Publications by authors named "Dominique Roulot"

57 Publications

Population screening for liver fibrosis: towards early diagnosis and intervention for chronic liver diseases.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Centre for Liver Research, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Odense University Hospital, and Institute for Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Odense, Denmark.

Cirrhosis, highly prevalent worldwide, develops after years of hepatic inflammation triggering progressive fibrosis. Currently, the main etiologies of cirrhosis are non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), although chronic hepatitis B and C infections are still major etiological factors in some areas of the world. Recent studies have shown that liver fibrosis can be assessed with relatively high accuracy non-invasively by serological tests, transient elastography, and radiological methods. These modalities may be utilized for screening for liver fibrosis in at-risk populations. Thus far, a limited number of population-based studies using non-invasive tests in different areas of the world indicate that a significant percentage of subjects without known liver disease (around 5% in general populations and a higher rate -18 to 27%- in populations with risk factors for liver disease) have significant undetected liver fibrosis or established cirrhosis. Larger international studies are required to show the harms and benefits before concluding that screening for liver fibrosis should be applied to populations at risk for chronic liver diseases. Screening for liver fibrosis has the potential for changing the current approach from diagnosing chronic liver diseases late when patients have already developed complications of cirrhosis to diagnosing liver fibrosis in asymptomatic subjects providing the opportunity of preventing disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32163DOI Listing
September 2021

Variable In Vivo Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) RNA Editing Rates According to the HDV Genotype.

Viruses 2021 Aug 9;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Centre National de Référence des Hépatites Virales B, C et Delta, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Clinique, Hôpital-Avicenne, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93000 Bobigny, France.

Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a small defective RNA satellite virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins to form its own virions. The HDV genome possesses a single coding open reading frame (ORF), located on a replicative intermediate, the antigenome, encoding the small (s) and the large (L) isoforms of the delta antigen (s-HDAg and L-HDAg). The latter is produced following an editing process, changing the amber/stop codon on the s-HDAg-ORF into a tryptophan codon, allowing L-HDAg synthesis by the addition of 19 (or 20) C-terminal amino acids. The two delta proteins play different roles in the viral cell cycle: s-HDAg activates genome replication, while L-HDAg blocks replication and favors virion morphogenesis and propagation. L-HDAg has also been involved in HDV pathogenicity. Understanding the kinetics of viral editing rates in vivo is key to unravel the biology of the virus and understand its spread and natural history. We developed and validated a new assay based on next-generation sequencing and aimed at quantifying HDV RNA editing in plasma. We analyzed plasma samples from 219 patients infected with different HDV genotypes and showed that HDV editing capacity strongly depends on the genotype of the strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13081572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402866PMC
August 2021

Prospective external validation of a new non-invasive test for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 10 16;54(7):952-966. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Paris, France.

Background: One of the unmet needs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the prediction of non-alcoholic liver disease by non-invasive blood tests, for each of the three main histological features, fibrosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and steatosis.

Aims: To validate externally the performances of a recent panel, Nash-FibroTest, for the assessment of the severity of fibrosis stages, NASH grades and steatosis grades.

Methods: We prospectively analysed 272 patients with T2DM. Standard definitions of stages and grades were used, and analyses were centralised and blinded. The performances of the FibroTest, NashTest-2 and SteatoTest-2 were assessed using the Obuchowski measure (OM), the main outcome recommended as a summary measure of accuracy includeing all pairwise stages and grades comparisons, which is not provided par the extensively used binary area under the ROC curve.

Results: The diagnostic performance of each component of the panel was significant. OM (SE; significance) of the FibroTest, the NashTest-2 and the SteatoTest-2 was 0.862 (0.012; P < 0.001), 0.827 (0.015; P < 0.001) and 0.794 (0.020; P < 0.01), respectively. For ballooning and lobular inflammation, OM was 0.794 (0.021; P < 0.001) and 0.821 (0.017; P < 0.001), respectively. In a post hoc analysis the FibroTest outperformed VCTE by 4.1% (2.5-6.5; P < 0.001) for reliability, with a non-significant difference for OM for fibrosis staging, 0.859 (0.012) for FibroTest vs 0.870 (0.009) for VCTE.

Conclusions: From a single blood sample, the panel provides non-invasive diagnosis of the stages of fibrosis, and the grades of NASH and steatosis in patients with T2DM.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03634098.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16543DOI Listing
October 2021

NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF CHRONIC INFECTION WITH HEPATITIS B VIRUS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101773. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Saint Joseph & INSERM UMR 1252 IRD SESSTIM Aix Marseille Université, Marseille.

Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, initial staging of infection and monitoring of treated and untreated patients are mainly based on clinical, biological and imaging criteria allowing a complete non-invasive management for the majority of patients. Along to the conventional virological tools, rapid diagnostic tests and blotting paper tests for HBV DNA are validated alternatives. After diagnosis, the initial work-up should include HIV, HCV and HDV serologies, HBeAg status, and HBsAg and HBV DNA quantification. Assessment of severity (inflammation and fibrosis) is based on ALT serum levels and non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis by elastography or blood tests, which must be interpreted cautiously using specific cut-offs and taking into account ALT levels. Taken together, these parameters allow disease classification and treatment decision. Decision of hepatocellular carcinoma screening by ultra-sound every six months may be difficult in non-cirrhotic patients and the use of risk-scores such as PAGE-B is encouraged. Chronic HBV infection often has a dynamic and often unpredictable profile and regular monitoring is mandatory. In untreated patients, regular (3-12 months) follow-up should include ALT and HBV DNA serum levels. Periodical HBsAg quantification and non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis may refine disease outcome and prognosis. In treated patients, checking efficacy is mainly based on HBV DNA negativity. In patients with advanced fibrosis, evolution of liver stiffness can be useful for portal hypertension evaluation, but its improvement should not be considered to stop hepatocellular carcinoma screening. Finally, new parameters (HBV RNA, HBcrAg) are promising but their use is still restricted for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101773DOI Listing
July 2021

Hepatic Sarcoidosis: Current Concepts and Treatments.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Oct 10;41(5):652-658. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Service de Médecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri-Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Hepatic sarcoidosis is a relatively common manifestation of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. It occurs in 20 to 30% of cases and is rarely severe. However, a cluster of patients may develop severe complications such as cirrhosis and portal hypertension. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of clinical, biological, pathological, and radiological features of liver involvement in sarcoidosis and discuss essential clues for management and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713799DOI Listing
October 2020

Origin, HDV genotype and persistent viremia determine outcome and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis delta.

J Hepatol 2020 11 4;73(5):1046-1062. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

AP-HP, Hôpital Avicenne, Laboratoire de microbiologie clinique, Université Paris 13, Centre national de référence des hépatites B, C et Delta, Bobigny, Inserm U955, équipe 18, Université Paris-Est, Créteil.

