Publications by authors named "Dong Han"

1,381 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Brassinosteroid signaling integrates multiple pathways to release apical dominance in tomato.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China;

The control of apical dominance involves auxin, strigolactones (SLs), cytokinins (CKs), and sugars, but the mechanistic controls of this regulatory network are not fully understood. Here, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) promotes bud outgrowth in tomato through the direct transcriptional regulation of () by the BR signaling component BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1). Attenuated responses to the removal of the apical bud, the inhibition of auxin, SLs or gibberellin synthesis, or treatment with CK and sucrose, were observed in bud outgrowth and the levels of transcripts in the BR-deficient or mutants. Furthermore, the accumulation of BR and the dephosphorylated form of BZR1 were increased by apical bud removal, inhibition of auxin, and SLs synthesis or treatment with CK and sucrose. These responses were decreased in the DELLA-deficient mutant. In addition, CK accumulation was inhibited by auxin and SLs, and decreased in the DELLA-deficient mutant, but it was increased in response to sucrose treatment. CK promoted BR synthesis in axillary buds through the action of the type-B response regulator, RR10. Our results demonstrate that BR signaling integrates multiple pathways that control shoot branching. Local BR signaling in axillary buds is therefore a potential target for shaping plant architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004384118DOI Listing
March 2021

What is behind the fear of cancer during menopausal hormone therapy in China?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Purpose: The application of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is generally restricted most likely due to limited prescriptions by doctors. Fear of cancer risk may be a critical factor. We investigated the views of Chinese obstetricians and gynecologists on the relationship between hormone therapy and cancer risk.

Methods: A self-administered web-based nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire.

Results: In total, 5243 medical workers responded to the questionnaire (response rate 94.5%); 4995 were certified obstetricians and gynecologists. Most were aged 36-55 years (70.9%), had > 10 years of working experience (68.5%), and worked at tertiary (34.8%) and secondary hospitals (49.1%); 70% of the clinicians were aware of the endometrial cancer risk caused by estrogen, and 20% considered progestogen to cause the same risk. Regarding breast cancer, while 67.9 and 74.8% of the clinicians viewed natural and synthetic estrogens as risk factors, respectively, only 41.7% identified the carcinogenic effect of progestins as higher than that of progesterone (26.7%). Approximately 75% of the participants believed synthetic estrogens and progestins constituted a risk for ovarian cancer (higher than the percentages for their natural counterparts); 13.0-21.1% of the respondents were worried about choriocarcinoma due to hormone treatment. Finally, 86.8% of obstetricians and gynecologists claimed to have poor knowledge regarding this field.

Conclusion: Misconceptions and a lack of knowledge in this regard may result in the fear of cancer and could be the underlying causes of limited MHT prescriptions. We believe that scientific research, continued education, and the media all have roles to play in changing preconceived ideas regarding MHT prescriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06052-4DOI Listing
April 2021

The Extensive Usage of the Facial Image Threshing Machine for Facial Emotion Recognition Performance.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Facial emotion recognition (FER) systems play a significant role in identifying driver emotions. Accurate facial emotion recognition of drivers in autonomous vehicles reduces road rage. However, training even the advanced FER model without proper datasets causes poor performance in real-time testing. FER system performance is heavily affected by the quality of datasets than the quality of the algorithms. To improve FER system performance for autonomous vehicles, we propose a facial image threshing (FIT) machine that uses advanced features of pre-trained facial recognition and training from the Xception algorithm. The FIT machine involved removing irrelevant facial images, collecting facial images, correcting misplacing face data, and merging original datasets on a massive scale, in addition to the data-augmentation technique. The final FER results of the proposed method improved the validation accuracy by 16.95% over the conventional approach with the FER 2013 dataset. The confusion matrix evaluation based on the unseen private dataset shows a 5% improvement over the original approach with the FER 2013 dataset to confirm the real-time testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998952PMC
March 2021

Development of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Biosensors on Enhancing the Analysis of Food Toxicants.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

In recent times, food safety has become a topic of debate as the foodborne diseases triggered by chemical and biological contaminants affect human health and the food industry's profits. Though conventional analytical instrumentation-based food sensors are available, the consumers did not appreciate them because of the drawbacks of complexity, greater number of analysis steps, expensive enzymes, and lack of portability. Hence, designing easy-to-use tests for the rapid analysis of food contaminants has become essential in the food industry. Under this context, electrochemical biosensors have received attention among researchers as they bear the advantages of operational simplicity, portability, stability, easy miniaturization, and low cost. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have a larger surface area to volume compared to other dimensional nanomaterials. Hence, researchers nowadays are inclined to develop 2D nanomaterials-based electrochemical biosensors to significantly improve the sensor's sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility while measuring the food toxicants. In the present review, we compile the contribution of 2D nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors to test the food toxicants and discuss the future directions in the field. Further, we describe the types of food toxicity, methodologies quantifying food analytes, how the electrochemical food sensor works, and the general biomedical properties of 2D nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005143PMC
March 2021

Ethylene response factors 15 and 16 trigger jasmonate biosynthesis in tomato during herbivore resistance.

