Publications by authors named "Dong Ha Cho"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Central and peripheral pain intervention by Ophiorrhizarugosa leaves: Potential underlying mechanisms and insight into the role of pain modulators.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 5;276:114182. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata is a traditional medicinal plant used by the indigenous and local tribes (Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya) of Bangladesh for the management of chest pain, body ache, and earache. However, the knowledge of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of this plant is scarce.

Aim Of The Study: Therefore, we scrutinized the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of O. rugosa leaves along with its possible mechanism(s) of action using chemical and heat-induced pain models.

Methods And Materials: O. rugosa was extracted using 100% ethanol (EEOR) followed by exploring phytochemicals and assessing acute toxicity. To determine anti-nociceptive potentials, chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) and heat-induced (hot plate and tail immersion) nociceptive models were followed. To investigate the possible involvement of opioid receptors during formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests, naltrexone was administered whereas methylene blue and glibenclamide were used to explore cGMP involvement and ATP-sensitive K channel pathways, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory potential was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test model. Motor behaviours of EEOR were assessed by the open-field test. Finally, bioactive constituents (identified by GC-MS) from O. rugosa were subjected to molecular docking and ADME/t analysis to evaluate its potency and safety.

Results: During chemical-induced and heat-induced pain models, EEOR exhibited significant and effective nociception suppression at all experimental doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). Also, the administration of naltrexone corroborated the association of opioid receptors with the anti-nociceptive activity by EEOR. Similarly, cGMP and ATP-sensitive K channel pathways were also found to be involved in the anti-nociceptive mechanism. Furthermore, significant and dose-dependent inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan was recorded for EEOR. Both doses of EEOR did not affect the animal's locomotor capacity in the open-field test. Besides, in silico test identified the key compounds (loliolide, harman, squalene, vitamin E, and gamma-sitosterol) that inhibited some particular receptors regarding pain and inflammation.

Conclusion: This research exposes central and peripheral pain intervention as well as anti-inflammatory activity of O. rugosa. Also, the identified compounds from this plant support its activities by effectively inhibiting anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory receptors. Overall, these outcomes valorize the ethnomedicinal efficacy of O. rugosa in managing various painful conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114182DOI Listing
August 2021

Network pharmacology approach to decipher signaling pathways associated with target proteins of NSAIDs against COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 5;11(1):9606. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Korea.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) showed promising clinical efficacy toward COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) patients as potent painkillers and anti-inflammatory agents. However, the prospective anti-COVID-19 mechanisms of NSAIDs are not evidently exposed. Therefore, we intended to decipher the most influential NSAIDs candidate(s) and its novel mechanism(s) against COVID-19 by network pharmacology. FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration) approved NSAIDs (19 active drugs and one prodrug) were used for this study. Target proteins related to selected NSAIDs and COVID-19 related target proteins were identified by the Similarity Ensemble Approach, Swiss Target Prediction, and PubChem databases, respectively. Venn diagram identified overlapping target proteins between NSAIDs and COVID-19 related target proteins. The interactive networking between NSAIDs and overlapping target proteins was analyzed by STRING. RStudio plotted the bubble chart of the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis of overlapping target proteins. Finally, the binding affinity of NSAIDs against target proteins was determined through molecular docking test (MDT). Geneset enrichment analysis exhibited 26 signaling pathways against COVID-19. Inhibition of proinflammatory stimuli of tissues and/or cells by inactivating the RAS signaling pathway was identified as the key anti-COVID-19 mechanism of NSAIDs. Besides, MAPK8, MAPK10, and BAD target proteins were explored as the associated target proteins of the RAS. Among twenty NSAIDs, 6MNA, Rofecoxib, and Indomethacin revealed promising binding affinity with the highest docking score against three identified target proteins, respectively. Overall, our proposed three NSAIDs (6MNA, Rofecoxib, and Indomethacin) might block the RAS by inactivating its associated target proteins, thus may alleviate excessive inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88313-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100301PMC
May 2021

Therapeutic Potentials of Fruit (Seed) Reflected into an Array of Pharmacological Assays and Prospective Receptors-Mediated Pathways.

Life (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy.

(SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized the seed's fundamental importance in traditional medicine by following an integrated approach combining in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. The SF was fractionated with different solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction of SF (EaF-SF) was further studied. Mice treated with EaF-SF (200 and 400 mg/kg) manifested anxiolysis evidenced by higher exploration in elevated plus maze and hole board tests. Similarly, a dose-dependent drop of immobility time in a forced swimming test ensured significant anti-depressant activity. Moreover, higher dose treatment exposed reduced exploratory behaviour resembling decreased movement and prolonged sleeping latency with a quick onset of sleep during the open field and thiopental-induced sleeping tests, respectively. In parallel, EaF-SF significantly ( < 0.001) and dose-dependently suppressed acetic acid and formalin-induced pain in mice. Also, a noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity and a substantial ( < 0.01) clot lysis activity (thrombolytic) was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis resulted in 49 bioactive compounds. Among them, 12 bioactive compounds with Lipinski's rule and safety confirmation showed strong binding affinity (molecular docking) against the receptors of each model used. To conclude, the seed is a prospective source of health-promoting effects that can be an excellent candidate for preventing degenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11020155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921944PMC
February 2021

Network pharmacology of bioactives from Sorghum bicolor with targets related to diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0240873. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sorghum bicolor (SB) is rich in protective phytoconstituents with health benefits and regarded as a promising source of natural anti-diabetic substance. However, its comprehensive bioactive compound(s) and mechanism(s) against type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been exposed. Hence, we implemented network pharmacology to identify its key compounds and mechanism(s) against T2DM.

Methods: Compounds in SB were explored through GC-MS and screened by Lipinski's rule. Genes associated with the selected compounds or T2DM were extracted from public databases, and the overlapping genes between SB-compound related genes and T2DM target genes were identified using Venn diagram. Then, the networking between selected compounds and overlapping genes was constructed, visualized, and analyzed by RStudio. Finally, affinity between compounds and genes was evaluated via molecular docking.

Results: GC-MS analysis of SB detected a total of 20 compounds which were accepted by the Lipinski's rule. A total number of 16 compounds-related genes and T2DM-related genes (4,763) were identified, and 81 overlapping genes between them were selected. Gene set enrichment analysis exhibited that the mechanisms of SB against T2DM were associated with 12 signaling pathways, and the key mechanism might be to control blood glucose level by activating PPAR signaling pathway. Furthermore, the highest affinities were noted between four main compounds and six genes (FABP3-Propyleneglyco monoleate, FABP4-25-Oxo-27-norcholesterol, NR1H3-Campesterol, PPARA-β-sitosterol, PPARD-β-sitosterol, and PPARG-β-sitosterol).

Conclusion: Our study overall suggests that the four key compounds detected in SB might ameliorate T2DM severity by activating the PPAR signaling pathway.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240873PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774932PMC
January 2021

Active ingredients and mechanisms of Phellinus linteus (grown on Rosa multiflora) for alleviation of Type 2 diabetes mellitus through network pharmacology.

Gene 2021 Feb 26;768:145320. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea. Electronic address:

Phellinus linteus (mushroom) grown on Rosa multiflora ([email protected]), exposed beneficial effect and safety on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from Korean folk remedies. However, its active chemical constituents and mechanism(s) against T2DM have not been confirmed. Hence, we deciphered the active compounds and mechanism(s) of [email protected] against T2DM through network pharmacology. GC-MS of [email protected] manifested 54 compounds and drug-likeness properties of these compounds were confirmed by Lipinski's rule. The compound (40) related genes were composed of Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) and SwissTargetPrediction (STP). The overlapping genes (61) between the two databases were identified. Besides, the T2DM related genes (4,736) were extracted from DisGeNet and OMIM database. In parallel, a Venn diagram was constructed between the overlapping genes (61) and T2DM related genes (4,736), and finally, 48 genes were picked. The interactive networks between compounds and overlapping genes were plotted and visualized by RStudio. In addition, KEGG Pathway enrichment analysis was evaluated by String. String analysis showed that the mechanisms of [email protected] against T2DM were related to 16 pathways, where inhibition of gluconeogenesis by inactivating metabolic pathways was noted as the hub pathway of [email protected] against T2DM. Besides, bubble chart indicated that activation of the AMPK signaling pathway might enhance the insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, which is regarded the key signaling pathway of [email protected] against T2DM. Furthermore, the autodock vina revealed the promising binding affinity energy of the epicholesterol (the most drug-likeness compound) on HMGCR (hub gene). Overall, this work hints at the therapeutic evidence of [email protected] on T2DM, and this data expound the main chemical compounds and mechanisms of [email protected] against T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145320DOI Listing
February 2021

