applied to repair bone defects secondary to IMT procedure for infection eradication. Group BMCA was administered BMCA while Group BMAA was given BMAA. The results of this case-control study were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Patient infection in both groups was eradicated after IMT surgery. As for reconstruction surgery, no substantial changes in the operative period (p = 0.852), intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.573), or length of hospital stay (p = 0.362) were found between the two groups. All patients were monitored for 12 to 60 months. The median time to bone healing was 4.0 months (interquartile range (IQR) 3.0 to 5.0; range 3 to 7) and 5.0 months (IQR 4.0 to 7.0; range 3 to 10) in Groups BMCA and BMAA, respectively. The time to heal in Group BMCA versus Group BMAA was substantially lower (p = 0.024).

Conclusion: IMT with BMCA or BMAA may attain healing in large bone defects secondary to COM in children. The bone healing time was significantly shorter for BMCA, indicating that this could be considered as a new strategy for bone defect after COM treatment. Cite this article:  2021;10(1):31-40.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.101.BJR-2020-0229.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845462PMC
January 2021

Self-healing property of focused circular Airy beams.

Opt Express 2020 Nov;28(24):36516-36526

We investigate the self-healing property of focused circular Airy beams (FCAB), and this property is associated with the transverse Poynting vector (energy flow) for a better interpretation. We both experimentally and numerically show the effect of the obstruction's position, size and shape on the self-healing property of FCAB. It is found that FCAB will heal if the obstruction is placed at the area between the two foci of FCAB, and it has the least influence on the FCAB when the obstruction is placed near the lens' rear focal plane, whereas FCAB cannot heal if the obstruction is out of the area between two foci. Our experimental results are in good agreement with numerical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.405867DOI Listing
November 2020

Sustainable Chromium (VI) Removal from Contaminated Groundwater Using Nano-Magnetite-Modified Biochar via Rapid Microwave Synthesis.

Molecules 2020 Dec 28;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.

This study developed a nano-magnetite-modified biochar material (m-biochar) using a simple and rapid in situ synthesis method via microwave treatment, and systematically investigated the removal capability and mechanism of chromium (VI) by this m-biochar from contaminated groundwater. The m-biochar was fabricated from reed residues and magnetically modified by nano-FeO. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterisations confirmed the successful doping of nano-FeO on the biochar with an improved porous structure. The synthesised m-biochar exhibited significantly higher maximum adsorption capacity of 9.92 mg/g compared with that (8.03 mg/g) of the pristine biochar. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model and the intraparticle diffusion model, which indicated that the overall adsorption rate of Cr(VI) was governed by the processes of chemical adsorption, liquid film diffusion and intramolecular diffusion. The increasing of the pH from 3 to 11 significantly affected the Cr(VI) adsorption, where the capabilities decreased from 9.92 mg/g to 0.435 mg/g and 8.03 mg/g to 0.095 mg/g for the m-biochar and pristine biochar, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(VI) by m-biochar were evaluated and confirmed to include the pathways of electrostatic adsorption, reduction and complexation. This study highlighted an effective synthesis method to prepare a superior Cr(VI) adsorbent, which could contribute to the effective remediation of heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795963PMC
December 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae) from China and phylogeny within Cirripedia.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 20;5(3):2121-2123. Epub 2020 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China.

Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of , which is 15,191 bp in length with 67.20% AT content. It contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal-RNA genes and 22 transfer-RNA genes. All PCGs except nad4l in start with ATN, and terminated with a complete stop codon, except nad3. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that is clustered with into a branch (BP = 100). Our result is consistent with previous reports that genus and family are not monophyletic. This study contributes to further phylogenetic analysis within Cirripedia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1765705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510661PMC
May 2020

The first mitochondrial genome of (Sessilia: Balanidae) from China: phylogeny within Cirripedia based on mitochondrial genes.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 13;4(2):4016-4018. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, PR China.

Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of . The genome is 15,107 bp in length with a 67.35% AT content. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNAs genes, and 22 tRNAs. Both rRNAs are encoded on the light strand, as in the other crustacean and barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Besides five tRNAs are encoded on the light strand (nad1, trnV, trnL1, trnC, trnQ, and trnK). Only one PCG is encoded on the light strand (nad1), whereas the other 12 PCGs are located on the heavy strand, which is consistent with . . Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that . is clustered with . into a branch (BP = 100), and the group with . with high support. This study contributes to further phylogenetic analysis within Cirripedia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1688104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707791PMC
November 2019

The Online Education Mode and Reopening Plans for Chinese Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mini Review.

Front Public Health 2020 10;8:566316. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Recently, an unprecedented coronavirus pandemic has emerged and has spread around the world. The novel coronavirus termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization has posed a huge threat to human safety and social development. This mini review aimed to summarize the online education mode and plans for schools to resume full-time campus study in China during COVID-19. Chinese schools have made significant contributions to the prevention and control of the transmission of COVID-19 by adopting online learning from home. However, normal opening and classroom teaching have been affected. For education systems at all levels, online education may be an effective way to make up for the lack of classroom teaching during the epidemic. To protect staff and students from COVID-19, the timing of students returning to full-time campus study needs to be considered carefully. Reviewing and summarizing of the Chinese education system's response to the virus would be of great value not only in developing educational policy but also in guiding other countries to formulate educational countermeasures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.566316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758232PMC
January 2021

Effect of Multi-Modal Therapies for Kinesiophobia Caused by Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 16;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify the effect of multi-modal therapies that combined physical and psychological therapies for kinesiophobia caused by musculoskeletal disorders compared with uni-modal therapy of only phycological therapy or psychological therapy. The search terms and their logical connector were as following: (1) "kinesiophobia" at the title or abstract; and (2) "randomized" OR "randomized" at title or abstract; not (3) "design" OR "protocol" at the title. They were typed into the databases of Medline (EBSCO), PubMed, and Ovid, following the different input rules of these databases. The eligibility criteria were: (1) Adults with musculoskeletal disorders or illness as patients; (2) Multi-modal therapies combined physical and psychological therapy as interventions; (3) Uni-modal therapy of only physical or psychological therapy as a comparison; (4) The scores of the 17-items version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia as the outcome; (5) Randomized controlled trials as study design. As a result, 12 studies were included with a statistically significant polled effect of 6.99 (95% CI 4.59 to 9.38). Despite a large heterogeneity within studies, multi-modal therapies might be more effective in reducing kinesiophobia than the unimodal of only physical or psychological therapy both in the total and subdivision analysis. The effect might decrease with age. What's more, this review's mathematical methods were feasible by taking test-retest reliability of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766030PMC
December 2020

Sirt6-Mediated Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Contributes Toward Diabetic Cardiomyopathy via the Notch1 Signaling Pathway.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 7;13:4801-4808. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Background: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an important source of myofibroblasts that directly affects cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) via an unknown underlying mechanism. Sirt6 is a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that plays an important role in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we investigated whether Sirt6 participates in EndMT during the development of T2DM and the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms.

Methods: Endothelium-specific Sirt6 knockout (Sirt6-KO) mice (C57BL/6 genetic background) were generated using the classic Cre/loxp gene recombination system. T2DM was induced in eight-week-old male mice by feeding with a high-fat diet for three weeks followed by i.p. injection with 30 mg/kg of streptozotocin. The weight, lipids profiles, insulin, food intake and water intake of experimental animals were measured on a weekly basis. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were obtained from adult male mice; the isolated cells were cultured with high glucose (HG; 33 mmol/L) and palmitic acid (PA; 500 μmol/L) in DMEM for 24 h, or with normal glucose (NG; 5 mmol/L) as the control.

Results: Sirt6 expression is significantly downregulated in CMECs treated with HG+PA. Additionally, Sirt6-KO was found to worsen DCM, as indicated by aggravated perivascular fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and decreased cardiac function. In vitro, Sirt6 knockdown exacerbated the proliferation, and migration of CMECs exposed to HG+PA. Mechanistically, Sirt6 knockdown significantly enhanced Notch1 activation in CMECs treated with HG+PA, whereas Notch1 adenoviral interference significantly blunted the effects of Sirt6 knockdown on CMECs.

Conclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate that Sirt6 participates in EndMT via the Notch1 signaling pathway in CMECs stimulated with HG+PA. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that Sirt6 could provide a potential treatment strategy for DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S287287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732976PMC
December 2020

The biomechanical characteristics of human vestibular aqueduct: a numerical-based model construction and simulation.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2020 Dec 11:1-11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.

Vestibular aqueduct is a precise structure embedded in the temporal bone and plays a key role in the physiological function of inner ear by maintaining the endolymphatic circulation and buffering the impact from intracranial pressure. Although the alterations on the morphology or volume of vestibular aqueduct result in variety of diseases, the approaches of evaluating the condition of vestibular aqueduct are still unsatisfing because the pathological sections utilized for the 3D construction model most likely undergoes morphological changes. In this study, the vestibular aqueduct images obtained by CT scanning were processed by finite element method to construct the 3D model. To assess if this numerical model reflects the actual biomechanical properties of vestibular aqueduct, the fluid-solid coupling calculation was applied to simulate the endolymphatic flow in the vestibular aqueduct. By measuring the dynamics of endolymphatic flow, and the pressure and displacement on round membrane under external pressure, we found the numerical 3D model recapitulated the biomechanical characteristics of the real vestibular aqueduct. In summary, our approach of 3D model construction for vestibular aqueduct will provide a powerful method for the research of vestibular aqueduct-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2020.1858284DOI Listing
December 2020

In vitro allelopathic effects of compounds from Cerbera manghas L. on three Dinophyta species responsible for harmful common red tides.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 7;754:142253. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Allelopathy is regarded as an economic and eco-friendly approach for the control of harmful algal blooms (HABs) because allelochemicals degrade easily and cause less pollution than traditional algicides. We first surveyed the inhibitory effect of the traditional medicinal plant Cerbera manghas L. on the notorious dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, and Karenia mikimotoi. Then, we identified and quantified the potential algicidal compounds by UPLC-MS and determined their activity. The aqueous extract inhibited algae with EC at 0.986, 1.567 and 1.827 g L for A. tamarense, S. trochoidea, and K. mikimotoi, respectively. Three potential allelochemicals were quantified in the stock solution: quinic acid (QA) (28.81 mg L), protocatechuic acid (PA) (53.91 mg L), and phloridzin (PD) (26.17 mg L). Our results illustrated that 1) QA did not have an inhibitory effect, 2) PA had medium toxicity to algae (EC: 0.22, 0.28, and 0.35 mM for A. tamarense, S. trochoidea, and K. mikimotoi), and 3) PD had low toxicity (EC > 0.66 mM). These findings suggested that PA might be the main allelopathic compound in the aqueous extract of the studied algae. In addition, PA could have a negative effect on the photosynthesis of S. trochoidea by impeding the reduction of quinone electrons and destroying electron transfer in PSII. In summary, this was the first study to quantify allelochemicals in C. manghas fruit. Moreover, C. manghas and protocatechuic have the potential to be algicides to control and mitigate the HABs caused by dinoflagellates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142253DOI Listing
February 2021

Radiomics-based classification models for HBV-related cirrhotic patients with covert hepatic encephalopathy.

Brain Behav 2021 Feb 24;11(2):e01970. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Introduction: The significant abnormalities of precuneus (PC), which are associated with brain dysfunction, have been identified in cirrhotic patients with covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). The present study aimed to apply radiomics analysis to identify the significant radiomic features in PC and their subregions, combine with clinical risk factors, then build and evaluate the classification models for CHE diagnosis.

Methods: 106 HBV-related cirrhotic patients (54 had current CHE and 52 had non-CHE) underwent the three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. For each participant, PC and their subregions were segmented and extracted a large number of radiomic features and then identified the features with significant discriminative power as the radiomics signature. The logistic regression analysis was employed to develop and evaluate the classification models, which are constructed using the radiomics signature and clinical risk factors.

Results: The classification model (R-C model) achieved best diagnostic performance, which incorporated radiomics signature (4 radiomic features from right PC), venous blood ammonia, and the Child-Pugh stage. And the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were 0.926, 1.000, 0.765, and 0.848, in the testing set. Application of the radiomics nomogram in the testing set still showed a good predictive accuracy.