Plant Physiol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

Jasmonates (JAs) are phytohormones with crucial roles in plant defense. Plants accumulate JAs in response to wounding or herbivore attack, but how JA biosynthesis is triggered remains poorly understood. Here we show that herbivory by cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) induced both ethylene (ET) and JA production in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Using RNA-seq, ET mutants, and inhibitors of ET signaling, we identified ET-induced ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 15 (ERF15) and ERF16 as critical regulators of JA biosynthesis in tomato plants. Transcripts of ERF15 and ERF16 were markedly upregulated and peaked at 60 and 15 min, respectively, after simulated herbivore attack. While mutation in ERF16 resulted in the attenuated expression of JA biosynthetic genes and decreased JA accumulation 15 min after the simulated herbivory treatment, these changes were not observed in erf15 mutants until 60 min after treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual-luciferase assays demonstrated that both ERFs15 and 16 are transcriptional activators of LIPOXYGENASE D, ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE, and 12-OXO-PHYTODIENOIC ACID REDUCTASE 3, key genes in JA biosynthesis. Furthermore, JA-activated MYC2 and ERF16 also function as the transcriptional activators of ERF16, contributing to dramatic increases in ERF16 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ET signaling is involved in the rapid induction of the JA burst. ET-induced ERF15 and ERF16 function as powerful transcriptional activators that trigger the JA burst in response to herbivore attack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiaa089DOI Listing
January 2021

Psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire among Chinese parents of children with ADHD or ASD.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 9;34(2):e100246. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: There is an urgent need in clinical practice to measure the stress of parenting. The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) was found to be useful to measure parenting stress, but it has not been validated among the Chinese population.

Aims: To assess the reliability and construct validity of the Chinese version of CGSQ among Chinese parents.

Methods: From 2016 to 2017, 266 parents (patient group) with a child having DSM-5-defined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=107) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=159) and 268 parents of healthy children (control group) were recruited to the present study in Kunming, Yunnan province. All the parents were asked to fill out the Chinese version of CGSQ. We conducted exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify construct validity of CGSQ in both patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient as an index of internal consistency was assessed for each subscale. Fourteen days later, 23 subjects filled out the scale again. Intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the test-retest reliability.

Results: (1) Cronbach's alpha of the global scale was 0.901 for the control group and 0.952 for the patient group. The test-retest reliability for the whole scale was 0.890; (2) CFA indicated that the three-factor model had better fitting indices compared with the two-factor model in both groups. Besides, the fitting indices in the patient group were more favourable than those of the control group, with χ/df=1.564, Goodness-of-Fit Index=0.841, Comparative Fit Index=0.954, and root mean square error of approximation=0.065 for the patient group at three-factor model; (3) The caregiver strain of ASD parents was statistically higher than that of ADHD parents, and caregiver strain of ADHD parents was higher than that of control group.

Conclusion: These findings provide initial evidence to support the construct validity and reliability of CGSQ as a parenting stress measurement tool for Chinese parents, especially for parents of children with ADHD or ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944967PMC
March 2021

Pushbutton-activated microfluidic dropenser for droplet digital PCR.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Mar 13;181:113159. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Here, we report a portable microfluidic device to generate and dispense droplets simply operated by pushbutton for droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), which is named pushbutton-activated microfluidic dropenser (droplet dispenser) (PAMD). After loading the PCR mixtures and the droplet generation oil to PAMD, digitized PCR mixtures are prepared in PCR tubes after the actuation of a pushbutton. Multiple droplet generation units are simultaneously operated by a single pushbutton, and the size of droplets is controllable by adjusting the geometry of the droplet generation channel. To examine the performance of PAMD, digitized PCR mixtures containing genomic DNA of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 prepared by PAMD were assessed by a fluorescence signal analyzer after PCR with a thermal cycler. As a result, PAMD can produce analytical droplets for ddPCR as much as a conventional droplet generator even though any external equipment is not required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113159DOI Listing
March 2021