Kenaf ( L.) Leaves and Seed as a Potential Source of the Bioactive Compounds: Effects of Various Extraction Solvents on Biological Properties.

Life (Basel) 2020 Sep 28;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Kenaf) is a potential source of bioactive constituents and natural antioxidant. The current study determined the impact of various solvents on extraction yield, recovery of polyphenol and flavonoid, antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties of Kenaf leaves and seed. The powder of leaves and seed was separately extracted with -hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water solvent. Among them, the ethanol extract of leaves and seed showed the highest extraction yield, and their GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 55 and 14 bioactive compounds, respectively. The total polyphenols (TP) and flavonoids (TF) content were quantified by a spectrophotometric technique where water extracts displayed a noteworthy amount of TP and TF content compared to other extracts. A similar demonstration was noticed in antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity. In addition, cytotoxicity and anti-lung cancer activity were identified against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH3T3) and human lung cancer (A549) cells. All extracts of leaves and seed were observed as non-toxic to the NIH3T3 cells, but slight toxicity was expressed by -hexane extracts at the optimum dose (1000 µg/mL) of treatment. In parallel, -hexane and ethanol extracts (leaves and seed) exposed promising anti-lung cancer activity at the same concentration. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion assay, and seed extracts exhibited a significant inhibition zone against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Overall, Kenaf seed extracted with polar solvents was found very potent in terms of important bioactive compounds and pharmacological aspects, which can be an excellent biological matrix of natural antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10100223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601236PMC
September 2020

Intervention in Neuropsychiatric Disorders by Suppressing Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signal and Exploration of In Silico Studies for Potential Lead Compounds from (Dennst.) Oken leaves.

Biomolecules 2020 04 6;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Dennst.), a popular plant used in folk medicine in Bangladesh, is often used by the local folk practitioner to treat a variety of chronic diseases. The present research is an attempt to find out an innovative therapeutic prospect for the management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The methanol extract of leaves (MEHC) were utilized on various behavioral tests for assessing anxiolytic, anti-depressant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant potentials and quantitative phytochemicals were evaluated through spectrophotometric methods. Results revealed that treatment of MEHC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety like behaviors in mice, particularly, 400 mg/kg efficiently improved % of entries and time spent ( < 0.05) in the open arms in elevated plus maze test, whereas, superior head dipping tendency ( < 0.05) was observed in hole-board test. In contrast, mice treated with 200 mg/kg revealed better anxiolytic effect in both open field and hole-cross tests. During antidepressant evaluation, mice administrated with MEHC exhibited active behaviors (swimming and struggling) in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In parallel, MEHC manifested a noteworthy ( < 0.001) suppression of inflammatory response induced by histamine. The MEHC also showed strong antioxidant activities in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (IC: 57.64 μg/mL) scavenging, HO (IC: 51.60 μg/mL) scavenging, and ferric reducing power assay. The levels of total phenol, flavonoid, flavonol, condensed tannin, and antioxidant were estimated as higher in MEHC. Moreover, 11 compounds were documented as bioactive, displayed good binding affinities to potassium channel receptor, human serotonin receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and 2), and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme targets in molecular docking experiments. Furthermore, ADME/T and Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS) analyses exposed their drug-likeness, nontoxic upon consumption, and likely pharmacological actions. Overall, the H. caustica is potentially bioactive as evident by in vivo, in vitro, and computational analysis. Our findings support the folkloric value of this plant, which may provide a potential source towards developing drug leads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10040561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226598PMC
April 2020