Conclusions: This study presented the radiomic features of the right PC, as a potential image marker of CHE. The radiomics nomogram that incorporates the radiomics signature and clinical risk factors may facilitate the individualized prediction of CHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882152PMC
February 2021

Critical Roles of Embryonic Born Dorsal Dentate Granule Neurons for Activity-Dependent Increases in BDNF, Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Antianxiety-like Behaviors.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 7;89(6):600-614. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Background: Dentate gyrus (DG), a "gate" that controls information flow into the hippocampus, plays important roles in regulating both cognitive (e.g., spatial learning and memory) and mood behaviors. Deficits in DG neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of not only neurological, but also psychiatric, disorders, such as anxiety disorder. Whereas DG's function in spatial learning and memory has been extensively investigated, its role in regulating anxiety remains elusive.

Methods: Using c-Fos to mark DG neuron activation, we identified a group of embryonic born dorsal DG (dDG) neurons, which were activated by anxiogenic stimuli and specifically express osteocalcin (Ocn)-Cre. We further investigated their functions in regulating anxiety and the underlying mechanisms by using a combination of chemogenetic, electrophysiological, and RNA-sequencing methods.

Results: The Ocn-Cre dDG neurons were highly active in response to anxiogenic environment but had lower excitability and fewer presynaptic inputs than those of Ocn-Cre or adult born dDG neurons. Activating Ocn-Cre dDG neurons suppressed anxiety-like behaviors and increased adult DG neurogenesis, whereas ablating or chronically inhibiting Ocn-Cre dDG neurons exacerbated anxiety-like behaviors, impaired adult DG neurogenesis, and abolished activity (e.g., voluntary wheel running)-induced anxiolytic effect and adult DG neurogenesis. RNA-sequencing screening for factors induced by activation of Ocn-Cre dDG neurons identified BDNF, which was required for Ocn-Cre dDG neurons mediated antianxiety-like behaviors and adult DG neurogenesis.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate critical functions of Ocn-Cre dDG neurons in suppressing anxiety-like behaviors but promoting adult DG neurogenesis, and both functions are likely through activation of BDNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.08.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889658PMC
March 2021

Myosin X Interaction with KIF13B, a Crucial Pathway for Netrin-1-Induced Axonal Development.

J Neurosci 2020 11 23;40(48):9169-9185. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106

Myosin X (Myo X) transports cargos to the tips of filopodia for cell adhesion, migration, and neuronal axon guidance. Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) is one of the Myo X cargos that is essential for Netrin-1-regulated axon pathfinding. The function of Myo X in axon development and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence for the role of Myo X in Netrin-1-DCC-regulated axon development in developing mouse neocortex. The knockout (KO) or knockdown (KD) of Myo X in cortical neurons of embryonic mouse brain impairs axon initiation and contralateral branching/targeting. Similar axon deficits are detected in Netrin-1-KO or DCC-KD cortical neurons. Further proteomic analysis of Myo X binding proteins identifies KIF13B (a kinesin family motor protein). The Myo X interaction with KIF13B is induced by Netrin-1. Netrin-1 promotes anterograde transportation of Myo X into axons in a KIF13B-dependent manner. KIF13B-KD cortical neurons exhibit similar axon deficits. Together, these results reveal Myo X-KIF13B as a critical pathway for Netrin-1-promoted axon initiation and branching/targeting. Netrin-1 increases Myosin X (Myo X) interaction with KIF13B, and thus promotes axonal delivery of Myo X and axon initiation and contralateral branching in developing cerebral neurons, revealing unrecognized functions and mechanisms underlying Netrin-1 regulation of axon development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0929-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687062PMC
November 2020

The role of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the progression of chronic kidney disease CKD and cardiovascular diseases CVD.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