Dietary Trivalent Chromium Exposure Up-Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Coral Trout: The Evidence From Transcriptome Analysis.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:640898. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Diet quality greatly affects an animal's performance and metabolism. Despite the fact that trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is considered an essential element and is widely used in nutritional supplements for animals and humans, the potential toxicity of Cr(III) is unclear. Here, liver transcriptome sequencing was performed on coral trout () exposed to 200 mg kg of dietary organic Cr(III) [as chromium picolinate (CrPic)] for 8 weeks. One-hundred-and thirteen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in response to Cr(III) stress, in comparison to the control, including 31 up-regulated and 82 down-regulated DEGs. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) classifies DEGs into 15 functional categories, with the predominant category being related to lipid transport and metabolism (9.73%). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assigned DEGs to six major categories with robust DEGs as part of the lipid metabolism pathway (18.58%). Moreover, KEGG functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs are primarily related to steroid biosynthesis, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways, of which steroid biosynthesis was the most significant pathway, and 12 key up-regulated DEGs (, , and ) were found for steroid biosynthesis pathways. To validate the RNA sequencing data using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), qRT-PCR results indicate that the expression of genes encoding HMGCR, TM7SF2, TRYP2, CTRL, EBP, LSS, and CYP51 were induced, while those encoding THRSP, LCE, and MCM5 were reduced, consistent with RNA-seq results. This findings provides the first evidence that a long-term high dose of Cr(III) intake causes lipid metabolism disorder and potential toxicity in fish. Cautious health risk assessment of dietary Cr(III) intake is therefore highly recommended for the commercial and/or natural diets of aquatic animals, which has previously largely been ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.640898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959734PMC
February 2021

Interfacial Curvature as a Potential Index for Prognosis of Colon Adenocarcinoma.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Mar 19;5(3):e1900277. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Tumor invasion and metastasis are complex interfacial mechanical processes between the tumor and its surrounding tissue, with the interfacial curvature of tumor playing an important role in cancer progression. In this study, the potential role of interfacial curvature in the prognosis of patients with colon adenocarcinoma is investigated. The front edge interfacial curvature of adenocarcinoma from biopsies of patients in different tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) stages are calculated and compared, and prognosis assessment is conducted using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results reveal that patients with larger interfacial curvature of adenocarcinoma are more likely to belong to higher TNM stages. Concomitantly, in the same TNM stage, patients with increased adenocarcinoma interfacial curvature show worse prognosis with higher recurrence and lower survival rates. Besides, interfacial curvature is an independent prognostic factor for cause-specific survival and relapse-free survival among all selected patients. Mechanical models of colon adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis are established to better understand the close association between interfacial curvature and tumor progression. The results together with hematoxylin and eosin staining indicate that metastasis in stages T3N0M0 and T3N1M0 may be linked to large interfacial curvatures. Therefore, interfacial curvature may serve as a potential index for predicting prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201900277DOI Listing
March 2021

Targeting brain-spleen crosstalk after stroke: new insights into stroke pathology and treatment.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning. China.

The immune response following acute stroke has received great attention. The spleen is an important immune organ, and more and more studies have shown that brain-spleen crosstalk after stroke plays an important role in its development and prognosis. There are many mechanisms of spleen activation after stroke, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the production of chemokines, and antigen presentation in the damaged brain. The changes in the spleen after stroke are mainly reflected in morphology, changes to immune cells, and cytokine production. Once activated, the spleen contracts, undergoes cellular changes, and releases inflammatory cytokines. Some studies have also shown that spleen cells specifically migrate to the site of primary brain injury. The size of spleen is also negatively correlated with infarct volume - the more serious the spleen atrophy, the larger the infarct volume. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic response of the spleen to stroke will not only enable understanding of the evolution of ischemic brain injury but will also enable identification of potential targets for stroke treatment. Here, we review recent basic and clinical drug studies on the spleen as a target for the treatment of stroke, focusing on therapeutic strategies for regulating the splenic response and inhibiting secondary brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X19666210316092225DOI Listing
March 2021

Integrated Bioactive Scaffold with Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Stem-Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Kidney Regeneration.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Sciences, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 13488, Republic of Korea.

Kidney tissue engineering and regeneration approaches offer great potential for chronic kidney disease treatment, but kidney tissue complexity imposes an additional challenge in applying regenerative medicine for renal tissue regeneration. In this study, a porous pneumatic microextrusion (PME) composite scaffold consisting of poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA, P), magnesium hydroxide (MH, M), and decellularized porcine kidney extracellular matrix (kECM, E) is functionalized with bioactive compounds, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-primed mesenchymal stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles (TI-EVs) to improve the regeneration and maintenance of a functional kidney tissue. The combination of PDRN and TI-EVs showed a significant synergistic effect in regenerative processes including cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and inflammation. In addition, the PME/PDRN/TI-EV scaffold induced an effective glomerular regeneration and restoration of kidney function compared to the existing PME scaffold in a partial nephrectomy mouse model. Therefore, such an integrated bioactive scaffold that combines biochemical cues from PDRN and TI-EVs and biophysical cues from a porous PLGA scaffold containing MH and kECM can be used as an advanced tissue engineering platform for kidney tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01098DOI Listing
March 2021

Treatment with astragaloside IV reduced blood glucose, regulated blood lipids, and protected liver function in diabetic rats.

Authors:
Dong Han

J Int Med Res 2021 Mar;49(3):300060519841165

Department of Pharmacy, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of astragaloside IV on blood glucose, blood lipids, and liver function in diabetic rats.