Background & Aims: HDV infection causes severe chronic liver disease in individuals infected with HBV. However, the factors associated with poor prognosis are largely unknown. Thus, we aimed to identify prognostic factors in patients with HDV infection.

Methods: The French National Reference Centre for HDV performed a nationwide retrospective study on 1,112 HDV-infected patients, collecting epidemiological, clinical, virological and histological data from the initial referral to the last recorded follow-up.

Results: The median age of our cohort was 36.5 (29.9-43.2) years and 68.6% of our cohort were male. Most patients whose birthplace was known were immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (52.5%), southern and eastern Europe (21.3%), northern Africa and the Middle East (6.2%), Asia (5.9%) and South America (0.3%). Only 150 patients (13.8%) were French native. HDV load was positive in 659 of 748 tested patients (88.1%). HDV-1 was predominant (75.9%), followed by sub-Saharan genotypes: HDV-5 (17.6%), HDV-7 (2.9%), HDV-6 (1.8%) and HDV-8 (1.6%). At referral, 312 patients (28.2%) had cirrhosis, half having experienced at least 1 episode of hepatic decompensation. Cirrhosis was significantly less frequent in African than in European patients regardless of HDV genotype. At the end of follow-up (median 3.0 [0.8-7.2] years), 48.8% of the patients had developed cirrhosis, 24.2% had ≥1 episode(s) of decompensation and 9.2% had hepatocellular carcinoma. European HDV-1 and African HDV-5 patients were more at risk of developing cirrhosis. Persistent replicative HDV infection was associated with decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. African patients displayed better response to interferon therapy than non-African patients (46.4% vs. 29.1%, p <0.001). HDV viral load at baseline was significantly lower in responders than in non-responders.

Conclusion: Place of birth, HDV genotype and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment in chronic HDV-infected patients.

Lay Summary: Chronic liver infection by hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that at least 15-20 million people are chronically infected by HDV worldwide, factors determining the severity of liver involvement are largely unknown. By investigating a large cohort of 1,112 HDV-infected patients followed-up in France, but coming from different areas of the world, we were able to determine that HDV genotype, place of birth (reflecting both viral and host-related factors) and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.06.038DOI Listing
November 2020

Personalized surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis - using machine learning adapted to HCV status.

J Hepatol 2020 12 29;73(6):1434-1445. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier de La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service d'Hépatologie, Paris.

Background & Aims: Refining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance programs requires improved individual risk prediction. Thus, we aimed to develop algorithms based on machine learning approaches to predict the risk of HCC more accurately in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, according to their virological status.

Methods: Patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-related cirrhosis from the French ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort were included in a semi-annual HCC surveillance program. Three prognostic models for HCC occurrence were built, using (i) Fine-Gray regression as a benchmark, (ii) single decision tree (DT), and (iii) random survival forest for competing risks survival (RSF). Model performance was evaluated from C-indexes validated externally in the ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort (n = 668 enrolled between 08/2012-01/2014).

Results: Out of 836 patients analyzed, 156 (19%) developed HCC and 434 (52%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (median follow-up 63 months). Fine-Gray regression models identified 6 independent predictors of HCC occurrence in patients before SVR (past excessive alcohol intake, genotype 1, elevated AFP and GGT, low platelet count and albuminemia) and 3 in patients after SVR (elevated AST, low platelet count and shorter prothrombin time). DT analysis confirmed these associations but revealed more complex interactions, yielding 8 patient groups with varying cancer risks and predictors depending on SVR achievement. On RSF analysis, the most important predictors of HCC varied by SVR status (non-SVR: platelet count, GGT, AFP and albuminemia; SVR: prothrombin time, ALT, age and platelet count). Externally validated C-indexes before/after SVR were 0.64/0.64 [Fine-Gray], 0.60/62 [DT] and 0.71/0.70 [RSF].

Conclusions: Risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis differ according to SVR status. Machine learning algorithms can refine HCC risk assessment by revealing complex interactions between cancer predictors. Such approaches could be used to develop more cost-effective tailored surveillance programs.

Lay Summary: Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis must be included in liver cancer surveillance programs, which rely on ultrasound examination every 6 months. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening is hampered by sensitivity issues, leading to late cancer diagnoses in a substantial number of patients. Refining surveillance periodicity and modality using more sophisticated imaging techniques such as MRI may only be cost-effective in patients with the highest HCC incidence. Herein, we demonstrate how machine learning algorithms (i.e. data-driven mathematical models to make predictions or decisions), can refine individualized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Evolution of Hepatitis C Virus Treatment During the Era of Sofosbuvir-Based Therapies: A Real-World Experience in France.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 03 18;66(3):881-898. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Département D'Hépatologie, Inserm U1223, Hôpital Cochin AP-HP, 27, rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014, Paris, France.

Background: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been dramatically improved with the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Universal access to pangenotypic DAAs was provided in France from 2017, expanding the type of patients treated. Real-world studies are important to confirm effectiveness and safety in clinical practice, particularly in vulnerable populations.

Aims: To assess real-world effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy in adults with chronic HCV infection before and after universal access to DAAs in France.

Methods: This multicenter, non-interventional, prospective study assessed the effectiveness, safety, patient-reported outcomes and adherence with sofosbuvir-based regimens from October 2015 to July 2016 (Period 1: sofosbuvir-based therapy excluding sofosbuvir/velpatasvir) and from October 2017 to July 2018 (Period 2: pangenotypic sofosbuvir/velpatasvir-based therapy).

Results: Baseline data were documented for 1029 patients. Overall, 797 (77%) had sustained virologic response data available ≥ 9 weeks after treatment completion. Per protocol response was high (97%) irrespective of age, alcohol consumption, recreational drug use, or HIV/HCV coinfection. Adverse events occurred in approximately 25% of patients with the majority experiencing Grade 1 or 2 events. Sofosbuvir-based regimens improved health-related quality of life from baseline to end of treatment in patients with data at all timepoints. Overall, 99% of patients reported total or almost total adherence to therapy.

Conclusions: Sofosbuvir-based therapy, including pangenotypic sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, is effective for the treatment of HCV in real-world clinical practice. This is an important step towards HCV elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06234-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Transient elastography for screening of liver fibrosis: Cost-effectiveness analysis from six prospective cohorts in Europe and Asia.

J Hepatol 2019 12 27;71(6):1141-1151. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcohol-related liver disease pose an important challenge to current clinical healthcare pathways because of the large number of at-risk patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore the cost-effectiveness of transient elastography (TE) as a screening method to detect liver fibrosis in a primary care pathway.

Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using real-life individual patient data from 6 independent prospective cohorts (5 from Europe and 1 from Asia). A diagnostic algorithm with conditional inference trees was developed to explore the relationships between liver stiffness, socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hepatic fibrosis, the latter assessed by fibrosis scores (FIB-4, NFS) and liver biopsies in a subset of 352 patients. We compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of a screening strategy against standard of care alongside the numbers needed to screen to diagnose a patient with fibrosis stage ≥F2.

Results: The data set encompassed 6,295 participants (mean age 55 ± 12 years, BMI 27 ± 5 kg/m, liver stiffness 5.6 ± 5.0 kPa). A 9.1 kPa TE cut-off provided the best accuracy for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2) in general population settings, whereas a threshold of 9.5 kPa was optimal for populations at-risk of alcohol-related liver disease. TE with the proposed cut-offs outperformed fibrosis scores in terms of accuracy. Screening with TE was cost-effective with mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from 2,570 €/QALY (95% CI 2,456-2,683) for a population at-risk of alcohol-related liver disease (age ≥45 years) to 6,217 €/QALY (95% CI 5,832-6,601) in the general population. Overall, there was a 12% chance of TE screening being cost saving across countries and populations.

Conclusions: Screening for liver fibrosis with TE in primary care is a cost-effective intervention for European and Asian populations and may even be cost saving.

Lay Summary: The lack of optimized public health screening strategies for the detection of liver fibrosis in adults without known liver disease presents a major healthcare challenge. Analyses from 6 independent international cohorts, with transient elastography measurements, show that a community-based risk-stratification strategy for alcohol-related and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases is cost-effective and potentially cost saving for our healthcare systems, as it leads to earlier identification of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.08.019DOI Listing
December 2019

Validation of Baveno VI Criteria for Screening and Surveillance of Esophageal Varices in Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis and a Sustained Response to Antiviral Therapy.

Gastroenterology 2019 03 13;156(4):997-1009.e5. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Hôpital Trousseau, Unité d'Hépatologie, CHRU de Tours.

Background & Aims: Management of patients with cirrhosis includes endoscopic screening and surveillance to detect esophageal varices (EV) and prevent bleeding. However, the Baveno VI guidelines recommend avoiding endoscopies for patients with liver stiffness measurements below 20 kPa and platelet counts above 150,000 (favorable Baveno VI status) and endoscopic assessment of patients with higher levels of liver stiffness and platelet counts (unfavorable Baveno VI status). We aimed to validate the Baveno VI guidelines, evaluating outcomes of patients in the ANRS-CO12 CirVir cohort with compensated cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with or without a sustained response to antiviral therapy.

Methods: We performed an ancillary study using data from 891 patients in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, treated at 35 centers in France, with HCV or HBV infection and biopsy-proven cirrhosis, Child-Pugh A scores, no previous complications, and no hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent an endoscopic procedure and had interpretable liver stiffness measurements and platelet counts. Progression of portal hypertension (PHT) was defined as the onset of varices needing treatment (VNT) or PHT-related bleeding. An sustained response to antiviral therapy was defined as undetectable level of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction assay (<50 IU/mL) 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR) or an undetectable level of HBV DNA. The primary aims were to validate the Baveno VI guidelines for screening and surveillance of EV in patients with compensated cirrhosis and to study the effects of an SVR on the progression of PHT.

Results: A total of 200 patients achieved an SVR (22.4%) (94 patients with HCV infection, 98 patients with HBV infection, and 8 patients with both); 80 of these patients had favorable Baveno VI status and none had VNT. Progression of PHT was studied in 548 patients; during a follow-up period of 61.2 months (interquartile range, 39.5-80.6 months), 105 of these patients (19.1%) had progression of PHT. Lack of an SVR and grade 1 EV were independently associated with progression of PHT. At the time of PHT progression, all patients had unfavorable Baveno VI status. Achieving favorable Baveno VI status after an SVR was associated with the absence of PHT progression. Favorable Baveno VI status and SVR were independently associated with survival.

Conclusions: In an analysis of data from a large cohort of patients with HBV- or HCV-associated cirrhosis in France, we validated the Baveno VI guidelines on screening and surveillance of PHT, even for patients who achieved a sustained response to antiviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.053DOI Listing
March 2019

Non-virological factors are drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma in virosuppressed hepatitis B cirrhosis: Results of ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2019 03 16;26(3):384-396. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Hépatologie, Paris, France.

Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs mainly in Asian patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to decipher the environmental and virological factors associated with HCC occurrence and validate risk scoring systems in a French multicentre prospective cohort of HBV cirrhotic patients. Patients with biopsy-proven Child-Pugh A viral cirrhosis included in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort who were HBsAg(+) without hepatitis C coinfection were selected for: (a) interview through a standardized questionnaire reporting coffee consumption and HCC familial history; (b) HBsAg quantification using baseline and sequential 2-year frozen sera; (c) baseline HBV genotype determination; and (d) assessment of risk factors and applicability of HCC risk scores (Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox models). Among 317 patients studied (261 men, median age 53 years, past or ongoing antiviral treatment 93.3% and baseline detectable HBV DNA in 88 patients), the baseline and 2-year median HBsAg levels were 810 and 463 IU/mL, respectively. After a median follow-up of 65.2 months, 27 HCC cases were diagnosed (annual incidence: 1.6%). Three factors were independently associated with HCC occurrence: age > 50 years, platelets ≤ 150 × 10 /mm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m . Two out of five risk scores were validated, and the most accurate was PAGE-B at 1 year. Moreover, HCC in patients without maintained virological suppression seems more aggressive and less accessible to curative treatment. In conclusion, in French patients with HBV cirrhosis mostly virally suppressed, independent HCC risk factors were host-related (age, obesity) or linked to the severity of cirrhosis (thrombopenia), and the European PAGE-B score was the most accurate risk score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13029DOI Listing
March 2019

Estimate of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

J Hepatol 2018 12 6;69(6):1274-1283. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

SBIM, APHP, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, Inserm, UMR-1153, ECSTRA Team, Paris, France.

Background & Aims: More than 90% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur in patients with cirrhosis, of which alcohol is a major cause. The CIRRAL cohort aimed to assess the burden of complications in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, particularly the occurrence of HCC.

Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were included then prospectively followed. The main endpoint was the incidence of HCC. Secondary outcomes were incidence of hepatic focal lesions, overall survival (OS), liver-related mortality and event-free survival (EFS).

