Publications by authors named "Dominique Gauthier"

10 Publications

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Red deer () Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Snapshots.

Viruses 2019 09 27;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 27.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France, (C.V.).

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a -borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer () (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008-2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832957PMC
September 2019

Infectious keratoconjunctivitis in wild Caprinae: merging field observations and molecular analyses sheds light on factors shaping outbreak dynamics.

BMC Vet Res 2017 Mar 4;13(1):67. Epub 2017 Mar 4.

Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an ocular infectious disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae which affects small domestic and wild mountain ruminants. Domestic sheep maintain the pathogen but the detection of healthy carriers in wildlife has raised the question as to whether M. conjunctivae may also persist in the wild. Furthermore, the factors shaping the dynamics of IKC outbreaks in wildlife have remained largely unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to verify the etiological role of M. conjunctivae in IKC outbreaks recorded between 2002 and 2010 at four study sites in different regions of France (Pyrenees and Alps, samples from 159 Alpine ibex Capra ibex, Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra and Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica); (2) to establish whether there existed any epidemiological links between the different regions through a cluster analysis of the detected strains (from 80 out of the 159 animals tested); (3) to explore selected pathogen, host and environmental factors potentially influencing the dynamics of IKC in wildlife, by joining results obtained by molecular analyses and by field observations (16,609 animal observations). All of the samples were tested for M. conjunctivae by qPCR, and cluster analysis was based on a highly variable part of the lppS gene.

Results: We documented infections with M. conjunctivae in epidemic and endemic situations, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. The identified M. conjunctivae strains were site-specific and persisted in the local wild population for at least 6 years. In epidemic situations, peaks of cases and disease resurgence were associated with the emergence of new similar strains in a given area. Social interactions, seasonal movements and the landscape structure such as natural and anthropogenic barriers influenced the spatio-temporal spread of IKC. Adults were more affected than young animals and host susceptibility differed depending on the involved strain.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that IKC is a multifactorial disease and that M. conjunctivae can persist in wildlife populations. The disease course in individual animals and populations is influenced by both host and mycoplasma characteristics, and the disease spread within and among populations is shaped by host behavior and landscape structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-0972-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5336646PMC
March 2017

What shapes fitness costs of reproduction in long-lived iteroparous species? A case study on the Alpine ibex.

Ecology 2016 Jan;97(1):205-14

The fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by individual differences, and may only become apparent during adverse environmental conditions. Individual differences, however, are usually assessed by reproductive success, so how fitness costs are influenced by the interplay between the environmental context and overall individual differences requires further investigation. Here, we evaluated fitness costs of reproduction based on 15 yr of monitoring of individual Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) during a period when the population was affected by a severe disease outbreak (pneumonia). We quantified fitness costs using a novel multi-event capture-mark-recapture (CMR) modeling approach that accounted for uncertainty in reproductive status to estimate the survival and reproductive success of female ibex while also accounting for overall individual heterogeneity using mixture models. Our results show that the ability of females to reproduce was highly heterogeneous. In particular, one group including 76% of females had a much higher probability of giving birth annually (between 0.66 and 0.77, depending on the previous reproductive status) than females of the second group (24% of females, between 0 and 0.05 probability of giving birth annually). Low reproductive costs in terms of future reproduction occurred and were independent of the pneumonia outbreak. There was no survival cost of reproduction either before or after the epizootic, but the cost was high during the epizootic. Our findings indicate that adverse environmental conditions, such as disease outbreaks, may lead to survival costs of reproduction in long-lived species and select against females that have a high reproductive effort. Thereby, the occurrence of adverse conditions increases the diversity of reproductive tactics within a population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/15-0014.1DOI Listing
January 2016

Pestiviruses infections at the wild and domestic ruminants interface in the French Southern Alps.

Vet Microbiol 2015 Feb 9;175(2-4):341-8. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Anses, Laboratoire de Sophia-Antipolis, Unité pathologie des ruminants, 105 Route des Chappes - B.P. 111, 06902 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, France. Electronic address:

In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (n=160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.11.025DOI Listing
February 2015

Epidemiology of Pestivirus infection in wild ungulates of the French South Alps.

Vet Microbiol 2011 Jan 23;147(3-4):320-8. Epub 2010 Jul 23.

Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary Sciences (UREAR), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Boulevard de Colonster, 20, B42, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.

Inter-species transmission is often incriminated in the epidemiology of Pestivirus diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pestivirus in some mountain wild ungulates and to determine their role in Pestivirus transmission, as mountain pastures are a place where cohabitations between wild and domestic ungulates are particularly high. Between 2003 and 2007, a longitudinal epidemiological study was carried out on hunted ungulates in the French Hautes-Alpes department. Pestivirus-specific antibodies against p80 protein (also named NS3) common to all Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) were found in 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 40.5-51.3%) of the 343 tested chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). In addition, mouflons (Ovis gmelinii musimon) were shown for the first time to be strongly infected (61.1%; CI95%: 38.6-83.6) by a Pestivirus. These serological ELISA results were confirmed by comparative virus neutralization tests, performed on seven Pestivirus strains by using 15 seropositive samples. The highest antibody titers were directed against 2 BDV strains (Av and 33s strains), rather than BDV-4, a strain responsible for Pyrenean-chamois epizooties. Virus neutralization tests confirm a BDV circulation in wild ungulates in the French South Alps. However, no Pestivirus RNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in serum and spleen samples from seronegative animals and no virus was isolated from those samples either. Efforts should be made to improve the protocol in order to be able to isolate and characterize the local strain. Finally, the oldness (age) and femaleness (gender) increase the risk of seroconversion in chamois.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.07.010DOI Listing
January 2011

Dynamics of diastolic sounds caused by partially occluded coronary arteries.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009 Feb 12;56(2):513-7. Epub 2008 Aug 12.

Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Ira Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

The aim of this project is to improve the detection of coronary occlusions using an approach based on the recording and analysis of isolated diastolic heart sounds associated with turbulent blood flow in occluded coronary arteries. The nonlinear dynamic analysis method based on approximate entropy has been proposed for the analysis of diastolic heart sounds. A commercially available electronic stethoscope was used to record the diastolic heart sounds from patients diagnosed with or without coronary artery disease (CAD) based on their coronary angiography examination. The nonlinear dynamical analysis (approximate entropy) measures of the diastolic heart sounds recorded from 30 patients with coronary occlusions and ten normal subjects were estimated. Results suggest the presence of the high nonlinear (approximate entropy) values of diastolic heart sounds associated with CAD (p < 0.05). This approach led to a sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 80%, and an overall accuracy of 78%. As a summary, 23 out of 30 abnormal patients and eight out of ten normal patients were correctly detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2008.2003098DOI Listing
February 2009

Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats.

J Gen Virol 2008 Jun;89(Pt 6):1478-1484

INRA, UMR754 'Rétrovirus et Pathologie Comparée', Lyon, France.

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread amongst domesticated goats and sheep worldwide, but have not been clearly identified in wild small ruminants, where they might constitute an animal health risk through contamination from local domesticates. SRLV proviruses from three ibexes from the French Alps are described and sequences from their gag gene and long terminal repeats (LTRs) were compared with sequences from local goats and goat/ibex hybrids. The ibex and hybrid proviruses formed a closely related group with <2 % nucleotide difference. Their LTRs were clearly distinct from those of local goats or reference SRLV sequences; however, their gag sequences resembled those from one local goat and reference sequences from caprine arthritis encephalitis virus rather than visna/maedi virus. One SRLV-positive ibex from a distant site shared similarities with the other ibexes studied in both its gag and LTR sequences, suggesting that a distinct SRLV population could circulate in some wild ibex populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.2008/000364-0DOI Listing
June 2008

Diseases and reproductive success in a wild mammal: example in the alpine chamois.

Oecologia 2008 Apr 12;155(4):691-704. Epub 2008 Jan 12.

Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622, France.

Density-dependent and climatic factors affect reproduction and dynamics of wild ungulates. Parasites can also decrease reproductive success through either a direct abortive effect or a negative impact on host growth and body condition. However, few studies have investigated the effect of parasitism on fecundity of ungulates in natural conditions. We studied three bacterial infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis, Chlamydophila abortus and Coxiella burnetii. These bacteria are leading causes of reproductive failure in sheep, goat and cattle, which raises the question of their influence on population dynamics of wild ungulates. A long-term study of demography and epidemiology of an alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra, L.) population (Les Bauges Reserve, France) and a generalized linear modeling approach were used to analyze the reproductive success of chamois according to population density, weather conditions and the prevalence of antibodies against the three bacteria in females. This approach enabled us to identify the confounding effect of weather and parasitism on fecundity in a natural population. After accounting for density, the prevalence of antibodies against the three bacteria explained 36% of the annual variation in reproductive success, and weather conditions explained an additional 31%. This study was, to our knowledge, the first to compare the decrease in fecundity due to bacterial infections and weather conditions in a population of wild mountain ungulates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0942-5DOI Listing
April 2008

Serotypes A1 and A2 of Mannheimia haemolytica are susceptible to genotypic, capsular and phenotypic variations in contrast to T3 and T4 serotypes of Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008 Mar 3;280(1):42-9. Epub 2008 Jan 3.

Research Group on Bacterial Opportunistic Pathogens and Environment, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi are the most common bacterial isolates that cause pulmonary diseases in ruminants worldwide. The disease is determined by specific serotypes found in cattle and small ruminants. The molecular epidemiology of strains involved in disease is important in the control of outbreaks as well as in the preparation of vaccines. This study aimed to detect the instability and variations of bacterial strains that may affect the analysis of epidemic strains, or the stability of vaccinal strains. Eight strains of M. haemolytica belonging to serotypes A1 and A2 and three B. trehalosi strains of the T3 and T4 serotypes were used. Strains were subjected to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and capsular and phenotypic typing at each round of a total of 50 successive subcultures. Remarkable stability was found in all selected strains of B. trehalosi in contrast to M. haemoltyica, in which strains of both serotypes showed pattern variations produced by PFGE and capsular and phenotypic analysis. Objective criteria for M. haemolytica and B. trehalosi typing are consequently addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.01035.xDOI Listing
March 2008

Detection of a newly described pestivirus of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in France.

J Wildl Dis 2005 Jul;41(3):606-10

Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research Berlin, PO Box 601103, D-10252 Berlin, Germany.

A pestivirus was detected and characterized in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) originating from the French part of the Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analysis of the pestivirus was done on the basis of a fragment from the 5' noncoding region including 22 published nucleotide sequences of different pestivirus strains. Our strain was grouped within the clade of border disease viruses (BDV). However, it had an intermediate position between clade BDV and classical swine fever viruses representing a basal position to BDV strains of domestic sheep. Our strain was grouped as a sister unit to a novel pestivirus (Chamois-1) recently described from chamois in Spain. Therefore, we postulate that this virus occurs in the entire population of Pyrenean chamois. On the basis of the phylogenetic grouping of this isolate, a postulated cross-species transmission of pestivirus from domestic sheep to chamois via shared pastures seems to be unlikely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-41.3.606DOI Listing
July 2005