Methods: Fifty diabetic rats were randomly placed into five groups (n = 10 each): the diabetes mellitus (DM) group received intragastric saline, the metformin hydrochloride group received intragastric metformin hydrochloride, and the astragaloside-30, -60, and -120 groups received intragastric astragaloside 30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg for 28 days, respectively. Ten non-diabetic rats received intragastric saline as controls.

Results: Relative to the DM group, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, serum alanine transaminase, and serum aspartate aminotransferase levels decreased in the astragaloside-60 and astragaloside-120 groups; serum alkaline phosphatase decreased solely in the astragaloside-120 group. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) levels were elevated, while maleic dialdehyde (MDA) decreased in the astragaloside-120 group, relative to the DM group. Relative to the DM group, the liver index and liver cell apoptosis rate were reduced, while histopathological changes in liver tissue were ameliorated in the astragaloside groups; moreover, liver tissue SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT levels were increased, while liver tissue MDA was reduced.

Conclusions: Astragaloside IV can lower blood glucose, regulate blood lipids, and protect liver function in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060519841165DOI Listing
March 2021

Remote Limb Ischemic Postconditioning Protects against Ischemic Stroke via Modulating Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Mice.

J Immunol Res 2021 19;2021:6688053. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, China.

Aim: The protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated by remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPC) shows great clinical value in ischemic stroke therapy, but the particular mechanism of RIPC remains unclear.

Methods: We carried out middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery on C57BL/6 male mice. RIPC was generated by 10-minute occlusion followed by the same period of reperfusion of the bilateral hind limb femoral artery and repeated for 3 cycles. Infarct size and neurological score were performed to assess stroke outcomes. Ly6C monocytes were quantified in the blood and brain by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence were utilized to detect phenotype of proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 microglia/macrophage. Nuclear factor B (NF-B) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) levels were detected using Western blot.

Results: At 24 and 72 h after MCAO, RIPC drastically attenuated infarct size and ameliorated the neurological deficits of mice and facilitated transmigration of Ly6C monocytes to the brain postischemia reperfusion. Furthermore, RIPC contributed to increased M2 and reduced M1 microglia/macrophage through inhibiting NF-B and promoting PPAR activation.

Conclusion: Our results reveal pharmacological effect of RIPC in promoting microglia/macrophage transferring from M1 to M2 phenotype after MCAO/R in mice, which provides theoretical support for the therapeutic effect of RIPC in ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6688053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910075PMC
February 2021

Effect of Zr Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Superplasticity of a Forged SP700 Titanium Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 14;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

School of Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

The present study focuses on the effect of 1% Zr addition on the microstructure, tensile properties and superplasticity of a forged SP700 alloy. The results demonstrated that Zr has a significant effect on inhibiting the microstructural segregation and increasing the volume fraction of β-phase in the forged SP700 alloy. After annealing at 820 °C for 1 h and aging at 500 °C for 6 h, the SP700 alloy with 1% Zr showed a completely globular and fine microstructure. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and tensile elongation of the alloy with optimized microstructure were 1185 MPa, 1296 MPa and 10%, respectively. The superplastic deformation was performed at 750 °C with an elongation of 1248%. The improvement of tensile properties and superplasticity of the forged SP700 alloy by Zr addition was mainly attributed to the uniform and fine globular microstructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14040906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917683PMC
February 2021

Orexin A promotes progesterone secretion in luteinized granulose cells of Mongolian ovary by and genes.

Zygote 2021 Mar 3:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

To study the role of orexin A in the reproductive regulation of Mongolian sheep, ovine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured in vitro. The cells were divided into groups after luteinization, the experimental group was given orexin A and the transcriptome was sequenced together with that of the control group. The different genes related to reproduction were screened out. qRT-PCR, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to verify the selected genes and detect the effect on progesterone secretion. In total, 123 differentially expressed genes were obtained by sequencing. Six genes with high expression related to reproduction (PRRT2, ABCG1, SOX4, TBX3, ID1 and ATP8) were screened. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with those of sequencing; western blot and ELISA were used to verify the protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and its related PRRT2 and ABCG1, and to detect their effect on progesterone secretion. Validation results were consistent with those of qRT-PCR and sequencing. The experimental group was given orexin A and compared with the control group. Expression of PRRT2 protein was significantly increased (P < 0.05), ABCG1 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), StAR expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and progesterone secretion was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results showed that orexin A promoted the expression of StAR by upregulating PRRT2 and downregulating ABCG1, therefore affecting secretion of progesterone. Gene expression characteristics of orexin A affecting progesterone secretion were preliminarily explored; this study provides a theoretical basis for further study on signalling pathways and reproductive regulation in Mongolian sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096719942000088XDOI Listing
March 2021

Experience of Comprehensive Three Dimensional Epicanthoplasty With Upper Blepharoplasty in Asian Patients.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 03;86(3S Suppl 2):S235-S238

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To introduce the experience of comprehensive 3-dimensional epicanthoplsty with upper blepharoplasty in Asian patients.