In the past decades, questions arose whether hyperuricemia works as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and renal disease, many evidence cleared this question, that hyperuricemia works as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperuricemia defined as an abnormally high level of uric acid. In general, it's defined as serum urate concentration excess of 6.8 mg/dl. Hyperuricemia, which is commonly thought to be just a complication of chronic kidney disease, seems to play a pathogenic role in the progression of renal diseases. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the link between hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. Randomized controlled trials have shown that there may be independent associations between hyperuricemia and the progression of cardiovascular and renal morbidity. It is thought to be mediated by renin-angiotensin system activation, nitric oxide syntheses inhibition, and the development of macro and microvascular diseases. Debate continues regarding serum uric acid concentration as an indirect index of renal vascular disease. To sort out the thread, our literature review focus on the role of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the progress of chronic kidney disease along with the association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases and a general review of the physiological metabolism of uric acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.340DOI Listing
October 2020

Low Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Volume Associated With Hypertension-Related Cognitive Impairment.

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2020 Jan-Dec;35:1533317520949782

Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Hypertension increases the risk of cognitive impairment independent of detectable stroke or cerebral lesions. However, the principal pathophysiological basis of this increase has not been fully elucidated. The present study investigates the relationships among blood pressure, hippocampal subfields volume, and cognitive function in a relatively young non-stroke population. A total of 59 non-stroke non-dementia subjects (mean age, 57.2 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled. All subjects were subjected to complete assessment of vascular risk factors including 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, various neuropsychological tests, and 3D-T1 MR scan. Freesurfer V6.0 was used for segmentation of hippocampal subfields. Our analyses revealed that both 24-hour and daytime mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly associated with the low volume of the left DG. Higher coefficient of variation (CV) of daytime SBP was significantly associated with lower volume of the left Cornu Ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both higher CV of 24-hour mean SBP and daytime SBP were significantly associated with lower performance in both executive and linguistic function. The low volume of the left DG was significantly associated with the low performance in linguistic function. Our findings support that reduced DG volume and increased SBP variability associated with hypertension-related cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317520949782DOI Listing
February 2021

Forging global cooperation and collaboration.

Sci Robot 2020 01;5(38)

Korea Institute of Robotics and Technology Convergence, Pohang, Korea.

As researchers create better robots, major robotics initiatives and government funding programs need better international cooperation and collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.aba5894DOI Listing
January 2020

Calcium dobesilate mediates renal interstitial fibrosis and delay renal peritubular capillary loss through Sirt1/p53 signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 1;132:110798. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221002, PR China; Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostics, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221002, PR China. Electronic address:

Calcium dobesilate (Cad), a protective agent, protects against microvascular damage, and diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy. However, these vascular protective effects have not been demonstrated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to determine the ability of Cad to protect against renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and identify the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of Cad during hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A total of 36 male mice were randomly assigned into 3 groups (12 mice in each group): the Sham-operated group (Sham), the saline solution-treated UUO mice group (UUO), and the Cad administration (intragastrically) group (Cad). The mice in Cad group were administered Cad (100 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage and slaughtered on the 7th and 14th days post-surgery. Six mice from each group were sacrificed by sodium pentobarbital injection on the 7th and 14th day after surgery. Tissue hypoxia, cell apoptosis and fibrotic lesions were detected by Immunostaining and Western blot. Peritubular capillaries (PTCs) injury was measured by a novel technique of fluorescent microangiography (FMA). Endothelial cell-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) were identified by immunofluorescence and Western blot. HUVECs proliferation was measured via Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays and Edu staining. Sirt1 and its downstream gene in Cad regulation of endothelial were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson-trichrome stains and Histological findings showed that Cad administration markedly reduced hypoxia and renal interstitial fibrosis at each time point in UUO. Meanwhile, Cad protect against EndMT process of PTCs by increasing CD31 expression and decreasing α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin expression. in vitro studies showed that there was a proliferative response of the HUVECs incubated with Cad (10 μM) in H/SD. Sirt1 was suppressed after small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected in HUVECs. Mechanistically, Cad enhanced Sirt1 signaling, which was accompanied by increased levels of p53 acetylation (ac-p53). Meanwhile, protein expression of Bcl-2, and VE-cadherin were downregulated, Bax, and α-SMA were upregulated. In summary, the therapeutic effect of Cad in obstructive nephropathy were likely through suppressing EndMT progression and promoting anti-apoptotic effects after via activating the Sirt1/p53 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110798DOI Listing
December 2020

SHANK3 Co-ordinately Regulates Autophagy and Apoptosis in Myocardial Infarction.

