Publications by authors named "Dong Hee Kim"

330 Publications

High-accuracy quantitative principle of a new compact digital PCR equipment: Lab On An Array.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e34. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Bioconvergence Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin 16890, Korea.

Digital PCR (dPCR) is the third-generation PCR that enables real-time absolute quantification without reference materials. Recently, global diagnosis companies have developed new dPCR equipment. In line with the development, the Lab On An Array (LOAA) dPCR analyzer (Optolane) was launched last year. The LOAA dPCR is a semiconductor chip-based separation PCR type equipment. The LOAA dPCR includes Micro Electro Mechanical System that can be injected by partitioning the target gene into 56 to 20,000 wells. The amount of target gene per wells is digitized to 0 or 1 as the number of well gradually increases to 20,000 wells because its principle follows Poisson distribution, which allows the LOAA dPCR to perform precise absolute quantification. LOAA determined region of interest first prior to dPCR operation. To exclude invalid wells for the quantification, the LOAA dPCR has applied various filtering methods using brightness, slope, baseline, and noise filters. As the coronavirus disease 2019 has now spread around the world, needs for diagnostic equipment of point of care testing (POCT) are increasing. The LOAA dPCR is expected to be suitable for POCT diagnosis due to its compact size and high accuracy. Here, we describe the quantitative principle of the LOAA dPCR and suggest that it can be applied to various fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5808/gi.21035DOI Listing
September 2021

The relationship between periodontal disease and cognitive impairment in older adults of Korea.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, 191 Hambangmoero, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Aims: A potential association between the periodontal disease and cognitive impairment has been suggested, but the results are not yet conclusive. This study investigated the association between the two diseases.

Methods And Results: This study included 140 individuals (M: 48, F: 92, average age: 77.2). For assessing cognitive ability, MMSE-KC was used. The BGI index categorizes the periodontal disease based on important clinical parameters. In model 1 using the BGI index and the number of residual teeth as independent variables, the cognitive function status was significantly lower in the DL/MB group (β = -0.294), DL/LB group (β = -0.237). In Model 2 including systemic disease was the DL/MB group (β = -0.316) and in Model 3 which also added demographic characteristics, the DL/MB group (β = -0.229) was identified as a related factor (p < .05).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that periodontal disease is strongly associated with cognitive ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12657DOI Listing
October 2021

Development of Healthcare Service Design Concepts for NICU Parental Education.

Children (Basel) 2021 Sep 10;8(9). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

College of Nursing, Sungshin University, Seoul 01133, Korea.

The objective of this study was to develop healthcare service design concepts through an empirical study utilizing design thinking to improve the quality of caregiver education provided in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This study adopted the Double Diamond Process of service design comprising the discover, define, and development stages. We identified 7 issues, organized into 10 healthcare service design concepts associated with NICU education: improving the design of educational material, improving materials for high-risk infant guidance, a practicum kit, a parent proficiency checklist, a systematic parent education manual, predictable guidelines for tests and treatment plans, waiting time that provides comfort, message cards that convey feelings, a reservation system for visits, and a post-discharge information sharing platform. The service concepts' effectiveness was verified through evaluations by healthcare experts. The results represent customers' perspectives and experiences regarding parental education. The application of the healthcare service design method could be further developed in future studies. The 10 service concepts derived from this study can be applied and evaluated as specific NICU educational programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8090795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472192PMC
September 2021

Chlorogenic acid protects human chondrocyte C28/I2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death through activation of autophagy.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 17;285:119968. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Convergence Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 527-27, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Aims: The development of osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is commonly associated with oxidative stress. Indeed, the lack of antioxidant responses largely increases OA incidence. OA is a leading cause of disability in the elderly, which reduces the quality of life and places high socioeconomic burdens on them. Several polyphenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), have shown cytoprotective effects via their antioxidant activity, but the exact mechanism (s) remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated how CGA protects human chondrocytes against HO-induced apoptosis.

Materials And Methods: The cytoprotective effect by CGA in 500 μM hydrogen peroxide-treated C28/I2 cells was evaluated by cell viability, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting analyses, and autophagy assessment was further performed by AO and MDC staining and tandem mRFP-GFP fluorescence analyses.

Key Findings: Treatment of CGA to the human chondrocytes under oxidative stress significantly decreased apoptosis markers, such as cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and increased anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL and the antioxidant response proteins NRF2 and NF-κB. Furthermore, CGA-dependent activation of antioxidant response proteins NRF2 and NF-κB and its protective effects in chondrocytes depended on autophagy. Indeed, CGA treatment and autophagy induction significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis.

Significance: CGA exhibited the protective effect to human chondrocyte C28/I2 cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death by activating autophagy. These findings indicate that CGA is a potential therapeutic agent for the development of OA drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119968DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnostic evaluation of qRT-PCR-based kit and dPCR-based kit for COVID-19.

Genes Genomics 2021 11 15;43(11):1277-1288. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon, 16890, Republic of Korea.

Background: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is well known as a fatal disease, first discovered at Wuhan in China, ranging from mild to death, such as shortness of breath and fever. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is a crucial point in preventing global prevalence.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic competency and efficiency with the Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay kit and the Dr. PCR 20 K COVID-19 Detection kit, designed based on the qRT-PCR and dPCR technologies, respectively.

Methods: A total of 30 negative and 20 COVID-19 positive specimens were assigned to the diagnostic test by using different COVID-19 diagnosis kits. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by statistical testing with sensitivity, specificity, and co-efficiency calculations.