Methods: The patients who underwent comprehensive 3-dimensional epicanthoplsty with upper blepharoplasty at the Shanghai Ninth People's hospital from January 2018 to January 2019 were included in our study. The interepicanthal distance was evaluated preoperatively and 6 months after the surgery, scar visibility and patient's satisfaction were documented 6 months after the surgery.

Results: A total of 72 patients (144 eyelids) were included in this study with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (mean, 23.83 ± 4.64 years) and follow-up duration ranging from 6 to 12 months (mean, 7.82 ± 1.92 months). All patients were female and achieved esthetically favorable results without serious complications. No patients required revision surgery showing high patient satisfaction (score, 4.4). The preoperative mean interepicanthal distance was 33.13 ± 2.25 mm and decreased to 29.28 ± 2.26 mm postoperatively showing statistical significance (P < 0.001). Twenty-nine (40.3%) patients had no visible scarring, and 42 (58.3%) patients had minimal scarring, which was accepted by the patients.

Conclusions: The comprehensive 3-dimensional epicanthoplasty with upper blepharoplasty is a surgical technique that is easy to perform, reliable, and effective in treatment of all types of epicanthal folds except type 4 with increase intercanthal distance, less visible scar, and high patient satisfaction in Asian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002589DOI Listing
March 2021

Susceptibility-associated genetic variation in NEDD9 contributes to prostate cancer initiation and progression.

Cancer Res 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Center for Personalized Cancer Therapy, Uiversity of Massachusetts Boston

Although American men of European ancestry represent the largest population of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, men of African ancestry are disproportionately affected by PCa with higher prevalence and worse outcomes. These racial disparities in PCa are due to multiple factors, but variations in genomic susceptibility such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may play an important role in determining cancer aggressiveness and treatment outcome. Using public databases, we have identified a PCa susceptibility SNP at an intronic enhancer of the NEDD9 gene, which is strongly associated with increased risk of patients with African ancestry. This genetic variation increased expression of NEDD9 by modulating the chromatin binding of certain transcription factors, including ERG and NANOG. Moreover, NEDD9 displayed oncogenic activity in PCa cells, promoting PCa tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our study provides novel insights into the genetic mechanisms driving PCa racial disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3042DOI Listing
February 2021

Value of 3D preoperative planning for primary total hip arthroplasty based on artificial intelligence technology.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Feb 24;16(1):156. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Orthopedics, Orthopedic Hospital of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, No. 183, Zhongshan Rd West, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Background: Accurate preoperative planning is an important step for accurate reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Presently, preoperative planning is completed using either a two-dimensional (2D) template or three-dimensional (3D) mimics software. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, AI HIP, a planning software based on AI technology, can quickly and automatically identify acetabular and femur morphology, and automatically match the optimal prosthesis size. However, the accuracy and feasibility of its clinical application still needs to be further verified. The purposes of this study were to investigate the accuracy and time efficiency of AI HIP in preoperative planning for primary THA, compared with 3D mimics software and 2D digital template, and further analyze the factors that influence the accuracy of AI HIP.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 53 consecutive patients (59 hips) undergoing primary THA with cementless prostheses in our department. All preoperative planning was completed using AI HIP as well as 3D mimics and 2D digital template. The predicted component size and the actual implantation results were compared to determine the accuracy. The templating time was compared to determine the efficiency. Furthermore, the potential factors influencing the accuracy of AI HIP were analyzed including sex, body mass index (BMI), and hip dysplasia.

Results: The accuracy of predicting the size of acetabular cup and femoral stem was 74.58% and 71.19%, respectively, for AI HIP; 71.19% (P = 0.743) and 76.27% (P = 0.468), respectively, for 3D mimics; and 40.68% (P < 0.001) and 49.15% (P = 0.021), respectively, for 2D digital templating. The templating time using AI HIP was 3.91 ± 0.64 min, which was equivalent to 2D digital templates (2.96 ± 0.48 min, P < 0.001), but shorter than 3D mimics (32.07 ± 2.41 min, P < 0.001). Acetabular dysplasia (P = 0.021), rather than sex and BMI, was an influential factor in the accuracy of AI HIP templating. Compared to patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), the accuracy of acetabular cup in the non-DDH group was better (P = 0.021), but the difference in the accuracy of the femoral stem between the two groups was statistically insignificant (P = 0.062).

Conclusion: AI HIP showed excellent reliability for component size in THA. Acetabular dysplasia may affect the accuracy of AI HIP templating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02294-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903792PMC
February 2021

Validation of an international prediction model including the Oxford classification in Korean patients with IgA nephropathy.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Nephrology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Recently, a new international risk prediction model including the Oxford classification was published which was validated in a large multi-ethnic cohort. Therefore, we aimed to validate this risk prediction model in Korean patients with IgA nephropathy.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 545 patients who diagnosed IgA nephropathy with renal biopsy in three medical centers. The primary outcome was defined as a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of >50% or incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were used to validate models.