Results: From October 2010 to April 2016, 652 patients were included in 22 French and Belgian centers. During follow-up (median 29 months), HCC was diagnosed in 43 patients. With the limitation derived from the uncertainty of consecutive patients' inclusion and from a sizable proportion of dropouts (153/652), the incidence of HCC was 2.9 per 100 patient-years, and one- and two-year cumulative incidences of 1.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Although HCC fulfilled the Milan criteria in 33 cases (77%), only 24 patients (56%) underwent curative treatment. An explorative prognostic analysis showed that age, male gender, baseline alpha-fetoprotein, bilirubin and prothrombin were significantly associated with the risk of HCC occurrence. Among 73 deaths, 61 had a recorded cause and 27 were directly attributable to liver disease. At two years, OS, EFS and cumulative incidences of liver-related deaths were 93% (95% CI 90.5-95.4), 80.3% (95% CI 76.9-83.9), and 3.2% (95% CI 1.6-4.8) respectively.

Conclusion: This large prospective cohort incompletely representative of the whole population with alcoholic cirrhosis showed: a) an annual incidence of HCC of up to 2.9 per 100 patient-years, suggesting that surveillance might be cost effective in these patients; b) a high proportion of HCC detected within the Milan criteria, but only one-half of detected HCC cases were referred for curative treatments; c) a two-year mortality rate of up to 7%.

Lay Summary: Cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary liver cancer, leading to recommendations for periodic screening. However, for alcohol-related liver disease the rational of periodic screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial, as registry and databased studies have suggested a low incidence of HCC in these patients and highly competitive mortality rates. In this study, a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis prospectively screened for HCC demonstrated a high annual incidence of HCC (2.9%) and a high percentage of small cancers theoretically eligible for curative treatment. This suggests that patients with liver disease related to alcohol should not be ruled out of screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.07.022DOI Listing
December 2018

Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Direct Antiviral Therapy for HCV in Patients With Cirrhosis Included in Surveillance Programs.

Gastroenterology 2018 11 19;155(5):1436-1450.e6. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Hôpital de la Côte de Nacre, Service d'Hépatologie, Caen, France.

Background & Aims: Retrospective studies have found an unexpectedly high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis who received direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. We analyzed data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort to compare the incidence of HCC in patients with cirrhosis who received DAA therapy vs patients treated with interferon (IFN).

Methods: Data were collected from 1270 patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-associated cirrhosis recruited from 2006 through 2012 at 35 centers in France. For descriptive purpose, patients were classified as follows: patients who received DAA treatment (DAA group, n = 336), patients who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) following an IFN-based regimen (SVR-IFN group, n = 495), or patients who never received DAA treatment and never had an SVR following IFN therapy (non-SVR group, n = 439). The patients were included in HCC surveillance programs based on ultrasound examination every 6 months, and clinical and biological data were recorded. To account for confounding by indication due to differences in patient characteristics at treatment initiation, we constructed a time-dependent Cox regression model weighted by the inverse probability of treatment and censoring (IPTCW) to assess the treatment effects of DAA on time until HCC.

Results: Compared with patients in the SVR-IFN group, patients in the DAA group were older, higher proportions had diabetes or portal hypertension, and liver function was more severely impaired. The crude 3-year cumulative incidences of HCC were 5.9% in the DAA group, 3.1% in the SVR-IFN group, and 12.7% in the non-SVR group (overall P < .001; unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] for HCC 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.84; P = .030 for the DAA group vs the SVR-IFN group). HCC characteristics were similar among groups. Among patients with HCC, the DAA group received less-frequent HCC screening than the other 2 groups (P = .002). After Cox analyses weighted by the IPTCW, we found no statistically significant increase in risk of HCC associated with DAA use (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46-1.73; P = .73).

Conclusions: Analysis of data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort reveals that the apparent increase in HCC incidence observed in patients with cirrhosis treated with DAAs compared with patients who achieved SVR following an IFN therapy can be explained by patient characteristics (age, diabetes, reduced liver function) and lower screening intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.015DOI Listing
November 2018

Compliance With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Guidelines Associated With Increased Lead-Time Adjusted Survival of Patients With Compensated Viral Cirrhosis: A Multi-Center Cohort Study.

Gastroenterology 2018 08 3;155(2):431-442.e10. Epub 2018 May 3.

Hôpital de la Côte de Nacre, Service d'Hépatologie, Caen, France.

Background & Aims: Semi-annual surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine how compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines affects survival times of patients with hepatitis C virus- or hepatitis B virus-associated compensated cirrhosis who developed HCC.

Methods: We collected data from the prospective ANRS CO12 CirVir study, from March 2006 through June 2012, on 1671 patients with biopsy-proven viral cirrhosis and no previous liver complications who were undergoing surveillance for HCC at 35 centers in France. Only 216 patients who developed HCC during the follow-up period were included in the analysis. Patients were considered to be compliant with surveillance guidelines if the time between their last surveillance image evaluation and diagnosis of HCC were fewer than 7 months and noncompliant if this time was 7 months or longer.

Results: HCC was detected in 216 patients, at a median follow-up time of 59.7 months. Of these patients, 140 (80.5%) were Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A, 135 (69.9%) received first-line curative treatment (15 underwent transplantation, 29 underwent resection, 89 received percutaneous ablation, and 2 received resection and percutaneous ablation), and 129 (60.0%) were compliant with surveillance guidelines. Seventy-nine of the patients with HCC died; 49 deaths were associated with tumor progression. After lead-time adjustment, overall survival (OS) time was longer in patients compliant with surveillance guidelines (median OS time, 53.2 months) than noncompliant patients (median OS time, 25.4 months) (P = .0107); this difference remained significant even when we changed lead time assumptions. In multivariate analysis adjusted for a propensity score, compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines was associated with low tumor burden, allocation of curative treatment, and increased OS time compared with noncompliance (hazard ratio for OS, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-4.14; P = .0150).

Conclusions: In an analysis of data from the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, we associated compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines (fewer than 7 months between image evaluations) with early diagnosis, allocation of curative treatment, and longer adjusted OS of patients with hepatitis C virus- or hepatitis B virus-associated compensated cirrhosis and a diagnosis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.027DOI Listing
August 2018

Extrahepatic cancers are the leading cause of death in patients achieving hepatitis B virus control or hepatitis C virus eradication.

Hepatology 2018 10 10;68(4):1245-1259. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Service d'Hépatologie, Hôpital d'Aix-en-Provence, Aix-En-Provence, France.