Unveiling Pharmacological Responses and Potential Targets Insights of Identified Bioactive Constituents of Roxb. Leaves through In Vivo and In Silico Approaches.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Mar 20;13(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh to treat different diseases, such as pain, edema, tumor, jaundice, and skin infections. This study tested neuro-pharmacological, anti-nociceptive, and antidiarrheal activities by in vivo and in silico experiments for the metabolites extracted (methanol) from the leaves of (MECR). During the anxiolytic evaluation analyzed by elevated plus maze and hole board tests, MECR (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Similarly, mice treated with MECR demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the time of immobility in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, anti-nociceptive activity was assessed by the chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) pain models. In both cases, 400 mg/kg was found to be most effective and significantly ( < 0.001) inhibited acetic acid stimulated writhing and formalin-induced licking (pain response) in mice. Furthermore, antidiarrheal efficacy determined by the castor-oil induced diarrheal model manifested an evident inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency. In parallel, previously isolated bioactive compounds were documented based on the biological activities and subjected to in silico studies to correlate with the current pharmacological outcomes. The selected isolated compounds (15) displayed favorable binding affinities to potassium channels, human serotonin receptor, COX-1, COX-2, M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and 5-HT3 receptor proteins. Additionally, the ADME/T and toxicological properties were justified to unveil their drug-like properties and toxicity level. Overall, is bioactive and could be a potential source for the development of alternative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13030050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151675PMC
March 2020

Comparative Study of Roxb. Leaves and Stems for Anxiolytic and Antioxidant Properties Through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico Approaches.

Biomedicines 2020 Mar 25;8(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous people of tropical and subtropical countries like Bangladesh, India, and China for relieving the common cold or a variety of chronic diseases, such as asthma, chronic coughing, piles, rheumatic pain, headaches, wounds, tuberculosis, indigestion, and dyspepsia. This study tested anxiolytic and antioxidant activities by , , and experiments for the metabolites extracted (methanol) from the leaves and stems of (MEPSL and MEPSS). During the anxiolytic evaluation analyzed by elevated plus maze and hole board tests, MEPSL and MEPSS (200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight) exhibited a significant and dose-dependent reduction of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Similarly, mice treated with MEPSL and MEPSS demonstrated dose-dependent increases in locomotion and CNS simulative effects in open field test. In addition, both extracts (MEPSL and MEPSS) also showed moderate antioxidant activities in DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power assays compared to the standard, ascorbic acid. In parallel, previously isolated bioactive compounds from this plant were documented and subjected to a molecular docking study to correlate them with the pharmacological outcomes. The selected four major phytocompounds displayed favorable binding affinities to potassium channel and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme targets in molecular docking experiments. Overall, is bioactive, as is evident through experimental and computational analysis. Further experiments are necessary to evaluate purified novel compounds for the clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8040068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235905PMC
March 2020

Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Accumulation of the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Profile of Broomcorn Millet ( L.) Flour.

Foods 2019 Jun 27;8(7). Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Broomcorn millet ( L.) is an important nutritious ancient minor-cereal food crop. However, this crop is little explored in the food processing arena to improve its functionality. In this context, different processing methods were applied to enhance the secondary compounds of broomcorn millet. Four different individual methods such as roasting, steaming, puffing, and extrusion were applied at 110 °C to enhance the functional attributes of millet flour. It was observed that the significantly highest content of total phenolic (TP) (670 mg/100 g of ferulic acid equivalent) and total flavonoid (TF) (391 mg/100 g of rutin equivalent ) was attained in the roasted whole millet followed by steaming (315 mg/100 g, 282 mg/100 g), puffing (645 mg/100 g, 304 mg/100 g), extrusion (455 mg/100 g, 219 mg/100 g), and control (295 mg/100 g, 183 mg/100 g). The chromatographic analysis showed a greater content of single phenolic acids such as syringic acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and catechin in roasted millet compared to control, and the content of each acid was higher in whole millet than dehulled. Results also indicated that the content of ferulic acid was relatively higher among the quantified single phenolic acid from broomcorn millet. Likewise, in comparison with dehulled millet, the roasted whole millet showed higher total antioxidant capacity, measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), the phosphomolybdenum method (PPMD), and the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HRSC) method. Lastly, it is concluded that the roasting method should be taken into consideration in the processing of broomcorn millet to enhance the content of nutraceutical compounds and improve its functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678386PMC
June 2019

Investigation of the Biological Activities and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents of var. (D.Don) & Mondal Leaves through In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Approaches.

