Publications by authors named "Dong Jiang"

355 Publications

Geographical Detector-based influence factors analysis for Echinococcosis prevalence in Tibet, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 12;15(7):e0009547. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Echinococcosis, caused by genus Echinococcus, is the most pathogenic zoonotic parasitic disease in the world. In Tibet of the People's Republic of China, echinococcosis refers principally to two types of severe zoonosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which place a serious burden on public health and economy in the local community. However, research on the spatial epidemiology of echinococcosis remains inadequate in Tibet, China. Based on the recorded human echinococcosis data, maps of the spatial distribution of human CE and AE prevalence in Tibet were produced at city level and county level respectively, which show that the prevalence of echinococcosis in northern and western Tibet was much higher than that in other regions. We employ a geographical detector to explore the influencing factors for causing CE and AE while sorting information on the maps of disease prevalence and environment factors (e.g. terrain, population, and yak population). The results of our analysis showed that biological factors have the most impact on the prevalence of echinococcosis, of which the yak population contributes the most for CE, while the dog population contributes the most for AE. In addition, the interaction between various factors, as we found out, might further explain the disease prevalence, which indicated that the echinococcosis prevalence is not simply affected by one single factor, but by multiple factors that are correlated with each other complicatedly. Our results will provide an important reference for the evaluation of the echinococcosis risk, control projects, and prevention programs in Tibet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009547DOI Listing
July 2021

An Integrated Method for Tracking and Monitoring Stomata Dynamics from Microscope Videos.

Plant Phenomics 2021 9;2021:9835961. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Regional Technique Innovation Center for Wheat Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Patchy stomata are a common and characteristic phenomenon in plants. Understanding and studying the regulation mechanism of patchy stomata are of great significance to further supplement and improve the stomatal theory. Currently, the common methods for stomatal behavior observation are based on static images, which makes it difficult to reflect dynamic changes of stomata. With the rapid development of portable microscopes and computer vision algorithms, it brings new chances for stomatal movement observation. In this study, a stomatal behavior observation system (SBOS) was proposed for real-time observation and automatic analysis of each single stoma in wheat leaf using object tracking and semantic segmentation methods. The SBOS includes two modules: the real-time observation module and the automatic analysis module. The real-time observation module can shoot videos of stomatal dynamic changes. In the automatic analysis module, object tracking locates every single stoma accurately to obtain stomatal pictures arranged in time-series; semantic segmentation can precisely quantify the stomatal opening area (SOA), with a mean pixel accuracy (MPA) of 0.8305 and a mean intersection over union (MIoU) of 0.5590 in the testing set. Moreover, we designed a graphical user interface (GUI) so that researchers could use this automatic analysis module smoothly. To verify the performance of the SBOS, the dynamic changes of stomata were observed and analyzed under chilling. Finally, we analyzed the correlation between gas exchange and SOA under drought stress, and the correlation coefficients between mean SOA and net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) are 0.93, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/9835961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244544PMC
April 2021

Heterogeneous microenvironmental stiffness regulates pro-metastatic functions of breast cancer cells.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 8:7471. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Center for Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

Besides molecular and phenotypic variations observed in cancer cells, intratumoral heterogeneity also occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Correlative stiffness maps of different intratumor locations in breast tumor biopsies show that stiffness increases from core to periphery. However, how different local ECM stiffness regulates key functions of cancer cells in tumor progression remains unclear. Although increased tissue stiffness is an established driver of breast cancer progression, conclusions from 2D cultures do not correspond with newer data from cancer cells in 3D environments. Many past studies of breast cancer in 3D culture fail to recapitulate the stiffness of a real breast tumor or the various local stiffnesses present in a tumor microenvironment. In this study, we developed a series of collagen/alginate hybrid hydrogels with adjustable stiffness to match the core, middle, and peripheral zones of a breast tumor. We used this hydrogel system to investigate effects of different local stiffness on morphology, proliferation, and migration of breast cancer cells. RNA sequencing of cells in hydrogels with different stiffness revealed changes in multiple cellular processes underlying cancer progression, including angiogenesis and metabolism. We discovered that tumor cells in a soft environment enriched YAP1 and AP1 signaling related genes, whereas tumor cells in a stiff environment became more pro-angiogenic by upregulating fibronectin 1 (FN1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression. This systematic study defines how the range of environmental stiffnesses present in a breast tumor regulates cancer cells, providing new insights into tumorigenesis and disease progression at the tumor-stroma interface. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Applied a well-defined hybrid hydrogel system to mimic the tumor microenvironment with heterogeneous local stiffness. Breast cancer cells tended to proliferate in soft core environment while migrate in stiff peripheral environment. Breast cancer cells shift from glycolysis to OXPHOS and fatty acid metabolism responding to stiff matrix microenvironment. The transcriptomic profile of breast cancer cells altered due to microenvironmental stiffness changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.07.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Circ-DENND4C up-regulates TCF4 expression to modulate hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and apoptosis via activating Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.