Results: Comparing both diagnostic kits, we confirmed that the diagnostic results of 30 negative and 20 positive cases were the same pre-diagnostic results. The diagnostic statistics test results were perfectly matched with value (1). Cohen's Kappa coefficient was demonstrated that the given kits in two different ways were "almost perfect" with value (1). In evaluating the detection capability, the dilutional linearity experiments substantiate that the Dr. PCR 20 K COVID-19 Detection kit could detect SARS-CoV-2 viral load at a concentration ten times lower than that of the Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay kit.

Conclusions: In this study, we propose that the dPCR diagnosis using LOAA dPCR could be a powerful method for COVID-19 point-of-care tests requiring immediate diagnosis in a limited time and space through the advantages of relatively low sample concentration and small equipment size compared to conventional qRT-PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01162-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441239PMC
November 2021

Development of Cardiac Events and Functional Recovery Prediction Models for Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Front Pediatr 2021 27;9:736872. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Since both the risk of death and the probability of spontaneous functional recovery (FR) coexist in association with pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), management should be based on individualized outcome predictions. A single-center retrospective review of 105 pediatric patients (age at presentation ≤ 18 years) with DCMP, managed between 1994 and 2017, was performed. Logistic regression was conducted to identify variables associated with FR and cardiac events (CEs), i.e., death or heart transplantation (HTPL), within 2 years after initial presentation. Two outcome prediction models were formulated using these variables. Twenty-six (24.8%) and 51 patients (48.6%) experienced FR and CE, respectively, within 2 years after initial presentation. Predictors of mortality without HTPL were earlier era at presentation (HR: 4.13; 95% CI: 1.88-9.06; < 0.001) and significant TR (≥moderate; HR: 4.31; 95% CI: 1.26-14.77; = 0.020) in multivariable Cox regression model. Predictors of FR were recent era (HR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.40-14.44; = 0.0012), younger age at initial presentation (HR: 0.98 per 1 month increase; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, < 0.001), post-myocarditis DCMP (HR: 4.29; 95% CI: 1.32-13.93; = 0.015), and arrhythmia-mediated DCMP (HR: 26.88; 95% CI: 2.61-276.70; = 0.006). Risk factors for CEs was idiopathic DCMP (HR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.32-6.56, = 0.008). The low-risk group who had higher probability of FR than CE in prediction model had a slightly higher overall survival rate (71.4 vs. 52.2% at 10 years after presentation; log-rank = 0.09) and a significantly higher HTPL-free survival rate (67.5 vs. 24.9% at 10 years after presentation; log-rank < 0.001) than the high-risk group. Prognostication and management strategies for pediatric DCMP may be enhanced by risk stratification using outcome prediction modeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.736872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429849PMC
August 2021

Engagement of lateral habenula in the extinction of the appetitive conditioned responses.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Oct 10;415:113516. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Following the association of a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a biologically significant stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US), CS-alone presentations generate extinction: a decline in the conditioned response. Many studies have revealed the neural substrates of fear extinction; however, a few have identified the brain regions responsible for appetitive extinction. Midbrain dopamine neurons are activated by presenting a reward or predictable reward cue, whereas the cue signaling the absence of reward activates the lateral habenula (LHb) neurons. We examined the engagement of the LHb in appetitive extinction. In the first phase, rats first received pairings of a CS (light) with US delivery (food pellets). In the second phase, rats in the CS-alone group underwent four CS-alone presentations, whereas those in the paired group received four pairings of light with food pellets. We also included a comparison group for CS-alone presentations: rats were placed in the training box without CS or US exposures in the first phase and received four CS-alone presentations in the second phase. Thirty minutes after the second phase, c-Fos levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and LHb in these groups were measured. c-Fos levels in the LHb were higher in the paired-CS-alone group than in the paired-paired and comparison groups, while those in the VTA and SNc were significantly higher in the paired-paired group than in the other groups. On examination of LHb neurotoxic lesion effects on the decline of conditioned food-cup responses when a CS was repeatedly presented with no US, LHb lesions decelerated the decline in conditioned food-cup responses, suggesting a crucial role of LHb in appetitive extinction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113516DOI Listing
October 2021

Investigation of high correlation with carcass traits of SNPs of the PLCB1, C/EBPα, and TDRKH genes and the combinations of SNPs using the MDR method in the Hanwoo.

Genes Genomics 2021 Aug 15;43(8):961-973. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Bio-Medical Engineering Core Facility, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, 31116, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recently, many researchers focus on the best way to produce high-quality meat, as the trend in food consumption today is to focus on quality. In general, consumers' preferences in beef differ depending on taste and meatiness. Therefore, researchers are interested in how the marbling score affects the flavors of meat or the various factors that make up the meatiness to captivate the consumers' tastes.

Objective: This study identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or gene combinations that affect the carcass traits of Korean cattle (Hanwoo) by using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method.

Methods: We collected the candidate SNPs to identify SNPs related to marbling scores from whole-exome sequencing and bovine SNP genotyping data. Using 96 Hanwoo samples, we performed PCR amplification to investigate the polymorphism status. In addition, we investigated genetic relationships between carcass traits and SNPs using 612 Hanwoo samples. Furthermore, each candidate SNP genotype and the combinations of SNP genotypes were verified to improve the accuracy of genetic relationships using MDR method.