Results: During the median 3.6 years of follow-up period, 53 (9.7%) renal events occurred. In multivariable Cox regression model, M1 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-4.82; p = .043), T1 (HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.39-6.39; p = .005) and T2 (HR, 4.80; 95% CI, 2.06-11.18; p < .001) lesions were associated with increased risk of renal outcome. When applied the international prediction model, the area under curve (AUC) for 5-year risk of renal outcome was 0.69, which was lower than previous validation and internally derived models. Moreover, cNRI and IDI analyses showed that discrimination and reclassification performance of the international model was inferior to the internally derived models.

Conclusion: The international risk prediction model for IgA nephropathy showed not as good performance in Korean patients as previous validation in other ethnic group. Further validation of risk prediction model is needed for Korean patients with IgA nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nep.13865DOI Listing
February 2021

Biochemical characterization of a low salt-adapted extracellular protease from the extremely halophilic archaeon Halococcus salifodinae.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 13;176:253-259. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Jingkou District, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Extracellular proteases from haloarchaea can expand the application fields of proteases. Exploring novel robust proteases is of great importance. An extracellular protease HlyA from Halococcus salifodinae was obtained by heterologous expression, affinity chromatography, in vitro refolding and gel filtration chromatography. Its activity was optimal at 45 °C, pH 9.0 and 1.5-2 M NaCl. Interestingly, although HlyA was from an extremely halophilic archaeon, it retained >75% of maximal activity in a broad NaCl concentration of 0.5-4 M. It displayed relatively stable activities over a wide range of temperature, pH and salinity. Thus, HlyA exhibited good temperature, pH and especially, salinity tolerance. Ca, Mg and Sr significantly enhanced the protease activity. HlyA activity was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), suggesting it is a serine protease. HlyA showed good tolerance to some surfactants and organic solvents. The K and V values of HlyA for azocasein were calculated to be 0.72 mM and 21.98 U/μg, respectively. HlyA was able to effectively degrade several protein substrates, including bovine hemoglobin, casein and azocasein. Generally, HlyA from the extremely halophilic archaeon Hcc. salifodinae is an alkaliphilic and low salt-adapted halolysin with high activity, thus representing an attractive candidate for various industrial uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.081DOI Listing
April 2021

Topology Selectivity in On-Surface Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: Dendritic Structure Porous Graphene Nanoribbon.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 16;15(3):4617-4626. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Department of Chemical Physics and Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, P.R. China.

Selective control on the topology of low-dimensional covalent organic nanostructures in on-surface synthesis has been challenging. Herein, with combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we report a successful topology-selective coupling reaction on the Cu(111) surface by tuning the thermal annealing procedure. The precursor employed is 1,3,5-tris(2-bromophenyl)benzene (TBPB), for which Ullmann coupling is impeded due to the intermolecular steric hindrance. Instead, its chemisorption on the Cu(111) substrate has triggered the C-H bond activation and the following dehydrogenative coupling at room temperature (RT). In the slow annealing experimental procedure, the monomers have been preorganized by their self-assembly at RT, which enhances the formation of dendritic structures upon further annealing. However, the chaotic chirality of dimeric products (obtained at RT) and hindrance from dense molecular island make the fabrication of high-quality porous two-dimensional nanostructures difficult. In sharp contrast, direct deposition of TBPB molecules on a hot surface led to the formation of ordered porous graphene nanoribbons and nanoflakes, which is confirmed to be the energetically favorable reaction pathway through density functional theory-based thermodynamic calculations and control experiments. This work demonstrates that different thermal treatments could have a significant influence on the topology of covalent products in on-surface synthesis and presents an example of the negative effect of molecular self-assembly to the ordered covalent nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08920DOI Listing
March 2021

Hsa_circ_0107593 Suppresses the Progression of Cervical Cancer Sponging hsa-miR-20a-5p/93-5p/106b-5p.

Front Oncol 2020 15;10:590627. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Reproductive Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of single-stranded RNAs that form a continuous loop with crucial role in regulation of gene expression. Because their circular conformation conforms numerous properties, circRNAs have been investigated recently to demonstrate their important role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, the function of circRNAs and their regulatory outcomes in cervical cancer (CC) have rarely been explored. In this study, the role and molecular mechanism of hsa_circ_0107593 in cervical cancer are demonstrated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of hsa_circ_0107593 and three miRNAs (hsa-miR-20a-5p, 93-5p, and 106b-5p) in paired CC tissues (tumor tissue adjacent normal cervical tissue), CC cell lines, and human normal cervical epithelial immortalized cell line. A series of functional experiments were conducted to assess the function of hsa_circ_0107593 in CC development. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to estimate the diagnostic value of hsa_circ_0107593 in CC. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to explore the interaction between hsa_circ_0107593 and hsa-miR-20a-5p/93-5p/106b-5p. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to predict the target mRNAs, pathways, and functional enrichment. The results revealed that hsa_circ_0107593 has low expression in CC tissues and CC cell lines. Moreover, negative correlations of hsa_circ_0107593 expression were found against tumor diameter, FIGO stage, and myometrial invasion. Also, hsa_circ_0107593 impedes CC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Based on ROC curve analysis, hsa_circ_0107593 could serve as a diagnostic biomarker. Its low expression may indicate increased patient's risk to developing cervical cancer. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0107593 serves as a sponge of hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, and hsa-miR-106b-5p. Collectively, our study implies that hsa_circ_0107593 has tumor-suppressing activity in CC by physically binding with hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, and hsa-miR-106b-5p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.590627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874083PMC
January 2021