Cancer Cell Int 2020 Jul 8;20(1):295. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 52, Meihuadong Road, Xiangzhou District, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province, 519000, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor in China. Advanced treatment like transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has prolonged the lives of many HCC patients. However, the prognosis of most HCC patients remains unsatisfactory. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been gradually unveiled to exert considerable functions in cancer. Promising circRNAs in HCC remains to be further elucidated.

Methods: Gene expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot. The function of circ-DENND4C in HCC was estimated by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The location of circ-DENND4C in HCC cells was determined by subcellular fractionation and FISH assays. The association among molecules were analyzed through RNA pull down, RIP and luciferase reporter assays.

Results: circ-DENND4C (DENN domain containing 4C), an oncogene identified in breast cancer, was overexpressed in HCC cells. Also, circ-DENND4C exerted pro-tumor functions in HCC through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Importantly, circ-DENND4C could augment transcription factor 4 (TCF4) expression to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling via sequestering miR-195-5p. Moreover, following rescue assays disclosed that circ-DENND4C mediated malignant phenotypes in HCC cells via up-regulating TCF4 through sponging miR-195-5p.

Conclusion: circ-DENND4C boosted TCF4 expression to modulate malignant behaviors of HCC cells via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which might offer a promising target for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01346-0DOI Listing
July 2020

Spatial distribution of proteins and metabolites in developing wheat grain and their differential regulatory response during the grain filling process.

Plant J 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Molecular Systems Biology Lab (MOSYS), Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

Grain filling and proper grain development are essential biological processes in the plant's life cycle, eventually contributing to the final seed yield and quality in all cereal crops. How the different wheat grain components contribute to the overall development of the seed is very scarcely found in the literature. We performed a proteomics and metabolomics analysis in four different developing components of the wheat grain (seed coat, embryo, endosperm and cavity fluid) to characterize molecular processes during early and late grain development. In-gel shotgun proteomics analysis in 12, 15, 20 and 25 days after anthesis (DAA) revealed 15,484 identified and quantified proteins out of which 410 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the seed coat, 815 in embryo, 372 in endosperm and 492 in cavity fluid. The abundance of selected protein candidates revealed spatially and temporally resolved protein functions associated with development and grain filling. Multiple wheat protein isoforms involved in starch synthesis such as sucrose synthases, starch phosphorylase, granule bound and soluble starch synthase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), 14-3-3 proteins as well as sugar precursors undergo a major tissue-dependent change in abundance during wheat grain development suggesting an intimate interplay of starch biosynthesis control. Different isoforms of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family as well as glutamine levels both involved in glutenin macropolymer (GMP) pattern showed distinct spatially and temporally abundance revealing their specific role as indicators of wheat gluten quality. Proteins binned into the functional category of cell growth /division and protein synthesis/degradation were more abundant in the early stages (12 and 15 DAA). At the metabolome level all tissues and especially the cavity fluid showed highly distinct metabolite profiles. The tissue specific data are integrated with biochemical networks to explore a comprehensive map of molecular processes during grain filling and developmental processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15410DOI Listing
July 2021

Investigation on the Molecular and Physicochemical Changes of Protein and Starch of Wheat Flour during Heating.

Foods 2021 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang Road, Nanjing 210095, China.

The behaviors of starch and protein in wheat flour during heating were investigated, and the molecular changes of starch and protein and their effects on the textural characteristics were assessed. The results showed that with the increased temperature, soluble protein aggregated to insoluble high-molecular-weight protein polymers when the heating temperature exceeded 70 °C, and the aggregation of protein was mainly caused by covalent bonds of disulfide (SS) bonds. Hydrophobic interaction was the main noncovalent bond that participated in the formation of protein aggregates. The major change in the secondary structure during heating was a pronounced transition towards β-sheet-like structures. Considerable disruption of ordered structures of starch occurred at 70 °C, and starch was fully gelatinized at 80 °C. Typical starch pasting profiles of cooked flour were observed when the temperature was below 70 °C, and heat treatment decreased the pasting viscosity of the cooked flour from control to 80 °C, whereas the viscosity of the wheat flour increased in heating treatment at 90, 95 and 100 °C. The intense protein-starch interaction during heating affected the textural characteristic of flour gelation, which showed higher strength at 90, 95 and 100 °C. This study may provide a basis for improving wheat flour processing conditions and could lead to the production of new wheat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233833PMC
June 2021

Magnesium Application Promotes Rubisco Activation and Contributes to High-Temperature Stress Alleviation in Wheat During the Grain Filling.