Results: Twenty-four candidate SNPs associated with carcass trait and marbling scores were identified from SNP genotyping and whole-exome sequencing. Among them, three SNP markers (c.459 T > C of the PLCB1 gene, c.271 A > C of the C/EBPα gene, and g.17257 A > G of the TDRKH gene) were showed statistically significant differences between intramuscular fat and genotypes. Especially, two candidate SNPs, including c.459 T > C located in the PLCB1 gene and c.271 A > C located in the C/EBPα gene, could be highly associated with the intramuscular fat of Hanwoo quality grade. In addition, the combination of SNP genotypes is showed higher significant differences with carcass weight, backfat thickness, and longissimus dorsi muscle area.

Conclusion: Three SNP genotypes and the combination of SNP genotypes in the PLCB1, C/EBPα, and TDRKH genes may be useful genetic markers for improving beef quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01122-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Inhibition of TMPRSS4 mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition is critically involved in antimetastatic effect of melatonin in colorectal cancers.

Phytother Res 2021 Aug 11;35(8):4538-4546. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In the current study, the underlying anti-metastatic mechanism of melatonin contained in some edible plants was explored in association with transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) mediated metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling in human HCT15 and SW620 colorectal cancer cells. Here, TMPRSS4 was highly expressed in HCT15, but was weakly expressed in SW620 cells. Melatonin exerted weak cytotoxicity, decreased invasion, adhesion, and migration, and attenuated the expression of TMPRSS4, cyclin E, pro-urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-uPA), p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), Snail and increased the expression of E-cadherin, p27, pp38 and p-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) in HCT15 cells. Conversely, overexpression of TMPRSS4 reduced the ability of melatonin to activate E-cadherin and reduce Snail. Furthermore, even in SW620 cells transfected with TMPRSS4-overexpression plasmid, melatonin effectively suppressed invasion and migration along with decreased expression of Snail, cyclin A, cyclin E, pro-uPA and p-FAK and increased expression of E-cadherin and p27. Overall, these findings provide evidence that melatonin suppresses metastasis in colon cancer cells via inhibition of TMPRSS4 mediated EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7156DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of case-based confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit training on delirium knowledge and delirium assessment accuracy of intensive care units: A quasi-experimental study.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Aug 14;103:104954. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Nursing, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Delirium evaluation is important because the development of delirium in critically ill patients negatively affects their progress and prognosis. Although delirium assessment tools have been developed, nurses have insufficient experience using these tools in clinical practice.

Objectives: This study examined the effects of case-based confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit education on delirium knowledge and assessment accuracy for intensive care nurses.

Design: This study adopted a pre- and post-test non-equivalent control group design.

Settings And Participants: The study participants were 122 general nurses (61 participants each in the experimental and control groups) working in the intensive care unit of one university hospital in South Korea.

Methods: Case-based confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit education comprised lectures on delirium and confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit tools and delirium assessment education using standardized patients. The experimental group received 80-min case-based confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit training, whereas the control group received no intervention.

Results: Differences in the degree of pre- and post-knowledge in subcategories between the experimental and control groups were the cause, symptom, and management. The delirium assessment accuracy score of the experimental group changed from 2.89 ± 1.61 points before training to 8.11 ± 1.23 points after training, whereas that of the control group changed from 2.92 ± 1.94 points before training to 3.05 ± 2.99 points after training (Z = -9.668, p < .001).

Conclusions: The case-based confusion assessment methods for intensive care unit educational program developed in this study is effective for improving delirium knowledge and delirium assessment accuracy in intensive care nurses. Based on the study results, various cases can be developed for the education of intensive care nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2021.104954DOI Listing
August 2021

Growth of the Branch Pulmonary Arteries After Employing 'Shunt-Only' Strategy for Neonates With Pulmonary Atresia or Stenosis.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We sought to determine the impact of juxtaductal stenosis (JDS) on branch pulmonary artery (PA) growth after systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (SPS) placement without pulmonary arterioplasty (ie the 'shunt-only' strategy). This was a retrospective review of 91 patients, 54 (59.3%) with pulmonary atresia and 27 (29.7%) with a functionally single ventricle, who underwent neonatal SPS placement without pulmonary arterioplasty between 2008 and 2017. The median age and body weight at SPS procedure were 16 day's (interquartile range [IQR], 11-22) and 3.10 kg (IQR: 2.85-3.40), respectively. All patients had pre-SPS computed tomography (CT) followed by post-SPS CT at a median interval of 5.8 months' (IQR: 4.5-7.2). The ratio of the diameters of the juxtaductal PA over the non-SPS-side hilar PA (JD and/or PA) on preoperative CT-a surrogate for JDS severity-was 0.93 (IQR: 0.67-1.09). The median diameter (Z) of the SPS-side and non-SPS-side PA on postoperative CT were 1.0 (IQR: -0.07-1.73) and 0.99 (IQR: -0.45-1.70), respectively. The pulmonary artery index (Nakata index) increased significantly from 124.0 ± 50.2 mm/m to 240.8 ± 88.7 mm/m (P < .001). Unplanned surgical interventions on the non-SPS-side PA were performed on 7 patients. Logistic regression identified lower preoperative JD and/or PA as a risk factor for unplanned intervention on the non-SPS-side PA (odds ratio, 1.27 per 0.1 decrease; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.16, P = 0.025). PA growth on the non-SPS side is generally adequate without pulmonary arterioplasty among patients with JDS. However, unplanned interventions for the non-SPS-side PA are caveats for 'shunt-only' strategy in neonates with significant JDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.03.047DOI Listing
May 2021

Cortical Trajectory Screw Fixation in Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Review of the Existing Literature.