Data on extrahepatic cancers (EHCs) in compensated viral cirrhosis are limited. The objective of the prospective multicenter Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites virales CO12 CirVir cohort was to assess the occurrence of all clinical events in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis, including all types of cancer. Patients with the following inclusion criteria were enrolled in 35 French centers: (1) biopsy-proven hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis, (2) Child-Pugh A, or (3) absence of previous liver complications including primary liver cancer (PLC). Patients were followed up prospectively every 6 months. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated according to age and gender using 5-year periods. The impact of sustained viral response (SVR) in HCV patients and maintained viral suppression in HBV patients were assessed using time-dependent analysis. A total of 1,671 patients were enrolled between 2006 and 2012 (median age, 54.9 years; men, 67.3%; HCV, 1,323; HBV, 317; HCV-HBV, 31). Metabolic features and excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption were recorded in 15.2%, 36.4%, and 56.4% of cases, respectively. After a median follow-up of 59.7 months, 227 PLCs were diagnosed (5-year cumulative incidence [CumI] 13.4%) and 93 patients developed EHC (14 patients with lymphoid or related tissue cancer and 79 with solid tissue cancer; 5-year EHC CumI, 5.9%). Compared to the general French population, patients were younger at cancer diagnosis, with significantly higher risk of EHC in HCV patients (SMR, 1.31; 95 confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.64; P = 0.017) and after SVR (SMR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.08-2.22; P = 0.013). EHC was the fourth leading cause of death in the whole cohort and the first in patients with viral control/eradication.

Conclusion: Compared to the general French population, HCV cirrhosis is associated with a higher risk of EHC and the first cause of death in patients with viral cirrhosis who achieve virological control/eradication. (Hepatology 2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30034DOI Listing
October 2018

Prognostic value of viral eradication for major adverse cardiovascular events in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients.

Am Heart J 2018 04 7;198:4-17. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

AP-HP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Service d'Hépatologie, Villejuif.

Background: The objective was to examine the role of a sustained virological response (SVR) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis.

Methods: Patients with the following criteria were enrolled in 35 French centers: (1) biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis; (2) Child-Pugh A; (3) positive viremia; and (4) no prior liver complication, and then prospectively followed. All patients received HCV treatment after inclusion. MACEs included stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, cardiac arrest, and cardiovascular death. SVR, defined as negative viremia 12 weeks posttreatment, was considered as a time-dependent covariate, and its effect on MACE occurrence was assessed. The median follow up was 57.5 months, ending in December 2015.

Results: Sixty-two of 878 (7.1%) patients presented a total of 79 MACEs. The main predictive baseline factors of MACEs were Asian ethnic origin, history of MACEs, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, low serum albumin level, high total bilirubin level, and low platelet count. In multivariate analysis, SVR was associated with a decreased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio=0.35, 95% CI 0.09-0.97, P=.044), whereas Asian ethnic origin, arterial hypertension, smoking, and low serum albumin level remained predictive of MACE occurrence. The 5-year survival rate was 60.1% versus 87.5% in patients who did versus those who did not present a MACE (P<.001).

Conclusions: In patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis, Asian ethnic origin, arterial hypertension, smoking, and low serum albumin are independent predictive factors of cardiovascular events, whereas an SVR is associated with a decreased rate of cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.10.024DOI Listing
April 2018

Eating Patterns in Patients with Compensated Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study.

Nutrients 2018 Jan 10;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Nutritionnal Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Paris 13 University, UMR U1153 Inserm, Inra U1125, Cnam, Center of Reasearch in Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CRESS) Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75004 Paris, France.

Background: There is growing evidence suggesting that maintaining an adequate nutritional status for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) is relevant to prevent complications. The present study aimed to describe dietary behaviours of patients with compensated and non-complicated LC and comparing them with those of subjects from the general population.

Methods: In this case-control study, patients were volunteers enrolled in the ALICIR (ALImentation et CIRrhose) study, an observational survey nested in two French prospective cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis related either to excessive alcohol consumption (CIRRAL) or to hepatitis B or C virus infection (CirVir). Controls were selected from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dietary data were collected through a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary and nutritional data were compared using multi-adjusted paired Student's tests.

Results: Between June 2014 and February 2016, 174 patients of CirVir ( = 97) or CIRRAL ( = 77) were matched with 348 controls from the NutriNet-Santé cohort, according to gender, age, BMI and educational level. Compared to controls, patients (mean ± SD) consumed more sodas (236.0 ± 29.8 mL vs. 83.0 ± 33.0 mL) and water (1787.6 ± 80.6 mL vs. 933.6 ± 85.3 mL), and lower amounts of salty snacks (4.2 ± 1.42 g vs. 9.0 ± 1.6 g) and alcoholic beverages (71.8 ± 23.4 g vs. 151.2 ± 25.9 g), with all values < 0.0001. Dietary behaviours differed according to LC aetiology.

Conclusions: Dietary behaviour of patients significantly differed from subjects from the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793288PMC
January 2018

Efficacy of daclatasvir-based quadruple therapy in nonresponder patients infected by hepatitis C virus genotype 4: the ANRS HC32 QUATTRO study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 03;30(3):302-309

Hepatology Department, St Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: A few direct antiviral agents have been studied in difficult-to-treat patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4). The efficacy of daclatasvir (DCV), asunaprevir (ASV), pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) association was investigated in these patients.

Patients And Methods: This open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was conducted in HCV GT4 patients who were null or partial responders to Peg-IFN/RBV. Patients received 24 weeks of DCV (60 mg, once daily), ASV (100 mg, twice daily) and Peg-IFN/RBV. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 [sustained virologic response (SVR)12].

Results: Sixty patients were included; 45 (75%) were previous null responders and 27 (45%) had cirrhosis. The most frequent subtypes were GT4a (48%) and GT4d (27%) with 25% of the patients being infected with other subtypes such as 4c, 4r, 4f, 4k, 4j and 4q. The global SVR12 was 95% (90% confidence interval: 90.4-99.6) and 96.3% (90% confidence interval: 87.5-99.5) in cirrhotic patients. All patients achieving SVR12 also achieved SVR24. Previous Peg-IFN/RBV response, IL28b genotype, cirrhosis status or GT4 subtypes did not influence SVR12 rates. Serious adverse events occurred in 13% of the patients, four being cirrhotic and four noncirrhotic. Three (5%) patients stopped HCV therapy prematurely: one because of virologic breakthrough and two because of serious adverse events. Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included leukopenia (33%), neutropenia (27%), thrombocytopenia (4%) and transaminases increase (2%).

Conclusion: Association of DCV plus ASV and peg-IFN/RBV for 24 weeks demonstrated a high rate of SVR12 in HCV GT4-infected prior nonresponders, independently of the cirrhotic status or the GT4 subtype. The safety profile was acceptable, even in cirrhotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001035DOI Listing
March 2018

Genetic diversity and worldwide distribution of the deltavirus genus: A study of 2,152 clinical strains.