Molecules 2019 Apr 8;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

var. is one of the most frequently used ethnomedicinal plants by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of leaves (EEOR). The leaves were extracted with ethanol and subjected to in vivo antidiarrheal screening using the castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit models. Anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using the histamine-induced paw edema test. In parallel, in vitro anthelmintic and antibacterial activities were evaluated using the aquatic worm and disc diffusion assays respectively. In all three diarrheal models, EEOR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed obvious inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency, reduction of the volume and weight of the intestinal contents, and significant inhibition of intestinal motility. Also, EEOR manifested dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Anthelmintic action was deemed significant ( < 0.001) with respect to the onset of paralysis and helminth death. EEOR also resulted in strong zones of inhibition when tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GC-MS analysis identified 30 compounds within EEOR, and of these, 13 compounds documented as bioactive showed good binding affinities to M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, 5-HT3, tubulin and GlcN-6-P synthase protein targets in molecular docking experiments. Additionally, ADME/T and PASS analyses revealed their drug-likeness, likely safety upon consumption and possible pharmacological activities. In conclusion, our findings scientifically support the ethnomedicinal use and value of this plant, which may provide a potential source for future development of medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480688PMC
April 2019

Development of a Polymer-Mediated Soybean Nanocomposite by Hot Melt Extrusion to Improve Its Functionality and Antioxidant Properties.

Foods 2019 Jan 24;8(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The poor bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds of soybeans is a key challenge to developing functional food products. Therefore, a novel hydrophilic food-grade hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer was added to soybean to prepare a soybean food composite (SFC), in order to improve the soybean's functionality. The SFC was prepared with soybean (95%) plus HPMC (5%) (/) mixes (HSE), as well as 100% soybean extrudate (SE), at 80 °C and 130 °C by a hot melt extrusion (HME) process. A non-extrudate 100% soybean material was considered as a control. It is observed that water solubility was significantly increased (35.18%), and particle size reached to nano-size (171.5 nm) in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control (7.14% and 1166 nm, respectively). The total phenolic, flavonoid, and single isoflavones content, including daidzin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and genistin was significantly increased in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control. The antioxidant properties were also significantly increased in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and the phosphomolybdenum method (PPMD). Finally, it is concluded that the HPMC polymer could be used as a novel excipient to develop nanocomposite via HME, in order to improve the functionality of soybean food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406252PMC
January 2019

Far Infrared Irradiation Enhances Nutraceutical Compounds and Antioxidant Properties in Angelica gigas Nakai Powder.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Dec 11;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of far infrared irradiation (FIR) on nutraceutical compounds, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, of Nakai (AGN). The FIR treatment was applied for 30 min with varied temperatures of 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. Results showed that FIR increased total phenolic and flavonoid content in AGN at 220 °C. The HPLC results revealed higher quantities of decursin (62.48 mg/g) and decursinol angelate (41.51 mg/g) at 220 °C compared to control (38.70 mg/g, 27.54 mg/g, respectively). The antioxidant capacity of AGN was also increased at 220 °C, as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the phosphomolybdenum (PPMD) method. A further increase of the FIR temperature caused a reduction of compound content. In addition, the results also showed a strong correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant properties of AGN powder. These findings will help to further improve the nutraceutical profile of AGN powder by optimizing the FIR conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7120189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315959PMC
December 2018

Effect of Artificial LED Light and Far Infrared Irradiation on Phenolic Compound, Isoflavones and Antioxidant Capacity in Soybean ( L.) Sprout.