Asian Spine J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.

Posterior lumbar fusion is a safe and effective surgical method for diseases, such as lumbar stenosis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar instability, spinal deformity, and tumor. Pedicle screw (PS) fixation was first introduced by Bouche and has been adopted as the gold standard for posterior lumbar fusion. Santoni and colleagues introduced a new methodological screw insertion technique that uses a cortical bone trajectory (CBT), described as that from a medial to lateral path in the transverse axial plane and caudal to the cephalad path in the sagittal plane through the pedicle for maximum contact of the screw with the cortical bone. Owing to the lower invasiveness, superior cortical bone contact, and reduced neurovascular injury incidence, the CBT technique has been widely used in posterior lumbar fusion; however, these advantages have not been proven in clinical/radiological and biomechanical studies. We designed the present study to review the existing evidence and evaluate the merit of CBT screw fixation. Six electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published in August 2020 using the search terms "cortical bone trajectory," "CBT spine," "CBT fixation," "cortical pedicle screws," and "cortical screws." Studies were analyzed and divided into the following groups: "biomechanics investigation," "surgical technique," and "clinical/radiological studies." Most studies compared CBT and PS fixation, and the CBT screw fixation method showed better or similar outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2020.0575DOI Listing
May 2021

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Gamma Linolenic Acid as an Add-on Therapy to Minocycline for the Treatment of Rosacea.

Ann Dermatol 2020 Dec 11;32(6):466-472. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Dermatology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.

Background: A recent study suggested a possible role of skin barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of rosacea, which leads to irritation symptoms. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an essential omega-6 fatty acid that is known to restore defective epidermal skin barrier. GLA supplementation has not previously been performed in rosacea patients.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adding GLA to minocycline compared to minocycline alone in rosacea patients.

Methods: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 31 rosacea patients. They were randomly assigned to receive 320 mg/day of GLA (Evoprim®) (n=16) or placebo (n=15) in addition to 100 mg/day of minocycline for 8 weeks. Investigator's global assessment (IGA) and patient's global assessment (PGA) were used to assess clinical severity at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. Biophysical parameters including melanin index, erythema index, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), lipid concentration, and stratum corneum hydration were measured.

Results: In the GLA group, a higher proportion of patients achieved treatment success (IGA≤1) at week 8 (68.75% vs. 33.33%) and patient satisfaction (PGA≥3) at weeks 8 (75.0% vs. 40.0%) and 12 (81.3% vs. 46.6%). Both groups, throughout 12 weeks of treatment, revealed a trend toward improvement in erythema index, melanin index, TEWL, and stratum corneum hydration. Particularly, there was a significant difference in TEWL and stratum corneum hydration over time between the two groups (=0.033, =0.003, respectively). No serious adverse event was observed in both groups.

Conclusion: GLA is beneficial as an additional therapeutic option for rosacea patients treated with minocycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2020.32.6.466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875229PMC
December 2020

A Case of Cutaneous Spindle Cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

Ann Dermatol 2020 Apr 11;32(2):170-171. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Dermatology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2020.32.2.170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992545PMC
April 2020

Bunge Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation in RAW 264.7 Cells and Prevents Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 27;2021:5521562. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone microarchitecture with an increased risk of fracture. Long-term use of primary treatments, such as bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators, results in various side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative therapeutics derived from natural products. Bunge (CPB) is a dried fruit used to treat diet-induced indigestion, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. However, research into the effects of CPB on osteoclast differentiation and osteoporosis is still limited. experiments were conducted to examine the effects of CPB on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, we investigated the effects of CPB on bone loss in the femoral head in an ovariectomized rat model using microcomputed tomography. , tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining results showed the number of TRAP-positive cells, and TRAP activity significantly decreased following CPB treatment. CPB also significantly decreased pit formation. Furthermore, CPB inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing NFATc1, and c-Fos expression. Moreover, CPB treatment inhibited osteoclast-related genes, such as , and . , bone mineral density and structure model index were improved by administration of CPB. In conclusion, CPB prevented osteoclast differentiation and prevented bone loss Therefore, CPB could be a potential alternative medicine for bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5521562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024084PMC
March 2021

Transcription Factor TonEBP Stimulates Hyperosmolality-Dependent Arginine Vasopressin Gene Expression in the Mouse Hypothalamus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 16;12:627343. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea.

The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is strongly implicated in body energy homeostasis. In particular, the degree of production and release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus is affected by plasma osmolality, and that hypothalamic AVP is responsible for thirst and osmolality-dependent water and metabolic balance. However, the osmolality-responsive intracellular mechanism within AVP cells that regulates AVP synthesis is not clearly understood. Here, we report a role for tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor sensitive to cellular tonicity, in regulating osmosensitive hypothalamic AVP gene transcription. Our immunohistochemical work shows that hypothalamic AVP cellular activity, as recognized by c-fos, was enhanced in parallel with an elevation in TonEBP expression within AVP cells following water deprivation. Interestingly, our investigations found a synchronized pattern of TonEBP and AVP gene expression in response to osmotic stress. Those results indicate a positive correlation between hypothalamic TonEBP and AVP production during dehydration. Promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TonEBP can bind directly to conserved binding motifs in the 5'-flanking promoter regions of the AVP gene. Furthermore, dehydration- and TonEBP-mediated hypothalamic AVP gene activation was reduced in TonEBP haploinsufficiency mice, compared with wild TonEBP homozygote animals. Therefore, our result support the idea that TonEBP is directly necessary, at least in part, for the elevation of AVP transcription in dehydration conditions. Additionally, dehydration-induced reductions in body weight were rescued in TonEBP haploinsufficiency mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate an intracellular machinery within hypothalamic AVP cells that is responsible for dehydration-induced AVP synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.627343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008816PMC
March 2021