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:675582. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology Ecology and Production Management, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Inhibited photosynthesis caused by post-anthesis high-temperature stress (HTS) leads to decreased wheat grain yield. Magnesium (Mg) plays critical roles in photosynthesis; however, its function under HTS during wheat grain filling remains poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of Mg on the impact of HTS on photosynthesis during wheat grain filling by conducting pot experiments in controlled-climate chambers. Plants were subjected to a day/night temperature cycle of 32°C/22°C for 5 days during post-anthesis; the control temperature was set at 26°C/16°C. Mg was applied at the booting stage, with untreated plants used as a control. HTS reduced the yield and net photosynthetic rate (P ) of wheat plants. The maximum carboxylation rate (V ), which is limited by Rubisco activity, decreased earlier than the light-saturated potential electron transport rate. This decrease in V was caused by decreased Rubisco activation state under HTS. Mg application reduced yield loss by stabilizing P . Rubisco activation was enhanced by increasing Rubisco activase activity following Mg application, thereby stabilizing P . We conclude that Mg maintains Rubisco activation, thereby helping to stabilize P under HTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.675582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231710PMC
June 2021

Varying contributions of three ryanodine receptor point mutations to diamide insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity and College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Although decoding the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance has often proven difficult, recent progress has revealed that specific mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, can confer resistance to diamide insecticides. The extent to which specific RyR mutations contribute to the diamide resistance phenotype, the associated genetic traits and fitness costs remain limited.

Results: Three field-evolved PxRyR mutations (G4946E, I4790 M, and I4790 K) were respectively introgressed into a common susceptible background strain (IPP-S) of P. xylostella with marker-assisted backcrossing. The mutations alone can result in moderate to high levels of resistance to five commercial diamides (flubendiamide, chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, and cyclaniliprole), and the resistance intensity mediated by the three mutations was hierarchical in order of I4790 K (1199- to >2778-fold) > G4946E (39- to 739-fold) > I4790 M (16- to 57-fold). Flubendiamide resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive, and was significantly linked with the introgressed mutations in the three constructed strains. In addition, the resistance levels to flubendiamide of hybrid progeny from any two resistant strains fell in between the status of their parents. Furthermore, by comparing the net replacement rate, the fitness of 4946E, 4790 M and 4790 K strains were 0.77, 0.93 and 0.92 relative to the IPP-S strain, respectively.

Conclusion: Three independent PxRyR mutations confer varying degrees of resistance to diamides in P. xylostella. Among the three mutations, I4790 K confers highest levels of resistance (> 1000-fold) to all five commercial diamides. The findings can guide resistance management practices for diamides in P. xylostella and other arthropods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6534DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Factors to Determine Survivorship of Meniscal Allograft Transplant: A Systematic Review.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Jun 4;9(6):23259671211007215. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Sports Medicine Department, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: There is much room for improvement and optimization of meniscal allograft survivorship.

Purpose: To understand prognostic factors for survivorship using evidence-based selection criteria in order to identify patients who would best benefit from meniscal allograft transplant (MAT).

Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: We conducted this systematic review to analyze prognostic factors for survivorship of MAT. The Cochrane Central Register, PubMed publisher, Embase.com, and Web of Science databases were searched through August 8, 2019. Included studies entailed patients of any age who received MAT with a reported association between prognostic factors and survivorship of the allograft. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts for eligibility, extracted the data, assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and performed a best-evidence synthesis.

Results: The review included 18 studies with a total of 1920 patients. The mean follow-up time was 6.0 years (range, 2.1-11.2 years). A total of 20 prognostic factors were identified and shown to be associated with survivorship of MAT. Strong evidence was found that severe cartilage damage was associated with poor survivorship. Strong evidence was also found showing that sex, knee compartment, surgical side, concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and concomitant osteotomy for malalignment had no effect on survivorship. Moderate evidence was found that body mass index (<36), tobacco use, and arthroscopic versus open procedure had no influence on survivorship. Conflicting evidence was found that older age and kissing cartilage lesions (lesions on both the femur and tibia vs on a single side) decreased survivorship.

Conclusion: Severe cartilage damage decreases the survivorship of MAT. Concomitant ACL reconstruction and osteotomy showed no relationship to survivorship. Many determinants showed conflicting and limited evidence. Older age may be of interest and should be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211007215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182187PMC
June 2021

Somatic variations led to the selection of acidic and acidless orange cultivars.

Nat Plants 2021 Jul 17;7(7):954-965. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, P. R. China.

Somatic variations are a major source of genetic diversification in asexual plants, and underpin clonal evolution and the breeding of asexual crops. Sweet orange is a model species for studying somatic variation because it reproduces asexually through apomixis and is propagated asexually through grafting. To dissect the genomic basis of somatic variation, we de novo assembled a reference genome of sweet orange with an average of three gaps per chromosome and a N50 contig of 24.2 Mb, as well as six diploid genomes of somatic mutants of sweet oranges. We then sequenced 114 somatic mutants with an average genome coverage of 41×. Categorization of the somatic variations yielded insights into the single-nucleotide somatic mutations, structural variations and transposable element (TE) transpositions. We detected 877 TE insertions, and found TE insertions in the transporter or its regulatory genes associated with variation in fruit acidity. Comparative genomic analysis of sweet oranges from three diversity centres supported a dispersal from South China to the Mediterranean region and to the Americas. This study provides a global view on the somatic variations, the diversification and dispersal history of sweet orange and a set of candidate genes that will be useful for improving fruit taste and flavour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-00941-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Mitocytosis, a migrasome-mediated mitochondrial quality-control process.