Hepatology 2017 12 30;66(6):1826-1841. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Laboratoire de Microbiologie Clinique, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Paris Seine Saint-Denis, Site Avicenne, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is responsible for the most severe form of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. We previously proposed that the Deltavirus genus is composed of eight major clades. However, few sequences were available to confirm this classification. Moreover, little is known about the structural and functional consequences of HDV variability. One practical consequence is the failure of most quantification assays to properly detect or quantify plasmatic HDV RNA. Between 2001 and 2014, 2,152 HDV strains were prospectively collected and genotyped in our reference laboratory by means of nucleotide sequencing and extensive phylogenetic analyses of a 400-nucleotide region of the genome (R0) from nucleotides 889 to 1289 encompassing the 3' end of the delta protein-coding gene. In addition, the full-length genome sequence was generated for 116 strains selected from the different clusters, allowing for in-depth characterization of the HDV genotypes and subgenotypes. This study confirms that the HDV genus is composed of eight genotypes (HDV-1 to HDV-8) defined by an intergenotype similarity >85% or >80%, according to the partial or full-length genome sequence, respectively. Furthermore, genotypes can be segregated into two to four subgenotypes, characterized by an intersubgenotype similarity >90% (>84% for HDV-1) over the whole genome sequence. Systematic analysis of genome and protein sequences revealed highly conserved functional nucleotide and amino acid motifs and positions across all (sub)genotypes, indicating strong conservatory constraints on the structure and function of the genome and the protein.

Conclusion: This study provides insight into the genetic diversity of HDV and a clear view of its geographical localization and allows speculation as to the worldwide spread of the virus, very likely from an initial African origin. (Hepatology 2017;66:1826-1841).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.29574DOI Listing
December 2017

Hepatitis E virus-induced primary cutaneous CD30(+) T cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

J Hepatol 2017 12 30;67(6):1334-1339. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1163, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Equipes de Recherche Labellisées 8254, Institut Imagine, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades, Haematology Service, Paris, France.

Background & Aim: Several types of unexplained extra-hepatic manifestations, including haematological disorders, have been reported in the context of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of these manifestations are unknown. We provide evidence that HEV has an extra-hepatic endothelial tropism that can engage cutaneous T cells towards clonality.

Methods: A patient with a CD30(+) cutaneous T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) and biopsy-proven chronic HEV infection received three rounds of oral ribavirin treatment, administered either without or with interferon, and eventually achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR). Pathologic, virologic and immunologic investigations were carried out on biopsied skin lesion, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the 2nd and 3rd round of antiviral treatment and biopsied liver.

Results: Remission of T-LPD was observed upon antiviral treatment, and the patient remained in complete remission after achieving SVR. The T cell analysis showed large CD30(+) lymphocytes surrounding the blood vessels within the CD8(+) T cell infiltrate. HEV was detected within dermal microvascular endothelial cells using immunofluorescence staining, in situ hybridisation and electron microscopy. Infiltrating T cells mostly comprised memory CD8(+) T cells with a tissue-resident memory T cell phenotype. Overall, 98% of extracted T cells were CD8(+) T cells with aVβ signature skewed towards Vβ4 and with an oligoclonal profile. T cell clones from T-LPD were more like T cells in the liver than T cells in the blood [odds ratio=4.55, (3.70-5.60), p<0.0001]. No somatic mutations were found in the T-LPD exomes.

Conclusion: HEV has an extra-hepatic tissue tropism in humans, including dermal endothelium, and can induce CD30(+) T-LPD that is sensitive to antivirals.

Lay Summary: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has an extra-hepatic tissue tropism and should be added to the list of viruses associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. As such, HEV should be part of the laboratory workup of any lymphoproliferation, particularly those of the T cell phenotype that involve the skin. In the context of HEV-associated cutaneous T cell lymphoproliferative disorders, antiviral treatment could be considered a first-line treatment instead of chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.08.011DOI Listing
December 2017

Concomitant screening for liver fibrosis and steatosis in French type 2 diabetic patients using Fibroscan.

Liver Int 2017 12 2;37(12):1897-1906. Epub 2017 Jul 2.

Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Jean Verdier Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France.

Background: Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Non-invasive liver stiffness (LS) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurements by Fibroscan allow assessing liver fat and fibrosis.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of steatosis and significant fibrosis in a community-based diabetic population.

Methods: LS and CAP were measured in 705 patients using the standard "M probe." A second "XL probe" was used, without CAP measurement, in case of failure with the "M probe."

Results: LS and CAP measurements were obtained in 437 patients (the M group), LS measurements (LSM) with the XL probe being available in additional 232 patients. After the combined use of both probes, LSM failure and unreliable result were 1.6% and 5.6% respectively. Overall, 12.7% (n=85), 7.3% and 2.1% exhibited significant or advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis (LSM≥8 kPa, ≥9.6 kPa, ≥13 kPa respectively), half of the patients with LSM≥8 kPa displayed normal liver tests. Significant and severe steatosis were measured in 75% and 24% of the M group patients. By multivariate analysis, factors associated with severe fibrosis were age, overweight, high GGT. Forty-seven patients with LSM≥8 kPa underwent liver biopsy; 93% had steatosis and 51% severe fibrosis. A significant correlation was found between LSM values and fibrosis score with an accuracy rate of 83%, 68% and 83% for LSM≥8 kPa, ≥9.6 kPa and ≥13 kPa respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of significant steatosis is very high and significant fibrosis affect 12.7% of the patients. Fibroscan is an effective procedure to screen for fibrosis and steatosis in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13481DOI Listing
December 2017

Performance Characteristics of a New Consensus Commercial Kit for Hepatitis D Virus RNA Viral Load Quantification.

J Clin Microbiol 2017 02 23;55(2):431-441. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Virologie, Hygiène des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Paris Seine-Saint-Denis, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure and accelerates evolution toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. To date, treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with a sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new, promising anti-HDV therapies have been developed and are already being used in clinical trials. HDV RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected patients. However, HDV genus is characterized by a high genetic variability into eight genotypes (HDV-1 to -8), and most available in-house or commercial assays are useful for only a limited subset of genotypes. Results of a comparison of the performance of a new kit for HDVL quantification with the consensus in-house assay of the French National Reference Laboratory for HDV developed in 2005 are reported here. A total of 611 clinical samples of all HDV genotypes with various HDVL values, including several consecutive samples over several years from 36 patients, were studied. A specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility evaluation was conducted using HDV-positive clinical samples, hepatitis A, B, C and E (HAV, HBV, HCV, and HEV, respectively) and HIV mono-infected samples, and the WHO HDV RNA international standard. Overall results were strictly comparable between the two assays (median difference, 0.07 log IU/ml), with high diagnosis precision and capacity. In summary, this new kit showed high performance in detection/quantification of HDVL, regardless of the genotype of the infecting strain used, and seems to be a suitable tool for patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02027-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5277512PMC
February 2017

Eradication of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis Reduces Risk of Liver and Non-Liver Complications.

Gastroenterology 2017 01 15;152(1):142-156.e2. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

AP-HP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Service d'Hépatologie, Villejuif, France.

Background & Aims: We performed a prospective study to investigate the effects of a sustained viral response (SVR) on outcomes of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated cirrhosis.