Pulmonary valve replacement following repair of tetralogy of Fallot: comparison of outcomes between bio- and mechanical prostheses.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the outcomes after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) with a mechanical prosthesis (MP) and a bioprosthesis (BP).

Methods: From 2004 through 2017, a total of 131 patients, who had already been repaired for tetralogy or Fallot or its variants, underwent their first PVR with an MP or a BP. Outcomes of interests were prosthesis failure (stenosis >3.5 m/s, regurgitation >mild or infective endocarditis) and reintervention.

Results: The median age at PVR was 19 years. BP and MP were used in 88 (67.2%) and 43 (32.8%) patients, respectively. The median follow-up duration was 7.4 years, and the 10-year survival rate was 96.4%. Risk factors for prosthesis failure were smaller body surface area [hazard ratio (HR) 0.23 per 1 m2, P = 0.047] and smaller prosthesis size (HR 0.73 per 1 mm, P = 0.039). Risk factors for prosthesis reintervention were smaller body surface area (HR 0.11 per 1 m2, P = 0.011) and prosthesis size (HR 0.67 per 1 mm, P = 0.044). Probability of prosthesis failure and reintervention at 10 years were 24.6% (19.5% in BP vs 34.8% in MP, P = 0.34) and 7.8% (5.6% in BP vs 11.9% in MP, P = 0.079), respectively. Anticoagulation-related major thromboembolic events were observed in 4 patients receiving an MP.

Conclusions: MP might not be superior to BP in terms of prosthesis failure or reintervention. MP should be carefully considered for highly selected patients in the era of transcatheter PVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab099DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of anterior-only versus combined anterior and posterior fusion for unstable subaxial cervical injuries: a meta-analysis of biomechanical and clinical studies.

Eur Spine J 2021 06 21;30(6):1460-1473. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University Hospital and Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, 15, Jinju-daero 816 beon-gil, Jinju-si, 660-751, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing biomechanical and clinical outcomes between anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusions to determine which method of cervical fusion yielded better results for unstable cervical injuries.

Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and SCOPUS electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published through 2000-2019 that compared the biomechanical and clinical outcomes of anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusion for unstable cervical fracture.

Results: Eight biomechanical and four clinical studies were included in the analysis. There were significant biomechanical differences between the groups with respect to flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending. Combined fusion provided better biomechanical stability for unstable cervical injuries than anterior-only fusion, regardless of the number of corpectomies or the presence of a posterior column injury. However, despite significant biomechanical differences, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, such as the degree of neurologic improvement and complications between the two groups.

Conclusion: Anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusions for unstable subaxial cervical injuries can both restore cervical stability. Although combined fusion might have some advantages in terms of stability biomechanically, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, such as the degree of neurologic improvement and perioperative complications. Therefore, rather than the routine use of combined fusion for unstable cervical injuries, the selective use of anterior-only or combined fusion according to the type of injury is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06704-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Brain morphological and connectivity changes on MRI after stem cell therapy in a rat stroke model.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0246817. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

In animal models of stroke, behavioral assessments could be complemented by a variety of neuroimaging studies to correlate them with recovery and better understand mechanisms of improvement after stem cell therapy. We evaluated morphological and connectivity changes after treatment with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a rat stroke model, through quantitative measurement of T2-weighted images and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion rats randomly received PBS (PBS-only), FBS cultured hMSCs (FBS-hMSCs), or stroke patients' serum cultured hMSCs (SS-hMSCs). Functional improvement was assessed using a modified neurological severity score (mNSS). Quantitative analyses of T2-weighted ischemic lesion and ventricular volume changes were performed. Brain microstructure/connectivity changes were evaluated in the ischemic recovery area by DTI-derived microstructural indices such as relative fractional anisotropy (rFA), relative axial diffusivity (rAD), and relative radial diffusivity (rRD), and relative fiber density (rFD) analyses. According to mNSS results, the SS-hMSCs group showed the most prominent functional improvement. Infarct lesion volume of the SS-hMSCs group was significantly decreased at 2 weeks when compared to the PBS-only groups, but there were no differences between the FBS-hMSCs and SS-hMSCs groups. Brain atrophy was significantly decreased in the SS-hMSCs group compared to the other groups. In DTI, rFA and rFD values were significantly higher and rRD value was significant lower in the SS-hMSCs group and these microstructure/connectivity changes were correlated with T2-weighted morphological changes. T2-weighted volume alterations (ischemic lesion and brain atrophy), and DTI microstructural indices and rFD changes, were well matched with the results of behavioral assessment. These quantitative MRI measurements could be potential outcome predictors of functional recovery after treatment with stem cells for stroke.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246817PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886198PMC
August 2021

Inhibition effect of extracts on Osteoarthritis through MAPKs, NF-κB signaling pathway.