Cell 2021 May;184(11):2896-2910.e13

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Centre for Life Sciences, Beijing Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Damaged mitochondria need to be cleared to maintain the quality of the mitochondrial pool. Here, we report mitocytosis, a migrasome-mediated mitochondrial quality-control process. We found that, upon exposure to mild mitochondrial stresses, damaged mitochondria are transported into migrasomes and subsequently disposed of from migrating cells. Mechanistically, mitocytosis requires positioning of damaged mitochondria at the cell periphery, which occurs because damaged mitochondria avoid binding to inward motor proteins. Functionally, mitocytosis plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial quality. Enhanced mitocytosis protects cells from mitochondrial stressor-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial respiration; conversely, blocking mitocytosis causes loss of MMP and mitochondrial respiration under normal conditions. Physiologically, we demonstrate that mitocytosis is required for maintaining MMP and viability in neutrophils in vivo. We propose that mitocytosis is an important mitochondrial quality-control process in migrating cells, which couples mitochondrial homeostasis with cell migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Iterative tomography with digital adaptive optics permits hour-long intravital observation of 3D subcellular dynamics at millisecond scale.

Cell 2021 Jun 25;184(12):3318-3332.e17. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Institute for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Multi-dimension & Multi-scale Computational Photography (MMCP), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Long-term subcellular intravital imaging in mammals is vital to study diverse intercellular behaviors and organelle functions during native physiological processes. However, optical heterogeneity, tissue opacity, and phototoxicity pose great challenges. Here, we propose a computational imaging framework, termed digital adaptive optics scanning light-field mutual iterative tomography (DAOSLIMIT), featuring high-speed, high-resolution 3D imaging, tiled wavefront correction, and low phototoxicity with a compact system. By tomographic imaging of the entire volume simultaneously, we obtained volumetric imaging across 225 × 225 × 16 μm, with a resolution of up to 220 nm laterally and 400 nm axially, at the millisecond scale, over hundreds of thousands of time points. To establish the capabilities, we investigated large-scale cell migration and neural activities in different species and observed various subcellular dynamics in mammals during neutrophil migration and tumor cell circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.029DOI Listing
June 2021

Open Versus Endoscopic Osteotomy of Posterosuperior Calcaneal Tuberosity for Haglund Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 19;9(4):23259671211001055. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injury, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Although endoscopic calcaneoplasty and retrocalcaneal debridement have been extensively applied to treat Haglund syndrome, evidence of the value of the endoscopic procedure remains to be fully established.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative outcomes and the amount of osteotomy between open and endoscopic surgery for the treatment of Haglund syndrome. It was hypothesized that endoscopic calcaneoplasty would lead to higher patient satisfaction and lower complication rates compared with open surgical techniques.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: The following postoperative outcomes were compared between the open surgery group (n = 20) and the endoscopic surgery group (n = 27): visual analog scale for pain, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale, Foot Function Index, Tegner score, Ankle Activity Score, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey; postoperative complications; and duration of surgery. To determine the extent of resection, the authors compared the calcaneal height ratio, calcaneal resection ratio, calcaneal resection angle, pitch line, and Haglund deformity height between groups. The learning curve for endoscopic calcaneoplasty was also calculated.

Results: There were no significant differences between the open and endoscopic groups on any outcome score. Two patients in the open group reported temporary paresthesia around the incisional site, indicating sural nerve injuries; no complication was reported in the endoscopy group. None of the parameters for extent of resection were statistically significant between the groups. The duration of surgery was 44.90 ± 10.52 and 65.39 ± 11.12 minutes in the open and endoscopy groups, respectively ( = .001). Regarding the learning curve for endoscopic calcaneoplasty (6 surgeons; 27 follow-up patients; 9 patients lost to follow-up), the duration of surgery reached a steady point of 55.68 ± 4.19 minutes after the fourth operation.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the endoscopy procedure was as effective as the open procedure. The endoscopic procedure required significantly more time than the open procedure, and the duration of the endoscopic procedure was shortened only after the fourth operation, suggesting that it requires high technical skills and familiarity with the anatomic relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211001055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058802PMC
April 2021

Detection Method for Bolted Connection Looseness at Small Angles of Timber Structures based on Deep Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Bolted connections are widely used in timber structures. Bolt looseness is one of the most important factors leading to structural failure. At present, most of the detection methods for bolt looseness do not achieve a good balance between cost and accuracy. In this paper, the detection method of small angle of bolt loosening in a timber structure is studied using deep learning and machine vision technology. Firstly, three schemes are designed, and the recognition targets are the nut's own specification number, rectangular mark, and circular mark, respectively. The Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) algorithm is adopted to train the image datasets. The scheme with the smallest identification angle error is the one identifying round objects, of which the identification angle error is 0.38°. Then, the identification accuracy was further improved, and the minimum recognition angle reached 1°. Finally, the looseness in a four-bolted connection and an eight-bolted connection are tested, confirming the feasibility of this method when applied on multi-bolted connection, and realizing a low operating costing and high accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124976PMC
April 2021

Constructing LDPC Codes with Any Desired Girth.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China.