Foods 2018 Oct 22;7(10). Epub 2018 Oct 22.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The effect of light emitting diode (LED) light and far infrared irradiation (FIR) on total phenol, isoflavones and antioxidant activity were investigated in soybean ( L.) sprout. Artificial blue (470 nm), green (530 nm) LED and florescent light (control) were applied on soybean sprout, from three to seven days after sowing (DAS) in growth chamber. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and photoperiod was 150 ± 5 μmol ms and 16 h, respectively. The FIR was applied for 30, 60 and 120 min at 90, 110 and 130 °C on harvested sprout. Total phenolic content (TP) (59.81 mg/g), antioxidant capacity (AA: 75%, Ferric Reduction Antioxidant Power (FRAP): 1357 µM Fe) and total isoflavones content (TIC) (51.1 mg/g) were higher in blue LED compared to control (38.02 mg/g, 58%, 632 µM Fe and 30.24 mg/g, respectively). On the other hand, TP (64.23 mg/g), AA (87%), FRAP (1568 µM Fe) and TIC (58.98 mg/g) were significantly increased by FIR at 110 °C for 120 min among the treatments. Result suggests that blue LED is the most suitable light to steady accumulation of secondary metabolites (SM) in growing soybean sprout. On the other hand, FIR at 110 °C for 120 min is the best ailment to induce SM in proceed soybean sprout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7100174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210234PMC
October 2018

Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).

Molecules 2014 Oct 23;19(10):16987-97. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6270828PMC
October 2014

Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

Molecules 2013 Nov 21;18(11):14448-54. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea.

Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules181114448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269891PMC
November 2013

Kaempferol and kaempferol rhamnosides with depigmenting and anti-inflammatory properties.

Molecules 2011 Apr 18;16(4):3338-44. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

R & D Center, AmorePacific Corporation, Yongin, Korea.

The objective of this study was to examine the biological activity of kaempferol and its rhamnosides. We isolated kaempferol (1), a-rhamnoisorobin (2), afzelin (3), and kaempferitrin (4) as pure compounds by far-infrared (FIR) irradiation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves. The depigmenting and anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated by analyzing their structure-activity relationships. The order of the inhibitory activity with regard to depigmentation and nitric oxide (NO) production was kaempferol (1) > a-rhamnoisorobin (2) > afzelin (3) > kaempferitrin (4). However, a-rhamnoisorobin (2) was more potent than kaempferol (1) in NF-kB-mediated luciferase assays. From these results, we conclude that the 3-hydroxyl group of kaempferol is an important pharmacophore and that additional rhamnose moieties affect the biological activity negatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16043338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260593PMC
April 2011

Changes in flavonoid content and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in kenaf leaf extract after far-infrared treatment.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Dec 1;20(24):7534-6. Epub 2010 Oct 1.

R&D Center, AmorePacific Corporation, Kyounggi-do, Yongin, Republic of Korea.

The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ethanolic extract of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf was evaluated before and after subjecting it to far-infrared (FIR) irradiation. The main component of the extract was analyzed as kaempferitrin (kaempferol-3,7-O-α-dirhamnoside). Prior to FIR irradiation, no inhibitory activity of the extract was detected in a tyrosinase assay. However, after FIR irradiation for 1h at 60°C, significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC(50)=3500 ppm) was observed in it. In HPLC analysis, derhamnosylation products (kaempferol, afzelin, and α-rhamnoisorobin) were detected. The inhibitory activity may be due to the existence of derhamnosylation products. This study demonstrated that FIR irradiation can be used as a convenient tool for deglycosylation of flavonoid glycoside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.082DOI Listing
December 2010

Kojyl thioether derivatives having both tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Nov 21;20(22):6569-71. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

R & D Center, AmorePacific Corporation, Yongin 446-729, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to examine the tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities of kojic acid derivatives. A series of kojic acid derivatives containing thioether, sulfoxide, and sulfone linkages were synthesized. In the tyrosinase assay, kojyl thioether derivatives containing appropriate lipophilic alkyl chains (pentane, hexane, and cyclohexane) showed potent inhibitory activity. However, sulfoxides and sulfones exhibited decreased activity. Similar experimental results were obtained with inhibitory activities of NO production being induced by LPS. The presence of thioether linkage and appropriated lipophilic acid moiety was critical for the tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.042DOI Listing
November 2010

A modulatory effect of novel kojic acid derivatives on cancer cell proliferation and macrophage activation.