Methods: We collected data from 1323 patients included in the prospective Agence Nationale pour la Recherche sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales (ANRS) viral cirrhosis (CirVir) cohort, recruited from 35 clinical centers in France from 2006 through 2012. All patients had HCV infection and biopsy-proven cirrhosis, were Child-Pugh class A, and had no prior liver complications. All patients received anti-HCV treatment before or after inclusion (with interferon then with direct antiviral agents) and underwent an ultrasound examination every 6 months, as well as endoscopic evaluations. SVR was considered as a time-dependent covariate; its effect on outcome was assessed by the Cox proportional hazard regression method. We used a propensity score to minimize confounding by indication of treatment and capacity to achieve SVR.

Results: After a median follow-up period of 58.2 months, 668 patients (50.5%) achieved SVR. SVR was associated with a decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR] compared with patients without an SVR, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.43; P < .001) and hepatic decompensation (HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.17-0.39; P < .001). Patients with SVRs also had a lower risk of cardiovascular events (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.25-0.69; P = .001) and bacterial infections (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.68; P < .001). Metabolic features were associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with SVRs, but not in patients with viremia. SVR affected overall mortality (HR, 0.27 compared with patients without SVR; 95% CI, 0.18-0.42; P < .001) and death from liver-related and non-liver-related causes. Similar results were obtained in a propensity score-matched population.

Conclusions: We confirmed a reduction in critical events, liver-related or not, in a prospective study of patients with HCV infection and compensated cirrhosis included in the CirVir cohort who achieved an SVR. We found an SVR to reduce overall mortality and risk of death from liver-related and non-liver-related causes. A longer follow-up evaluation is required to accurately describe and assess specific risk factors for complications in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.009DOI Listing
January 2017

Nomogram for individualized prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (ANRS CO12 CirVir).

Hepatology 2016 10 4;64(4):1136-47. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Hospital Côte de Nacre, Liver Unit, Caen, France.

Unlabelled: The aim of this work was to develop an individualized score for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C (HCV)-compensated cirrhosis. Among 1,323 patients with HCV cirrhosis enrolled in the French prospective ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, 720 and 360 were randomly assigned to training and validation sets, respectively. Cox's multivariate model was used to predict HCC, after which a nomogram was computed to assess individualized risk. During follow-up (median, 51.0 months), 103 and 39 patients developed HCC in the training and validation sets, respectively. Five variables were independently associated with occurrence of HCC: age > 50 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16; 3.25; P = 0.012); past excessive alcohol intake (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.02; 2.36; P = 0.041); low platelet count (<100 Giga/mm(3) : HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.62; 4.51; P < 0.001; [100; 150] Giga/mm(3) : HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.10; 3.18; P = 0.021); gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase above the upper limit of normal (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.11; 3.47; P = 0.021); and absence of a sustained virological response during follow-up (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.67; 5.48; P < 0.001). An 11-point risk score was derived from the training cohort and validated in the validation set. Based on this score, the population was stratified into three groups, in which HCC development gradually increased, from 0% to 30.1% at 5 years for patients with the lowest (≤3) and highest (≥8) scores (P < 0.001). Using this score, a nomogram was built enabling individualized prediction of HCC occurrence at 1, 3, and 5 years.

Conclusion: This HCC score can accurately predict HCC at an individual level in French patients with HCV cirrhosis. (Hepatology 2016;64:1136-1147).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.28702DOI Listing
October 2016

Bacterial infection in compensated viral cirrhosis impairs 5-year survival (ANRS CO12 CirVir prospective cohort).

Gut 2017 02 28;66(2):330-341. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Hôpital Trousseau, Unité d'Hépatologie, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France.

Objective: To assess incidence and prognostic significance of bacterial infections (BIs) occurring in compensated viral cirrhosis.

Design: This prospective study involved 35 French centres. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven HCV or HBV cirrhosis, Child-Pugh A and no previous hepatic complications. Cumulative incidence (CumI) of events was estimated in a competing risks framework.

Results: 1672 patients were enrolled (HCV 1323, HBV 318, HCV-HBV 31). During a median follow-up of 43 months, 234 BIs occurred in 171 patients (5 year CumI: 12.9%), among whom 14.6% had septic shock. Main localisations included the urinary tract (27.4%), lung (25.2%) and peritoneum (10.7%) (other, 86 (36.7%)). Most BIs occurred as a first event prior to liver decompensation (n=140, 81.8%) and were community-acquired (CA, 84.2%). The risk of BI was higher in patients with HCV than in patients with HBV (5 year CumI: 15.2% vs 5.5%, p=0.0008). Digestive localisation, concomitant interferon-based treatment, isolation of resistant bacteria and non-CA BIs were associated with lowest probability of resolution. The occurrence of a first BI impaired survival in patients infected with HCV (5 year survival: 60.2% vs 90.4%, p<0.001) and patients infected with HBV (5 year survival: 69.2% vs 97.6%, p<0.001). BIs represented the third cause of death (14.1%) after liver failure and liver cancer. BI risk factors comprised older age, lower albumin, proton pump inhibitor intake and absence of virological eradication/control.

Conclusion: BI mostly occurs as a first complication and represents a turning point in the course of compensated viral cirrhosis. Its occurrence impacts long-term prognosis and may define a subgroup of patients in whom adaptation of management is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310275DOI Listing
February 2017

Prevalence and clinical significance of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in liver biopsies.

Liver Int 2016 07 19;36(7):1059-66. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Faculté de Médecine, INSERM UMR-1162, Génomique fonctionnelle des Tumeurs solides, IUH, France Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Background: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a rare histological disorder associated with a wide variety of systemic diseases.

Aims: We aimed (i) to report the prevalence of NRH in a database of liver biopsies (LBs) and the frequency of portal hypertension (PHT) at diagnosis, and (ii) to investigate whether associated diseases and/or specific histological lesions, including abnormalities of the microvasculature, were related to PHT.

Methods: Patients with a histological diagnosis of NRH, referred by seven clinical departments, were retrospectively selected. Clinical, biological, radiological, haemodynamic and endoscopic data at diagnosis were recorded. LBs were reassessed for microvascular abnormalities.

Results: NRH was diagnosed in 4.4% of LBs (n = 159, male: 52%, mean age: 54). Among patients referred for unexplained liver enzyme abnormalities, 15% had NRH. PHT was present at diagnosis in 45 patients (38%), including 13 with portal thrombosis; 65% of patients had an associated disorder. Obliteration of portal vein branches, observed in the LBs of 17 patients (11%), was significantly associated with PHT (P = 0.02). Periportal angiomatosis, observed in 101 patients (63%), was associated with the absence of PHT (P < 10(-4) ).