Int J Med Sci 2021 1;18(4):861-872. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Republic of Korea.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by degradation and inflammation of cartilage extracellular matrix. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of (CSR) on interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated rat chondrocytes and a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced model of OA. , cell viability of CSR-treated chondrocytes was measured by MTT assay. The mRNA expression of Matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, the protein expression of MAPK (phosphorylation of EKR, JNK, p38), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) was detected by western blot analysis. , the production of nitric oxide (NO) was detected by Griess reagent, while those of inflammatory mediators, MMPs and ECM were detected by ELISA. The degree of OA was evaluated by histopathological analyses, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score and micro-CT analysis. CSR significantly inhibited the expression of MMPs, ADAMTSs and the degradation of ECM in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Furthermore, CSR significantly suppressed IL-1β-stimulated of MAPKs, NF-κB signaling pathway. , CSR and Indomethacin inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators, MMPs and degradation of ECM in MIA-induced model of OA. In addition, CSR improved the severity of OA. Taken together, these results suggest CSR is a potential therapeutic active agent in the treatment of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.52330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807197PMC
September 2021

The nature of triple-negative breast cancer classification and antitumoral strategies.

Genomics Inform 2020 Dec 22;18(4):e35. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Center for Bio-Medical Engineering Core Facility, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

Identifying the patterns of gene expression in breast cancers is essential to understanding their pathophysiology and developing anticancer drugs. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different subtypes determined by distinct biological features. Luminal breast cancer is characterized by a relatively high expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) genes, which are expressed in breast luminal cells. In ~25% of invasive breast cancers, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed; these cancers are categorized as the HER2 type. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in which the cancer cells do not express ER/PR or HER2, shows highly aggressive clinical outcomes. TNBC can be further classified into specific subtypes according to genomic mutations and cancer immunogenicity. Herein, we discuss the brief history of TNBC classification and its implications for promising treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5808/GI.2020.18.4.e35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808875PMC
December 2020

Factors Associated With Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Nurses in Regional Trauma Centers in South Korea: A Descriptive Correlational Study.

J Emerg Nurs 2021 May 21;47(3):400-411. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Introduction: Trauma is a leading cause of death in South Korea. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with secondary traumatic stress of nurses working at regional trauma centers.

Methods: A survey-based cross-sectional design was utilized. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire consisting of 5 rating scales and demographic data. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, t test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression.

Results: One hundred eighty-six nurses participated, and most (84.4%) reported moderate to severe secondary traumatic stress. Exposure to traumatic events averaged 34.33 (SD = 6.25) out of 65 points. Average problem-focused coping was 3.00 (SD = 0.37), emotion-focused coping was 2.57 (SD = 0.26), and dysfunctional coping was 2.17 (SD = 0.41) out of 4 points. Social support from family and friends averaged 5.85 (SD = 0.75), social support from coworkers was 5.78 (SD = 0.83), and social support from supervisors was 4.65 (SD = 1.18) out of 7 points. The factors affecting the respondents' secondary traumatic stress were type D personality (β = 0.39, P < .001), dysfunctional coping (β = 0.28, P < .001), problem-focused coping (β = 0.19, P < .01), desire for job rotation (β = 0.17, P < .01), and social support from supervisors (β = -0.12, P = < .05). This regression model was statistically significant and the explanatory power was 46.7% (F = 33.47, P < .001, Adj R = 0.47).

Discussion: Along with a personal effort to engage in stress management programs, administrators, managers, and supervisors should prioritize developing practical strategies for reducing secondary traumatic stress of nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2020.08.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Facial flushing and erythema of rosacea improved by carvedilol.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 18;33(6):e14520. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Dermatology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, South Korea.

Flushing and erythema are the most common symptoms of rosacea; however, management of these symptoms remains challenging. Recent case studies suggest that treatment with carvedilol may reduce facial flushing and persistent erythema in the pathogenesis of rosacea. To find the effect of carvedilol in the treatment of facial flushing and erythema in rosacea. Twenty-four rosacea patients treated with carvedilol for facial flushing and erythema were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were prescribed carvedilol 6.25 mg either once or twice per day, and the daily dose was gradually titrated up to 12.5 mg. Clinical erythema severity was assessed by the Clinician's Erythema Assessment (CEA) and Patient's Self-Assessment (PSA) scales. Improvement of CEA and PSA scores compared to the baseline were assessed. The proportion of patients with improvement of two or more points from baseline in CEA score was analyzed by sex, previous treatment exposure, disease duration, and subtypes. The mean change of -1.6 in the CEA score and of -1.8 in the PSA score showed significant improvement from baseline. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) patients achieved more than 2-points improvement in the CEA score, compared with non-ETR patients (53.8% vs 16.7% [P = .035]). No statistically significant differences were observed by sex, disease duration, or previous treatment exposure. No serious adverse event was observed. Carvedilol can be an effective and safe treatment option for rosacea patients suffering from facial flushing and erythema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14520DOI Listing
November 2020

Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the adult clavicle: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 11;75:286-291. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: Langerhans` Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving proliferation of Langerhans-type cells, which shares immunophenotypic and ultrastructural similarities. In this article, we report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in solitary involvement of clavicle of adult male.