Comparison of Treatment Outcome between Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcutaneous Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Intractable Tinnitus.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 7;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive treatments for chronic tinnitus based on neuromodulation of cortical activity. Both are considered effective, but with heterogeneous results due to lack of established protocols. Because the target groups for both modalities overlap, it is difficult to recommend one of them. We tried to unify the inclusion criteria and treatment schedules to compare the two modalities. The medical charts of 36 patients who underwent rTMS as part of clinical routine were reviewed and data for 34 patients who underwent tDCS about 7 years later were collected prospectively. Both groups had chronic unilateral tinnitus refractory to medication. Patients were treated for 5 consecutive days, and tinnitus symptoms were evaluated by survey both at the end of the treatment schedule and 1 month after the treatment. The ratio of responders who showed >20% reduction in tinnitus handicap inventory scores were compared. At the end of the treatment, the rTMS group showed a rapid response compared to the tDCS group (rTMS, 30.6%; tDCS, 12.1%; = 0.054). However, both groups showed a significant and similar reduction in tinnitus symptoms 1 month after the treatment (rTMS, 47.2%; tDCS, 36.4%; = 0.618). As both groups showed comparable results for tinnitus reduction, tDCS may be superior in terms of cost-effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916028PMC
February 2021

MicroRNA in multiple sclerosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 May 2;516:92-99. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Despite a complex pathogenesis, it appears that an imbalanced immune system plays an important role in the disease process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are comprised of short non-coding single-stranded molecules mainly involved in regulating gene expression through the inhibition of transcription and translation. miRNAs are key regulatory molecules in the nucleus and participate in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of various cells throughout the body. Recent studies, however, have found that miRNAs are also involved in MS pathogenesis, mainly affecting glial cells and peripheral immune cells. Fortunately, miRNAs are highly stable and have high specificity in peripheral body fluids. Accordingly, these molecules have become new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The present review discusses the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of MS. We highlight the potential of miRNAs as new biomarkers of MS and potential therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.01.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Metformin inhibits chronic kidney disease-induced DNA damage and senescence of mesenchymal stem cells.

Aging Cell 2021 02 1;20(2):e13317. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising source of cell-based regenerative therapy. In consideration of the risk of allosensitization, autologous MSC-based therapy is preferred over allogenic transplantation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it remains uncertain whether adequate cell functionality is maintained under uremic conditions. As chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD may lead to the accumulation of senescent cells, we investigated cellular senescence of CKD MSCs and determined the effects of metformin on CKD-associated cellular senescence in bone marrow MSCs from sham-operated and subtotal nephrectomized mice and further explored in adipose tissue-derived MSCs from healthy kidney donors and patients with CKD. CKD MSCs showed reduced proliferation, accelerated senescence, and increased DNA damage as compared to control MSCs. These changes were significantly attenuated following metformin treatment. Lipopolysaccharide and transforming growth factor β1-treated HK2 cells showed lower tubular expression of proinflammatory and fibrogenesis markers upon co-culture with metformin-treated CKD MSCs than with untreated CKD MSCs, suggestive of enhanced paracrine action of CKD MSCs mediated by metformin. In unilateral ureteral obstruction kidneys, metformin-treated CKD MSCs more effectively attenuated inflammation and fibrosis as compared to untreated CKD MSCs. Thus, metformin preconditioning may exhibit a therapeutic benefit by targeting accelerated senescence of CKD MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884040PMC
February 2021