In wireless sensor networks, the reliability of communication can be greatly improved by applying low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Algorithms based on progressive-edge-growth (PEG) pattern and quasi-cyclic (QC) pattern are the mainstream approaches to constructing LDPC codes with good performance. However, these algorithms are not guaranteed to remove all short cycles to achieve the desired girth, and their excellent inputs are difficult to obtain. Herein, we propose an algorithm, which must be able to construct LDPC codes with the girth desired. In addition, the optimal input to the proposed algorithm is easy to find. Theoretical and experimental evidence of this study shows that the LDPC codes we construct have better decoding performance and less power consumption than the PEG-based and QC-based codes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000767PMC
March 2021

Multi-Scale Aggregation Graph Neural Networks Based on Feature Similarity for Semi-Supervised Learning.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;23(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory of Resources Utilization and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

The problem of extracting meaningful data through graph analysis spans a range of different fields, such as social networks, knowledge graphs, citation networks, the World Wide Web, and so on. As increasingly structured data become available, the importance of being able to effectively mine and learn from such data continues to grow. In this paper, we propose the multi-scale aggregation graph neural network based on feature similarity (MAGN), a novel graph neural network defined in the vertex domain. Our model provides a simple and general semi-supervised learning method for graph-structured data, in which only a very small part of the data is labeled as the training set. We first construct a similarity matrix by calculating the similarity of original features between all adjacent node pairs, and then generate a set of feature extractors utilizing the similarity matrix to perform multi-scale feature propagation on graphs. The output of multi-scale feature propagation is finally aggregated by using the mean-pooling operation. Our method aims to improve the model representation ability via multi-scale neighborhood aggregation based on feature similarity. Extensive experimental evaluation on various open benchmarks shows the competitive performance of our method compared to a variety of popular architectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23040403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067278PMC
March 2021

A Systematic Review of Tissue Engineering Scaffold in Tendon Bone Healing .

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 15;9:621483. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Sports Medicine Department, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Tendon-bone healing is an important factor in determining the success of ligament reconstruction. With the development of biomaterials science, the tissue engineering scaffold plays an extremely important role in tendon-bone healing and bone tissue engineering. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science) were systematically searched for relevant and qualitative studies published from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2019. Only original articles that met eligibility criteria and evaluated the use of issue engineering scaffold especially biomaterials in tendon bone healing were selected for analysis. The search strategy identified 506 articles, and 27 studies were included for full review including two human trials and 25 animal studies. Fifteen studies only used biomaterials like PLGA, collage, PCL, PLA, and PET as scaffolds to repair the tendon-bone defect, on this basis, the rest of the 11 studies using biological interventions like cells or cell factors to enhance the healing. The adverse events hardly ever occurred, and the tendon bone healing with tissue engineering scaffold was effective and superior, which could be enhanced by biological interventions. Although a number of tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed and applied in tendon bone healing, the researches are mainly focused on animal models which are with limitations in clinical application. Since the efficacy and safety of tissue engineering scaffold has been proved, and can be enhanced by biological interventions, substantial clinical trials remain to be done, continued progress in overcoming current tissue engineering challenges should allow for successful clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.621483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005599PMC
March 2021

Infection and risk factors of human and avian influenza in pigs in south China.

Prev Vet Med 2021 May 5;190:105317. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; China-Australia Joint Research and Training Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

The coinfection of swine influenza (SI) strains and avian/human-source influenza strains in piggeries can contribute to the evolution of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential. This study analyzed surveillance data on SI in south China and explored the spatial predictor variables associated with different influenza infection scenarios in counties within the study area. Blood samples were collected from 7670 pigs from 534 pig farms from 2015 to 2017 and tested for evidence of infection with influenza strains from swine, human and avian sources. The herd prevalences for EA H1N1, H1N1pdm09, classic H1N1, HS-like H3N2, seasonal human H1N1 and avian influenza H9N2 were 88.5, 64.5, 60.3, 57.8, 12.9 and 10.3 %, respectively. Anthropogenic factors including detection frequency, chicken density, duck density, pig density and human population density were found to be better predictor variables for three influenza infection scenarios (infection with human strains, infection with avian strains, and coinfection with H9N2 avian strain and at least one swine strain) than were meteorological and geographical factors. Predictive risk maps generated for the four provinces in south China highlighted that the areas with a higher risk of the three infection scenarios were predominantly clustered in the delta area of the Pearl River in Guangdong province and counties surrounding Poyang Lake in Jiangxi province. Identification of higher risk areas can inform targeted surveillance for influenza in humans and pigs, helping public health authorities in designing risk-based SI control strategies to address the pandemic influenza threat in south China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105317DOI Listing
May 2021

Nanoengineering Metal-Organic Framework-Based Materials for Use in Electrochemical CO Reduction Reactions.

Small 2021 Apr 19;17(16):e2006590. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China.