Presentation Of Case: A 21-year-old male visited outpatient department on account of solitary palpable tumorous lesion in right clavicle. The lesion was found 2 weeks before the visit, and it triggered pain but no tenderness. Findings on X-ray, and CT were suggestive of homogeneous osteolytic lesion of the clavicle, and hot uptake was found in right clavicle on bone scan which is commensurate with site of the lesion. Based on findings on MRI, Ewing's sarcoma, osteomyelitis and malignant hematologic malignancies were initially suspected for differential diagnosis. For the purpose of excision and histologic analysis, excisional biopsy was performed. Biopsy concluded with diagnosis of LCH.

Discussion: LCH is widely renowned for its frequent occurrence in pediatric ages, and it occurs usually between ages of one and four. It occasionally occurs in adults. LCH in skeletal system usually involves cranium, vertebrae, rib and so forth. It is very rare for LCH to occur exclusively in clavicle when it involves skeletal system. For diagnosis of LCH, sole imaging studies are inadequate, and histologic, immunochemical analyses are confirmative modalities. Treatment of LCH is not currently standardized.

Conclusions: Most of the solitary tumorous lesions in clavicle in adults call for various differential diagnoses. LCH should be considered in the diagnosis of a adult patient with a clavicle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519281PMC
September 2020

Multilevel Dysvascular Injury of the Hand: Replantation versus Revision Amputation.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 10;146(4):819-829

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital; the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital; the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital; the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine; and the Centum Institute for Hand and Microsurgery, West Busan Centum Hospital.

Background: Multilevel dysvascular injury of the hand can be treated with replantation or revision amputation. The authors compared both modalities regarding functional outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and required resources, as relevant studies are scarce.

Methods: In this retrospective review of consecutive case series (replantation, n = 8; revision amputation, n = 11), clinical results and functional outcomes (including grip strength, range of motion, sensory recovery, and grip or pinch ability) were assessed. Patient-reported outcomes, required hospital resources, and treatment cost until 1 year after surgery were compared between both groups.

Results: Six patients used passive prostheses, two used body-powered prostheses, and three did not use a prosthesis in the revision amputation group. All patients in the replantation group could grip objects and had restored hands, with protective sensory recovery and substantial wrist motion, whereas six patients in the revision amputation group were unable to grip or pinch objects. Replantation was associated with superior patient-reported outcomes, but required more hospital resources and treatment costs.

Conclusions: This study suggests that in the treatment of multilevel dysvascular injury of the hand, the surgical method should be chosen on a case-by-case basis. For better functional and patient-reported outcomes, replantation is preferred. Revision amputation can be performed in the absence of sufficient hospital resources and to reduce treatment cost. These findings can aid in the preoperative counseling of patients with multilevel dysvascular injury of the hand.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000007158DOI Listing
October 2020

4-Hydroxynonenal Immunoreactivity Is Increased in the Frontal Cortex of 5XFAD Transgenic Mice.

Biomedicines 2020 Sep 3;8(9). Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Biological Science, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Oxidative stress was implicated in the functional impairment of the frontal cortex observed in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate this role in an animal AD model, we assessed cognitive function of 4-month-old five familial AD (5XFAD) transgenic (Tg) mice using a learning strategy-switching task requiring recruitment of the frontal cortex and measuring levels of 4-hydroxy-2--nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, in their frontal cortex. Mice were sequentially trained in cued/response and place/spatial versions of the water maze task for four days each. 5XFAD and non-Tg mice exhibited equal performance in cued/response training. However, 5XFAD mice used spatial search strategy less than non-Tg mice in the spatial/place training. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining showed that 4-HNE levels increased in the frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus and striatum, of 5XFAD mice compared to those in non-Tg mice. We report early cognitive deficits related to the frontal cortex and the frontal cortex's oxidative damage in 4-month-old 5XFAD mice. These results suggest that 4-month-old 5XFAD mice be a useful animal model for the early diagnosis and management of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554765PMC
September 2020

A comprehensive analysis of chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes)-specific AluYb8 element.

Genes Genomics 2020 10 29;42(10):1207-1213. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea.

Background: Alu elements are most abundant retrotransposons with > 1.2 million copies in the primate genome. AluYb8 subfamily was diverged from AluY lineage, and has accumulated eight diagnostic mutations and 7-bp duplication during primate evolution. A total of 1851 AluYb copies are present in the human genome, and most of them are human-specific. On the other hand, only a few AluYb8 copies were identified in the chimpanzee genome by previous studies on AluYb8. The significantly different number of species-specific AluYb8 elements between human and chimpanzee might result from the incompletion of chimpanzee reference genome sequences at the time of the previous study.

Objective: AluYb8 elements could generate genomic structural variations in the chimpanzee genome. This study aimed to identify and characterize chimpanzee-specific AluYb elements using the most updated chimpanzee reference genome sequences (Jan. 2018, panTro6).

Methods: To identify chimpanzee-specific AluYb8, we carried out genomic comparison with non-chimpanzee primate genome using the UCSC table browser. In addition, chimpanzee-specific AluYb8 candidates were manually inspected and experimentally verified using PCR and Sanger sequencing.

Results: Among a total of 231 chimpanzee-specific AluYb8 candidates, 11 of the candidates are chimpanzee-specific AluYb8, and 29 elements are shared between the chimpanzee and non-chimpanzee primate genomes. Through the sequence analysis of AluYb8 and other Alu subfamilies, we were able to observe various diagnostic mutations and variable length duplications in 7-bp duplication region of AluYb8 element. In addition, we further validated two of the chimpanzee-specific AluYb8 elements (CS8 and CS20) that were not previously discovered by display PCR and Sanger sequencing. Interestingly, we identified a AluYb8 insertion-mediated deletion (CS8 locus) in the chimpanzee genome.