Pharmazie 2010 Apr;65(4):261-6

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

We examined whether several newly synthesized derivatives of kojic acid, a compound with known antiinflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-oxidative properties, were able to modulate glioma cell proliferation and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated functional activation of macrophage-managed tumor microenvironments. Anti-cancer effects on C6 glioma and SYF cells were examined by cell proliferation assays, DNA laddering assays, nuclear staining experiments, and Western blot analysis. The anti-inflammatory activities of the derivatives were assessed by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine expression in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with the TLR 4 ligand lipopolysacchride (LPS). Among the various derivatives tested, RHS-0110 exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity on the proliferation of C6 glioma cells, with an IC50 value of 4.7 microM. However, the inhibitory effect of this compound was abrogated with respect to the proliferation of SYF cells, a cell line lacking Src, Yes, and Fyn kinases, similar to effects observed with the Src kinase inhibitor PP2. In agreement with these findings, RHS-0110 decreased the expression of Src but not the activation of Yes and Fyn. Based on DNA laddering tests and nucleus staining experiments, the anti-proliferative effects of RHS-0110 appeared to be due to a necrotic pathway. Kojic acid derivatives also suppressed LPS-induced NO production and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in RAW264.7 cells under lowered or non-cytotoxic concentrations of compounds. Because of their anti-proliferative and anti-TLR4-mediated microenvironmental formation features, our results suggest that kojic acid derivatives, including RHS-0110, may be useful as novel anti-cancer drugs.
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April 2010

LebZIP2 induced by salt and drought stress and transient overexpression by Agrobacterium.

BMB Rep 2008 Oct;41(10):693-8

Bioherb Research Institute, College of Agriculture and life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

The full-length cDNA of LebZIP2 (Lycopersicon esculentum bZIP2) encodes a protein of 164 amino acids and contains a N-terminal basic-region leucine zipper domain. Analysis of the deduced tomato LebZIP2 amino acid sequence revealed that it shares 85% sequence identity with both tobacco bZIP and pepper CcbZIP. LebZIP2 mRNA is expressed at a high level exclusively in flowers. Presently, LebZIP2 was strongly increased also following NaCl and mannitol treatments. No significant LebZIP2 expression was evident following cold treatment. Transient LebZIP2 overexpression resulted in increased NbNOA1 and NbNR transcript levels in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Our results indicate that LebZIP2 might play roles as an abiotic stress-signaling pathway and as a transcriptional regulator of the NbNOA1 or NbNR genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2008.41.10.693DOI Listing
October 2008

Solimonas soli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007 Nov;57(Pt 11):2591-2594

Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu Yongin, Kyunggi-do 449-701, South Korea.

A micro-organism, DCY12T, comprising Gram-negative, non-motile, pale-yellow rods was isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. It grew optimally at 30 degrees C and at pH 7.0, the G+C content of its DNA was 40.5 mol%, the major components of the fatty acid profile were C16:0 and C18:1 and the major ubiquinone was Q-8. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate was most closely related to Hydrocarboniphaga effusa AP103T (89.2%), Nevskia ramosa Soe1 (88.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145T (83.2%). The phenotypic, physiological, metabolic and phylogenetic properties of DCY12T suggest that it represents a novel genus (class Gammaproteobacteria) and species, for which the name Solimonas soli gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Solimonas soli is DCY12T (=KCTC 12834T=LMG 24014T).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64938-0DOI Listing
November 2007

Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis sp. nov. and Chitinophaga ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field in South Korea.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1396-1401

Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon, Kihung Yongin, Kyunggi 449-701, Republic of Korea.

Two novel strains belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes [formerly the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) group], designated Gsoil 040(T) and Gsoil 052(T), were isolated from the soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon province, South Korea. A polyphasic approach was used to characterize the taxonomic position of the novel strains. Both strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolates belong to the genus Chitinophaga but are clearly separated from the recognized species of this genus; gene sequence similarities between the novel isolates and type strains of recognized species ranged from 91.2 to 96.5 %. One exception was found; strain Gsoil 052(T) and the type strain of Chitinophaga filiformis had a gene sequence similarity of 99.6 % but had a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 38 %. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data (major menaquinone, MK-7; major fatty acids, iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega5c; major hydroxy fatty acid, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and major polyamine, homospermidine) supported the affiliation of both strains Gsoil 040(T) and Gsoil 052(T) to the genus Chitinophaga. The results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the novel strains from the other recognized species of the genus Chitinophaga. Therefore, it is suggested that the new isolates represent two novel species, for which the names Chitinophaga ginsengisoli [corrected] sp. nov. [type strain Gsoil 040(T) (=KCTC 12654(T)=DSM 18108(T))] and Chitinophaga ginsengisoli sp. nov. [type strain Gsoil 052(T) (=KCTC 12592(T)=DSM 18017(T))] are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64688-0DOI Listing
July 2007