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to valuable chemicals is a sustainable technology that can achieve a carbon-neutral energy cycle in the environment. Electrochemical CO  reduction reaction (CO RR) processes using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), featuring atomically dispersed active sites, large surface area, high porosity, controllable morphology, and remarkable tunability, have attracted considerable research attention. Well-defined MOFs can be constructed to improve conductivity, introduce active centers, and form carbon-based single-atom catalysts (SACs) with enhanced active sites that are accessible for the development of CO  conversion. In this review, the progress on pristine MOFs, MOF hybrids, and MOF-derived carbon-based SACs is summarized for the electrocatalytic reduction of CO . Finally, the limitations and potential improvement directions with respect to the advancement of MOF-related materials for the field of research are discussed. These summaries are expected to provide inspiration on reasonable design to develop stable and high-efficiency MOFs-based electrocatalysts for CO RR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006590DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing the sweet sorghum-based ethanol potential on saline-alkali land with DSSAT model and LCA approach.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Feb 16;14(1):44. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: The key problem of non-grain energy plants' scale development is how to estimate the potential of GHG emission reduction accurately and scientifically. This study presents a method coupled DSSAT (the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) and the life cycle assessment (LCA) method to simulate the spatial distribution of sweet sorghum-based ethanol production potential on saline-alkali land. The GHG (greenhouse gas) emission mitigation and net energy gains of the whole life of sweet sorghum-based ethanol production were then analyzed.

Results: The results of the case study in Dongying, Shandong Province, China showed that developing sweet sorghum-based ethanol on saline-alkali land had GHG emission mitigation and energy potentials. The LC-GHG emission mitigation potential of saline-alkali land in Dongying was estimated at 63.9 thousand t CO eq, equivalent to the carbon emission of 43.4 Kt gasoline. The LC-NEG potential was predicted at 5.02 PJ, equivalent to the caloric value of 109 Kt gasoline. On average, LC-GHG emission mitigation and LC-NEG were predicted at 55.09 kg CO eq/t ethanol and 4.33 MJ/kg ethanol, respectively.

Conclusions: The question of how to evaluate the potential of sweet sorghum-based ethanol development scientifically was solved primarily in this paper. The results will provide an important theoretical support for planning the bioenergy crops on saline-alkali land and develop the fuel ethanol industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01896-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885580PMC
February 2021

Prognostic value of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):326-335

Department of Urology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Background: To date, few studies have evaluated the role of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we measured the levels of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and evaluated its prognostic value in ccRCC.

Methods: Data from 122 patients with RCC from January 2018 to January 2020 were collected. Preoperative peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and medical records were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier cures and log rank test were used for analyzing overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were underwent by performing the Cox proportional hazards models. Correlations were tested by Pearson's correlation analysis.

Results: Of 122 patients, a total of 80 ccRCC patients was enrolled. Patients with low CD3 T cells and low CD4/CD8 ratio displayed a worse OS than patients with high CD3 T cells and high CD4/CD8 ratio (P=0.029 and 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed CD3 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio were independent predictive factors for the OS (HR: 0.295, 95% CI, 0.091-0.956; P=0.042 and HR: 0.244, 95% CI, 0.065-0.920; P=0.037, respectively). Moreover, NLR negatively correlated with both levels of CD3 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio (P<0.001, r=-0.398 and P=0.012, r=-0.280, respectively).

Conclusions: The findings of our study suggest that preoperative CD3 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood are independent predictors for patients with ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844521PMC
January 2021

Cu enhanced fluorescent Ag nanoclusters with tunable emission from red to yellow and the application for Ag sensing.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 19;252:119484. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this work, the water-soluble fluorescent Ag nanoclusters ([email protected] NCs) were first prepared based on D-Penicillamine (DPA) as a stabilizer, however, the fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of [email protected] NCs was very low, then Cu was employed to improve the fluorescence QY and the doped Ag nanoclusters with Cu ([email protected]/Cu NCs) were obtained. The study showed that the QY increased fourfold and the emission of nanoclusters changed from red to yellow after addition of Cu. The reasonfor change of fluorescent properties wasattributed to the change of self-assembly structures caused by adding Cu into reaction system, leading to the aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) effect and enhancing the band gap (Eg) between the HOMO and LUMO in nanoclusters. Subsequently, a fluorescent Ag sensor with high sensitivity and selectivity was established based on the [email protected]/Cu NCs as probes in aqueous solution. Experiments showed that the Ag could significantly quench the fluorescence of [email protected]/Cu NCs under experimental conditions, and there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescent intensity quenching value and Ag concentration in the range of 0.05-800 μM, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 μM (3σ/k). Meanwhile, most of common ions had no effect on the experimental results under the same conditions. In addition, the sensor was successfully applied on the detection of Ag in real water samples, and the recovery rate was 80.3-99.0%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119484DOI Listing
May 2021

Growth Promoting Effect of Vacuum Sealing Drainage in the Healing Processes of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 19;17:65-71. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Endocrinology, The Air Force Hospital from Eastern Theater of PLA, Nanjing 210029, People's Republic of China.