Conclusion: We suggest that NRH is a frequent histological lesion in the setting of unexplained liver enzyme abnormalities. PHT is present at the time of diagnosis in 1/3 of patients regardless of the presence of associated disease. The frequency of periportal angiomatosis in NRH without obliteration of portal vein branches, and its association with the absence of PHT suggest that obstructive portal venopathy would not represent the most frequent mechanism involved in NRH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12974DOI Listing
July 2016

Complications and competing risks of death in compensated viral cirrhosis (ANRS CO12 CirVir prospective cohort).

Hepatology 2015 Sep 20;62(3):737-50. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Hôpital d'Aix-En-Provence, Service d'Hépatologie, Aix-En-Provence, France.

Unlabelled: Various critical events, liver related or not, occur in patients with compensated cirrhosis, but their respective burden remains to be prospectively assessed. The aim of this prospective cohort study involving 35 French centers was to capture the whole spectrum of complications occurring in compensated viral cirrhosis (VC) using competing risks analyses. Inclusion criteria were: histologically proven cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV); Child-Pugh A; and no previous hepatic complications. The cohort was considered as a multistate disease model, cumulative incidences (CumIs) of events were estimated in a competing risks framework. A total of 1,654 patients were enrolled from 2006 to 2012 (HCV, 1,308; HBV, 315; HCV-HBV, 31). During a median follow-up of 34 months, at least one liver nodule was detected in 271 patients, confirmed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 128 (4-year cumI: 10.5%) and cholangiocarcinoma in 3. HCC incidence was higher in HCV (4-year cumI: 11.4% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.05). HCC fulfilled Milan criteria in 79.3%, leading to curative treatment in 70.4%. Liver decompensation occurred more frequently in HCV patients (4-year cumI: 10.8% vs. 3.6%; P = 0.0004). Virological eradication/control was achieved in 34.1% of HCV and 88.6% of HBV patients and was associated with a marked decrease in HCC, decompensation, and bacterial infection incidences. Survival was shorter in HCV patients (4-year cumI: 91.6% vs. 97.2%; P = 0.0002). Death (n = 102; missing data: 6) was attributed to liver disease in 48 (47%; liver cancer: n = 18; miscellaneous, n = 30) and extrahepatic causes in 48 (47%; bacterial infection: n = 13; extrahepatic cancers: n = 10; cardiovascular events: n = 5; miscellaneous, n = 20).

Conclusion: After 3 years of follow-up, extrahepatic events still explained half of deaths in patients with compensated VC. A strong decrease in complications was linked to virological eradication/control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.27743DOI Listing
September 2015

Causes and consequences of portal vein thrombosis in 1,243 patients with cirrhosis: results of a longitudinal study.

Hepatology 2015 Feb 5;61(2):660-7. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

AP-HP, Hôpital Beaujon, Service d'Hépatologie, Clichy, France; Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar - Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Unlabelled: In cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) could be a cause or a consequence of the progression of liver disease. We analyzed data from a prospective trial of ultrasound screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in order to identify risk factors for and the impact of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. In all, 1,243 adults with cirrhosis without PVT were enrolled from 43 liver units in France and Belgium between June 2000 and March 2006. The mean follow-up was 47 months. Doppler ultrasonography was used to check the portal vein. Progression of liver disease was defined by the development of: ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, prothrombin <45%, serum bilirubin >45 μmol/L, albumin <28 g/L, and/or creatinine >115 μmol/L. G20210A prothrombin and factor V gene mutations were assessed in sera stored at three large centers. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PVT was 10.7%. PVT was mostly partial and varied over time. The development of PVT was independently associated with baseline esophageal varices (P = 0.01) and prothrombin time (P = 0.002), but not with disease progression before PVT, or prothrombotic mutations. Disease progression was independently associated with baseline age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17), body mass index (HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.01-1.95), prothrombin time (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.90), serum albumin (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), and esophageal varices (HR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.21-2.38) but not with the prior development of PVT (HR 1.32; 95% CI: 0.68-2.65).

Conclusion: In patients with cirrhosis, the development of PVT is associated with the severity of liver disease at baseline, but does not follow a recent progression of liver disease. There is no evidence that the development of PVT is responsible for further progression of liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.27546DOI Listing
February 2015

High frequency of X chromosome abnormalities in women with short stature and elevated liver enzymes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Aug 14;99(8):E1592-6. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Unité d'Hépatologie (D.R.), Groupe Hospitalier Paris-Seine-St Denis, Hôpital Avicenne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 93000 Bobigny, France; Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie (V.B., M.B.), Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie (M.Z.), and Service d'Histologie-Embryologie et Cytogénétique, Biologie de la Reproduction (B.B.), Groupe Hospitalier Paris-Seine-St Denis, Hôpital Jean Verdier, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 93143 Bondy, France; Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité (D.R., M.Z., M.B., B.B.), 93000 Bobigny, France; Département de Génétique (V.M.), Université Paris Descartes, INSERM Unité 781, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 75014 Paris, France; Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant (A.L.), Groupe Hospitalier Paris Sud, Hôpital Bicêtre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and Université Paris Sud, INSERM Unité 936, 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Context: Paucisymptomatic forms of Turner's syndrome (TS), in which short stature is the predominant clinical abnormality, remain underdiagnosed. Abnormal liver tests are extremely frequent in adult TS patients reflecting various types of hepatic lesions.

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether unexplained elevated liver enzymes in women with short stature could reveal X chromosome abnormalities of undiagnosed TS.

Design And Participants: Thirty-one consecutive short stature women displaying elevated liver enzymes and no previous diagnosis of TS were compared with 31 age-matched controls in a prospective study. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 patients.

Main Outcome Measures: Systematic karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Results: X chromosome abnormalities were found in 27 patients and one control (87.0% vs 3.2%, P < .0001), including a 45,X/46,XX mosaicism in 24 patients and isochromosome of the long arm in three. Liver histological analysis showed architectural changes in 17 patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia in 12. Biliary lesions were present in 13 patients and liver steatosis in 20.

Conclusions: X chromosome abnormalities indicative of cryptic TS are extremely frequent in short-stature women with unexplained elevated liver enzymes. In short-stature women, abnormal liver tests should lead to systematic karyotype analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-1037DOI Listing
August 2014

Serological and molecular diagnosis of hepatitis delta virus infection: results of a French national quality control study.

J Clin Microbiol 2014 May 12;52(5):1694-7. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Virologie, Hygiène, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Paris Seine-Saint-Denis, Site Avicenne, Bobigny, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

A French national quality control study for the serological and molecular diagnosis of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was organized. Total HDV antibodies were properly detected by all laboratories; 8/14 laboratories failed to detect low titers of IgM, and 6/11 failed to quantify and/or underestimated the RNA viral load in several samples. These discrepancies are likely related to the molecular diversity of HDV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03521-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993628PMC
May 2014
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