Immunomodulatory effect of Hibiscus cannabinus extract on macrophage functions.

J Ethnopharmacol 2007 Aug 6;113(1):62-71. Epub 2007 May 6.

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701, South Korea.

Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae) (known as Kenaf) has long been used as a folk medicine in India and Africa for the treatment of blood and throat disorders, bilious conditions, fever and puerperium. In this study, therefore, we aimed either to demonstrate its ethnopharmacological activity by examining its macrophage function-regulating effects or to expand its therapeutic efficacy into other macrophage-mediated diseases. The total crude extract (EtOH extract) of Hibiscus cannabinus fresh leaves, prepared with 80% ethanol, significantly suppressed TNF-alpha production and the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-12 in the RAW264.7 cells, stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.5 microg/ml). The secretion of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nitric oxide [NO], reactive oxygen species [ROS] and prostaglandin E(2) [PGE(2)]) was diminished by the EtOH extract. The extract induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA, a potent cytoprotective molecule. The Kenaf extract suppressed both the phagocytic uptake and the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) of LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. It is interesting that Kenaf also down-regulated both the functional activation of beta1-integrin (CD29) and the LPS-induced up-regulation of the surface CD29 level. Taken together, these data suggest that Kenaf may be able to modulate macrophage-mediated responses and that some of the activities may contribute to expand its therapeutic usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.04.019DOI Listing
August 2007

Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007 Jun;57(Pt 6):1336-1341

Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Kiheung-gu Yongin, Kyunggi-do 449-701, South Korea.

Strain Jip14(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from dried rice straw and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Jip14(T) belongs to the family Sphingobacteriaceae, and the highest degree of sequence similarity was determined to be to Pedobacter saltans DSM 12145(T) (88.5 %), Pedobacter africanus DSM 12126(T) (87.6 %), Pedobacter heparinus DSM 2366(T) (87.1 %) and Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862(T) (86.9 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Jip14(T) possesses menaquinone MK-7 and the predominant fatty acids C(15 : 0) iso, C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) 10-methyl, C(17 : 0) iso 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH/C(16 : 1)omega7c). The results of physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Jip14(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Jip14(T) should be classified within a novel genus and species, for which the name Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parapedobacter koreensis is Jip14(T) (=KCTC 12643(T)=LMG 23493(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64677-0DOI Listing
June 2007

Surface displayed expression of a neutralizing epitope of spike protein from a Korean strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 2007 ;12(6):690-695

1Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, 561-756 Jeonju, Korea.

The neutralizing epitope (K-COE) of the spike protein from a Korean strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been shown to prevent and foster an immune response to PED, when orally adjusted. The cell surface of the budding yeast,, was engineered to anchor the K-COE on the outer layer of the cell, and consequently, the altered yeast was applied as a dietary complement for animal feed, with immunogenic functions. In this study, the K-COE gene () of the Korean strain of PEDV with the signal peptide of rice amylase 1A (), was fused with the gene encoding the carboxyterminal half (320 amino acid residues from the C terminus) of yeast α-agglutinin, a mating associated protein that is anchored covalently to the cell wall. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase () promoter was selected in order to direct the expression of the fusion construct, and the resulting recombinant plasmid was then introduced into. The surface display of K-COE was visualized via confocal microscopy using a polyclonal antibody against K-COE as the primary antibody, and FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as the secondary antibody. The display of the K-COE on the cell surface was further verified via Western blot analysis using the cell wall fraction after the administration of α-1,3-glucanase/PNGase F/β-mannosidase treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02931087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090475PMC
January 2007