Aim: To explore the growth-promoting effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) during the healing processes of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).

Methods: From November 2018 to December 2019, 38 patients with unilateral DFUs were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients were divided into two groups according to the use of VSD or not: the VSD group (n=20) and the control group (n=18). The following parameters were used to evaluate the healing process: changes in the mean areas of the ulcers; healing rate (HR); epithelial hyperplasia and angiogenesis as determined by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining); and expression of CD34, CD68 and VEGF as assessed through immunohistochemistry. Perioperative side effects and complications were also recorded.

Results: All patients received follow-up and eventually healed. The mean area of wounds was reduced in the VSD group compared to the control group (1.75±0.64 cm vs 0.88±0.54 cm, P=0.031). The mean HR of the ulcers in the VSD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (35.23±2.87% vs 28.78±1.09%, P=0.017). HE staining showed that the amount of epithelial hyperplasia and angiogenesis increased significantly after VSD, and the immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of CD34, CD68 and VEGF increased significantly in the VSD group.

Conclusion: VSD could significantly accelerate the wound healing process, probably by enhancing the inflammatory response and promoting granulation and angiogenesis in DFUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S282840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826163PMC
January 2021

Au-Pt Nanoparticle Formulation as a Radiosensitizer for Radiotherapy with Dual Effects.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 12;16:239-248. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Oncology, Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Radiotherapy occupies an essential position as one of the most significant approaches for the clinical treatment of cancer. However, we cannot overcome the shortcoming of X-rays which is the high value of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Radiosensitizers with the ability to enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells provide an alternative to changing X-rays to protons and heavy ion radiotherapy.

Materials And Methods: We prepared the Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt NPs) using a one-step method. The characteristics of the Au-Pt NPs were determined using TEM, HAADF-STEM, elemental mapping images, and DLS. The enhanced radiotherapy was demonstrated in vitro using MTT assays, colony formation assays, fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometric analyses of the apoptosis. The biodistribution of the Au-Pt NPs was analyzed using ICP-OES, and thermal images. The enhanced radiotherapy was demonstrated in vitro using immunofluorescence images, tumor volume and weigh, and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining.

Results: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized nanoparticles composed of the metallic elements Au and Pt were designed to increase synergistic radiosensitivity. The mechanism demonstrated that heavy metal NPs possess a high X-ray photon capture cross-section and Compton scattering effect which increased DNA damage. Furthermore, the Au-Pt NPs exhibited enzyme-mimicking activities by catalyzing the decomposition of endogenous HO to O in the solid tumor microenvironment (TME).

Conclusion: Our work provides a systematically administered radiosensitizer that can selectively reside in a tumor via the EPR effect and enhances the efficiency of treating cancer with radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S287523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811476PMC
January 2021

A novel transverse talar tunnel achieved less vessel damage and better drilling safety for ATFL reconstruction: a cadaveric study with three-dimensional microCT.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(12):8050-8058. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Peking University Third Hospital Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

Purpose: To introduce a novel transverse tunnel (TT) in anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) reconstruction, and assess whether it was superior to the tunnels currently used.

Methods: Thirteen fresh cadaveric lower extremities were perfused with lead-based contrast. Talar tunnels were drilled from the ATFL insertion in the following directions: transversely towards the medial side (TT), towards the talar neck (TNT), and towards the anterior, distal, and posterior points of the medial malleolus (AMMT, DMMT, and PMMT, respectively). MicroCT was used to reconstruct the tali, and virtual transosseous and 20-mm blind-ended tunnels were generated. The graft bending angle, vascular compromise caused by the tunnels, and the minimum distances from the tunnels to the chondral surfaces were evaluated.

Results: The bending angles between the ATFL and the TT, TNT, AMMT, DMMT, and PMMT were 47.3±7.9°, 41.5±7.7°, 57.0±6.0°, 63.9±11.7°, and 87.9±6.2°, respectively. The proportion of damaged intraosseous vessels was significantly less for the TT (7.8±2.7%) compared with the AMMT (10.0±5.2%), DMMT (15.5±6.5%), and PMMT (16.9±3.9%). Both the TNT and the AMMT carried a high risk of joint penetration, with respective minimum distances of 2.2±1.7 mm and 1.4±1.0 mm from the tunnel to the cartilage; in contrast, the TT, DMMT, and PMMT had larger safety margins, with minimum distances of 5.4±0.8 mm, 8.9+2.7 mm, and 6.0±1.2 mm. The blind-ended tunnels caused less vascular compromise and had larger minimum distances to the cartilage (better drilling safety) than the transosseous tunnels for all tunnel directions.