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:1082. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Cardiac remodeling and dysfunction are responsible for the high mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the potential for Shank3 to alleviate the post-infarction cardiac dysfunction. The experimental MI mice model was constructed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Shank3 knockout aggravated cardiac dysfunction after MI, while Shank3 overexpression alleviated it. The histological examination showed that the infarct size was significantly increased in the acute phase of MI in the Shank3 knockout group, and the cardiac dysfunction of the Shank3 knockout group was even more severe than the Shank3 overexpression group, revealed by echocardiography analyses. , cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated MI. Shank3 downregulation curbed LC3 expression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, Shank3 downregulation increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In contrast, Shank3 upregulation induced autophagy, and inhibited apoptosis under hypoxia. , western blot analysis showed decreased levels of Atg7, Beclin1, LC3-II, and Bcl-2 as well as increased expression of p62, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9 in the Shank3 knockout group which suffered from MI. On the other hand, it also revealed that Shank3 overexpression induced autophagy and inhibited apoptosis after MI. Shank3 may serve as a new target for improving cardiac function after MI by inducing autophagy while inhibiting apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.01082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477314PMC
August 2020

Development of Magnet-Driven and Image-Guided Degradable Microrobots for the Precise Delivery of Engineered Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy.

Small 2020 10 20;16(41):e1906908. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China.

Precise delivery of therapeutic cells to the desired site in vivo is an emerging and promising cellular therapy in precision medicine. This paper presents the development of a magnet-driven and image-guided degradable microrobot that can precisely deliver engineered stem cells for orthotopic liver tumor treatment. The microrobot employs a burr-like porous sphere structure and is made with a synthesized composite to fulfill degradability, mechanical strength, and magnetic actuation capability simultaneously. The cells can be spontaneously released from the microrobots on the basis of the optimized microrobot structure. The microrobot is actuated by a gradient magnetic field and guided by a unique photoacoustic imaging technology. In preclinical experiments on nude mice, microrobots carrying cells are injected via the portal vein and the released cells from the microrobots can inhibit the tumor growth greatly. This paper reveals for the first time of using degradable microrobots for precise delivery of therapeutic cells in vascular tissue and demonstrates its therapeutic effect in preclinical test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201906908DOI Listing
October 2020

Bistratal Au@BiS nanobones for excellent NIR-triggered/multimodal imaging-guided synergistic therapy for liver cancer.

Bioact Mater 2021 Feb 4;6(2):386-403. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Cancer Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

To fabricate a highly biocompatible nanoplatform enabling synergistic therapy and real-time imaging, novel Au@BiS core shell nanobones (NBs) (Au@BiS NBs) with Au nanorods as cores were synthesized. The combination of Au nanorods with BiS film made the Au@BiS NBs exhibit ultrahigh photothermal (PT) conversion efficiency, remarkable photoacoustic (PA) imaging and high computed tomography (CT) performance; these Au@BiS NBs thus are a promising nanotheranostic agent for PT/PA/CT imaging. Subsequently, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-modified Au@BiS NBs (Au@BiS-PVP NBs) were successfully loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and a satisfactory pH sensitive release profile was achieved, thus revealing the great potential of Au@BiS-PVP NBs in chemotherapy as a drug carrier to deliver DOX into cancer cells. Both and investigations demonstrated that the Au@BiS-PVP NBs possessed multiple desired features for cancer therapy, including extremely low toxicity, good biocompatibility, high drug loading ability, precise tumor targeting and effective accumulation. Highly efficient ablation of the human liver cancer cell HepG2 was achieved through Au@BiS-PVP NB-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT). As both a contrast enhancement probe and therapeutic agent, Au@BiS-PVP NBs provided outstanding NIR-triggered multi-modal PT/PA/CT imaging-guided PTT and effectively inhibited the growth of HepG2 liver cancer cells synergistic chemo/PT therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481884PMC
February 2021