Global transcriptomic analysis of functional oligosaccharide metabolism in Pediococcus pentosaceus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Feb 29;105(4):1601-1614. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Food Bioengineering (China National Light Industry), College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important in food fermentation and may enhance overall host health. Previous studies to explore LAB metabolism mainly focused on the genera Lacticaseibacillus and Lactococcus. Pediococcus pentosaceus, historically recognized as an important food fermentation bacterial strain, can produce bacteriocins and occasionally demonstrated probiotic functionalities. This study thoroughly surveyed the growth kinetic of three P. pentosaceus isolates in various culture formulations, especially in fructooligosaccharide (FOS), xylooligosaccharide (XOS), or konjac mannooligosaccharide (KMOS) conditions. Results showed that P. pentosaceus effectively metabolized KMOS, the culture of which led to 23.6-fold population increase. However, FOS and XOS were less metabolized by P. pentosaceus. On functional oligosaccharide cultures, P. pentosaceus could result in higher population proliferation, more acidified fermentation environment, and higher glycoside hydrolysis activities in the culture. RNA-Seq analysis classified 1572 out of 1708 putative genes as mRNA-coding genes. The dataset also revealed that the three functional oligosaccharides led to extensive global functional gene regulations. Phosphate conservation and utilization efficiency enhancement may serve as a leading transcriptional regulation direction in functional oligosaccharide metabolisms. In summary, these discovered metabolic characteristics could be employed to support future studies. KEY POINTS: • Konjac mannooligosaccharides effectively promoted P. pentosaceus proliferation. • Functional genes were highly regulated in functional oligosaccharide utilization. • Phosphate conservation was an important transcriptional regulation direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11120-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Biocompatible and functional inorganic magnesium ceramic particles for biomedical applications.

Biomater Sci 2021 Mar 28;9(6):1903-1923. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi 13488, Korea.

Magnesium ceramics hold promise for numerous biological applications. This review covers the synthesis of magnesium ceramic particles with specific morphologies and potential modification techniques. Magnesium ceramic particles possess multiple characteristics directly applicable to human biology; they are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and offer anti-cancer effects. Based on these advantages, magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles have been extensively utilized across biomedical fields. In a vascular stent, the incorporation of magnesium ceramic nanoparticles enhances re-endothelialization. Additionally, tissue regeneration for bone, cartilage, and kidney can be promoted by magnesium ceramics. This review enables researchers to identify the optimum synthetic conditions to prepare magnesium ceramics with specific morphologies and sizes and select the appropriate modification protocols. It is also intended to elucidate the desirable physicochemical properties and biological benefits of magnesium ceramics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01934hDOI Listing
March 2021

Corrigendum to Matrix stiffening induces endothelial dysfunction via the TRPV4/microRNA-6740/endothelin-1 mechanotransduction pathway Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 100, December 2019, Pages 52-60.

Acta Biomater 2021 Mar 23;122:387-388. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Institute of Health Service and Transfusion Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100039, P.R.China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.01.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Thermo-osmosis-Coupled Thermally Regenerative Electrochemical Cycle for Efficient Lithium Extraction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 26;13(5):6276-6285. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

Lithium (Li) production based on the soda evaporation process is time-consuming and unsustainable. The emerging electrochemical Li extraction is time-efficient but requires high-concentration Li sources and significant electrical energy input. Here, we demonstrate a fast, energy-saving, and environment-friendly Li production process by coupling a thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) using lithium manganese oxide (LMO) and nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) electrodes with poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane-based thermo-osmosis (denoted as TO-TREC). The characterization of LMO and NiHCF electrodes confirmed that the relatively high temperature of TO-TREC has negligible adverse effects on the ion intercalation in LMO and NiHCF electrodes. The LMO/NiHCF pair has a positive temperature coefficient of 0.843 mV K. In the TO-TREC process, Li ions are selectively extracted from a Li-containing brine warmed by low-grade heat and then released into a room-temperature recovery solution such as LiCl with a production rate of 50-60 mmol Li m h. Li source solutions are concentrated by thermo-osmosis simultaneously, making it possible to utilize previously unusable Li-containing sources, such as concentrated brines from desalination plants and industrial effluents. Besides, the TREC harvests thermal energy from the heated brine, saving >20% of electrical energy compared to conventional electrochemical methods. The new process shows the potential to meet the growing global Li demands for many applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20464DOI Listing
February 2021

Synthesis of π-Conjugated Polymers Containing Benzotriazole Units via Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C-H Cross-Coupling Polycondensation for OLEDs Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 14;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China.

Four D-π-A conjugated polymers, namely P1-P4, which contain benzotriazole building blocks in their backbone as acceptor, are synthesized via palladium-catalyzed direct C-H cross-coupling polycondensation of 5,6-difluorobenzotriazole with different thiophene derivatives, including 3-octylthiophene, 2,2'-bithiophene, thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine, and 4,4-dioctyl-4H-silolo-[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as donor units, respectively. Taking the polymer P1 as an example, the chemical structure of the polymer is demonstrated by H and F NMR spectra. The optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties of these polymers are assessed by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. DFT simulations of all polymers are also performed to understand their physicochemical properties. Furthermore, P1 and P2, which have relatively higher molecular weights and better fluorescent quantum efficiency than those of P3 and P4, are utilized as lighting emitters for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), affording promising green and red luminescence with 0.07% and 0.14% of maximum external quantum efficiency, respectively, based on a device with an architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTAA/the polymer emitting layer/TPBi/LiF/Al.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13020254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828650PMC
January 2021