Conclusion: The TT achieves a superior graft bending angle and intraosseous blood supply protection than the AMMT, DMMT, and PMMT, and is less likely to result in cartilage damage than the TNT. The 20-mm blind-ended tunnels achieve less vessel damage and better drilling safety than transosseous tunnels.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791527PMC
December 2020

Integrative analysis of differential circular RNA and long non-coding RNA profiles and associated competing endogenous RNA networks in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Funct Integr Genomics 2021 Jan 7;21(1):125-138. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play vital roles in the tumorigenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Nevertheless, the mechanism and regulatory network associated with this process remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs by RNA-seq. A total of 3265 mRNAs, 1084 lncRNAs, and 38 circRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Among these, 269 mRNAs were found to encode transcription factors (TFs). Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the dysregulated TFs are associated with the Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, TGF-beta, and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, we constructed co-expression networks to screen the core lncRNAs and circRNAs involved in the regulation of transcription factors in these four pathways. Finally, we constructed a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of ESCC based on the abovementioned pathways. Our findings provide important insight into the role of lncRNAs and circRNAs in ESCC; the differentially expressed lncRNAs and circRNAs may represent potential targets for ESCC diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-020-00765-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Two novel online nomograms for predicting the survival of individual patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University (AHMU), Hefei, 230022, China. Electronic address:

Background: A method for predicting prognosis of patients who undergo partial hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HHCC, diameter ≥10 cm) is currently lacking. This study aimed to establish two online nomograms to predict the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients undergoing resection for HHCC.

Methods: The clinicopathologic characteristics and follow-up information of patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for HHCC at two medical centers were reviewed. Using a training cohort, a Cox model was used to identify the predictors of survival. Two dynamic nomograms for OS and DFS were developed and validated based on the data.

Results: Eight and nine independent factors derived from the multivariate analysis of the training cohort were screened and incorporated into the nomograms for OS and DFS, respectively. In the training cohort, the nomogram achieved concordance indices (C-indices) of 0.745 and 0.738 in predicting the OS and DFS, respectively. These results were supported by external validation (C-indices: 0.822 for OS and 0.827 for DFS). Further, the calibration curves of the endpoints showed a favorable agreement between the nomograms' assessments and actual observations.

Conclusions: The two web-based nomograms demonstrated optimal predictive performance for patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for HHCC. This provides a practical method for a personalized prognosis based on an individual's underlying risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2020.12.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Preparation and Properties of CA/γ-Poly(glutamic acid)/ZnO Electrospun Membranes.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 03;21(3):1549-1559

Engineering Research Center of High Performance Plastics, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibrous membranes blended with poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and ZnO were produced via electrospinning. The performance of the obtained composite membrane was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, tensile test, water contact angle, and thermogravimetric analysis. The corn plant height, leaf area and SPAD (soil and plant analyzer development) were compared with plants covered with CA/γ-PGA and CA/γ-PGA/ZnO fibrous membranes at room temperature. Simultaneously, the water absorption and degradation rate were also studied. The results obtained indicate the potential use of these fibrous membranes for mulching film applications. The fibrous membranes could also find potential use as a material for food packing, facial mask and as antimicrobial films for wound dressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.18983DOI Listing
March 2021

Spatiotemporal patterns and spatial risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 to 2017 in Western and Central China: A modelling analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 25;764:144275. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease caused by trypanosomatid protozoa in the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Although this vector-borne disease has been eliminated in several regions of China during the last century, the reported human VL cases have rebounded in Western and Central China in recent decades. However, understanding of the spatial epidemiology of the disease remains vague, as the spatial risk factors driving the spatial heterogeneity of VL. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of annual human VL cases in Western and Central China from 2007 to 2017. Based on the related spatial maps, the boosted regression tree (BRT) model was adopted to explore the relationships between VL and spatial correlates as well as predicting both the existing and potential infection risk zones of VL in Western and Central China. The mined links reveal that elevation, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and annual accumulated precipitation make great contributions to the spatial heterogeneity of VL. The maps show that Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu, western Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Sichuan are predicted to fall in the highest infection risk zones of VL. Approximately 61.60 million resident populations lived in the high-risk regions of VL in Western and Central China. Our results provide a better understanding of how spatial risk factors driving VL spread as well as identifying the potential endemic risk region of VL, thereby enhancing the biosurveillance capacity of public health authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144275DOI Listing
April 2021

Independent and Synergistic Effects of Knocking out Two ABC Transporter Genes on Resistance to Toxins Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa in Diamondback Moth.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Dec 24;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Insecticidal proteins from (Bt) are used widely in sprays and transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of Bt toxins. Here we analyzed resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa in the diamondback moth (), one of the world's most destructive pests of vegetable crops. We used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to create strains with knockouts of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes , , or both. Bioassay results show that knocking out either gene alone caused at most 2.9-fold resistance but knocking out both caused >10,320-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 380-fold resistance to Cry1Fa. Cry1Ac resistance in the double knockout strain was recessive and genetically linked with the loci. The results provide insight into the mechanism of cross-resistance to Cry1Fa in diamondback moth. They also confirm previous work with this pest showing that mutations disrupting both genes cause higher resistance to Cry1Ac than mutations affecting either or alone. Together with previous work, the results here highlight the value of using single and multiple gene knockouts to better understand the independent and synergistic effects of putative Bt toxin receptors on resistance to Bt toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823965PMC
December 2020