Conclusion: Our study found that AluYb8 elements are much more abundant in the human genome than chimpanzee genome, and that it could be due to the absence of hyperactive "master" AluYb8 elements in the chimpanzee genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00989-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence of scabies in long-term care hospitals in South Korea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 08 18;14(8):e0008554. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Scabies is a common contagious skin disease. With the economic growth in South Korea, the incidence of scabies has decreased. However, with the recent advancements in medical facilities, mainly the establishment of long-term care hospitals (LTCHs), scabies is now considered an emerging public health problem.

Methodology/principal Findings: To examine the prevalence and management of scabies in LTCHs in South Korea, we contacted all 1,336 LTCHs registered at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea in 2018. A total of 110 LTCHs completed a questionnaire, and we analyzed their responses. In the last 5 years, 71.8% (79/110) of LTCHs had a high incidence of scabies (suspected/confirmed cases). Usually, patients aged older than 80 years (45.5%) were diagnosed with the disease, with more women being affected than men. Only 30.0% of the patients were transferred to scabies-restricted rooms, and very few LTCHs (7.0%) had special departments for scabies. Fifty-five (61.1%) of 90 LTCHs reported contact between scabies patients and nurses, nurse aides, caregivers, and other employees (hereinafter, referred to as primary exposure), with 29 (32.2%) LTCHs reporting infections due to primary exposure. The most common challenges in managing scabies were patient isolation (47.8%), diagnosis (31.1%), management of individuals exposed to an individual with scabies (17.8%), lack of staff for managing the patients (16.7%), and treatment (11.1%).

Conclusions: The incidence rate of scabies in LTCHs in South Korea has increased. Regular and enhanced staff training is needed, considering that most hospitals rarely focused on the handling of equipment and furniture used by scabies patients and on educating their healthcare staff. These findings can be used to develop various strategies to reduce the prevalence of scabies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433867PMC
August 2020

Engagement of the Lateral Habenula in the Association of a Conditioned Stimulus with the Absence of an Unconditioned Stimulus.

Neuroscience 2020 09 25;444:136-148. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea. Electronic address:

Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are activated by reward omission and inhibited by reward delivery-reward processing functions opposite those of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. To further explore this, we examined the role of the LHb in associating a conditioned stimulus (CS) with the absence of an unconditioned stimulus (US) in an appetitive Pavlovian-conditioning paradigm. Rats underwent training in which a CS (light) was either paired (100% CS-US contingency) or unpaired (0% CS-US contiguity and negative contingency) with an US (food). Rats in the paired group exhibited steady acquisition of conditioned food-cup behaviors, while rats in the unpaired group showed low levels of response throughout training. After training, c-Fos levels were measured in the LHb, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats in all groups. c-Fos levels were higher in the SNc/VTA of the paired group and the LHb of the unpaired group compared with the group with graded excitatory conditioning due to 50% of the CSs paired with USs and a low rate of USs presented during the intertrial interval and control groups for non-associative factors. The number of c-Fos-positive signals in LHb neurons projecting to dopaminergic midbrain neurons was higher in the unpaired group than in the paired group. Excitotoxic LHb lesions did not affect the acquisition of conditioned behaviors in the association of a CS with the presence or absence of an US. Significant increases in the numbers of c-Fos-positive neurons in the unpaired group suggest that LHb neurons engage in the process that associates a CS with the absence of an US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.031DOI Listing
September 2020

Factors influencing health care use by health insurance subscribers and medical aid beneficiaries: a study based on data from the Korea welfare panel study database.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 20;20(1):1133. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

College of Nursing, Pusan National University, Beomeo-ri, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 626-870, Republic of Korea.

Background: The use of health care services is influenced by various factors, including demographic, social, economic, and health status factors. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence health care use in health insurance subscribers and medical aid beneficiaries in Korea.

Methods: A total of 11,793 subjects were identified, including 10,838 health insurance subscribers and 955 medical aid beneficiaries, using the Korea Welfare Panel Study database. The data were analysed by percentage, t-test, and multiple regression using SPSS 20.0.

Results: Medical aid beneficiaries had 13.51 more days of outpatient visits and 8.38 more days of hospitalization compared with health insurance subscribers. Factors affecting the frequency of outpatient visits for health insurance subscribers were gender, age, household type, education level, income level, administrative district, perceived health status, chronic disease, and disability. These factors accounted for 19.8% of explanation (p < .001). Whereas, gender, household type, administrative district, perceived health status, and chronic disease were identified as factors influencing outpatient frequency for medical aid beneficiaries. These factors accounted for 11.2% of explanation (p < .001). For health insurance subscribers, factors affecting the length of hospitalization were gender, public pension status, place of residence, administrative district, economic activity, income level, perceived health status, and disability status. These factors accounted for 7.2% of explanation (p < .001). While, factors affecting the length of hospitalization for medical aid beneficiaries were accounted for by 3.4% (p < .001). Gender and perceived health status were identified as factors influencing the length of hospitalization of medical aid beneficiaries.

Conclusions: There were differences between medical aid beneficiaries and health insurance subscribers in health care use and influencing factors. Future management programs should take into consideration the specific factors that influence the use of health care services in health insurance subscribers and medical aid beneficiaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09073-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370477PMC
July 2020
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