Publications by authors named "Dominique Campion"

136 Publications

Early-Onset Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Alzheimer Disease Related to an APP Locus Triplication.

Neurol Genet 2021 Oct 8;7(5):e609. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Neurology and CNR-MAJ (L.G., D.W.), Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, CHU Rouen, CIC-CRB1404, F 76000; Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ (K.C., S.R., N.L.M., A.R.-L., D.C., G.N.), Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and CHU Rouen, F 76000; Department of Neurology (B.C., M.F.), Lyon University Hospital; Department of Neurology (O.M.), Grenoble University Hospital; Department of Histology (J.B.), Grenoble University Hospital; AP-HP (M.M., T.C., E.T.-L.), Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Louis Lariboisière-Fernand-Widal, Service de Génétique Moléculaire Neurovasculaire, INSERM UMR 1141, NeuroDiderot,Université de Paris; Department of Histology Embryology and Cytogenetics (E.P.), Jean Verdier Hospital; Paris 13 University (E.P.), Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR SMBH Bobigny; and PROTECT (E.P.), INSERM, Paris Diderot University, Bondy, France.

Background And Objective: To report a triplication of the amyloid-β precursor protein () locus along with relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in a family with autosomal dominant early-onset cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer disease (AD).

Methods: Four copies of the gene were identified by quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization. mRNA levels were assessed using reverse-transcription-digital droplet PCR in the proband's whole blood and compared with 10 controls and 9 duplication carriers.

Results: Beginning at age 39 years, the proband developed severe episodic memory deficits with a CSF biomarker profile typical of AD and multiple lobar microbleeds in the posterior regions on brain MRI. His father had seizures and recurrent cerebral hemorrhage since the age of 37 years. His cerebral biopsy showed abundant perivascular amyloid deposits, leading to a diagnosis of CAA. In the proband, we identified 4 copies of a 506-kb region located on chromosome 21q21.3 and encompassing the whole gene without any other gene. FISH suggested that the genotype of the proband was 3 copies/1 copy corresponding to an locus triplication, which was consistent with the presence of 2 copies in the healthy mother and with the paternal medical history. Analysis of the mRNA level showed a 2-fold increase in the proband and a 1.8 fold increase in duplication carriers compared with controls.

Discussion: Increased copy number of is sufficient to cause AD and CAA, with likely earlier onset in case of triplication compared with duplication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439959PMC
October 2021

Clinical and neuropathological diversity of tauopathy in MAPT duplication carriers.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 08 6;142(2):259-278. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, CHU Rouen, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, F-76000, Rouen, France.

Microduplications of the 17q21.31 chromosomal region encompassing the MAPT gene, which encodes the Tau protein, were identified in patients with a progressive disorder initially characterized by severe memory impairment with or without behavioral changes that can clinically mimic Alzheimer disease. The unique neuropathological report showed a primary tauopathy, which could not be unanimously classified in a given known subtype, showing both 4R- and 3R-tau inclusions, mainly within temporal cortical subregions and basal ganglia, without amyloid deposits. Recently, two subjects harboring the same duplication were reported with an atypical extrapyramidal syndrome and gait disorder. To decipher the phenotypic spectrum associated with MAPT duplications, we studied ten carriers from nine families, including two novel unrelated probands, gathering clinical (n = 10), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 6), MRI (n = 8), dopamine transporter scan (n = 4), functional (n = 5), amyloid (n = 3) and Tau-tracer (n = 2) PET imaging data as well as neuropathological examination (n = 4). Ages at onset ranged from 37 to 57 years, with prominent episodic memory impairment in 8/10 patients, associated with behavioral changes in four, while two patients showed atypical extrapyramidal syndrome with gait disorder at presentation, including one with associated cognitive deficits. Amyloid imaging was negative but Tau imaging showed significant deposits mainly in both mesiotemporal cortex. Dopaminergic denervation was found in 4/4 patients, including three without extrapyramidal symptoms. Neuropathological examination exclusively showed Tau-immunoreactive lesions. Distribution, aspect and 4R/3R tau aggregates composition suggested a spectrum from predominantly 3R, mainly cortical deposits well correlating with cognitive and behavioral changes, to predominantly 4R deposits, mainly in the basal ganglia and midbrain, in patients with prominent extrapyramidal syndrome. Finally, we performed in vitro seeding experiments in HEK-biosensor cells. Morphological features of aggregates induced by homogenates of three MAPT duplication carriers showed dense/granular ratios graduating between those induced by homogenates of a Pick disease and a progressive supranuclear palsy cases. These results suggest that MAPT duplication causes a primary tauopathy associated with diverse clinical and neuropathological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02320-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Detection of copy-number variations from NGS data using read depth information: a diagnostic performance evaluation.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 01 26;29(1):99-109. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

The detection of copy-number variations (CNVs) from NGS data is underexploited as chip-based or targeted techniques are still commonly used. We assessed the performances of a workflow centered on CANOES, a bioinformatics tool based on read depth information. We applied our workflow to gene panel (GP) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) data, and compared CNV calls to quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMSPF) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results. From GP data of 3776 samples, we reached an overall positive predictive value (PPV) of 87.8%. This dataset included a complete comprehensive QMPSF comparison of four genes (60 exons) on which we obtained 100% sensitivity and specificity. From WES data, we first compared 137 samples with aCGH and filtered comparable events (exonic CNVs encompassing enough aCGH probes) and obtained an 87.25% sensitivity. The overall PPV was 86.4% following the targeted confirmation of candidate CNVs from 1056 additional WES. In addition, our CANOES-centered workflow on WES data allowed the detection of CNVs with a resolution of single exons, allowing the detection of CNVs that were missed by aCGH. Overall, switching to an NGS-only approach should be cost-effective as it allows a reduction in overall costs together with likely stable diagnostic yields. Our bioinformatics pipeline is available at: https://gitlab.bioinfo-diag.fr/nc4gpm/canoes-centered-workflow .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0672-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852510PMC
January 2021

Haploinsufficiency of the Primary Familial Brain Calcification Gene SLC20A2 Mediated by Disruption of a Regulatory Element.

Mov Disord 2020 08 7;35(8):1336-1345. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Objective: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare cerebral microvascular calcifying disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Five genes were reported as PFBC causative when carrying pathogenic variants. Haploinsufficiency of SLC20A2, which encodes an inorganic phosphate importer, is a major cause of autosomal-dominant PFBC. However, PFBC remains genetically unexplained in a proportion of patients, suggesting the existence of additional genes or cryptic mutations. We analyzed exome sequencing data of 71 unrelated, genetically unexplained PFBC patients with the aim to detect copy number variations that may disrupt the expression of core PFBC-causing genes.

Methods: After the identification of a deletion upstream of SLC20A2, we assessed its consequences on gene function by reverse transcriptase droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR), an ex vivo inorganic phosphate uptake assay, and introduced the deletion of a putative SLC20A2 enhancer mapping to this region in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) - CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9).

Results: The 8p11.21 deletion, segregating with PFBC in a family, mapped 35 kb upstream of SLC20A2. The deletion carriers/normal controls ratio of relative SLC20A2 mRNA levels was 60.2% (P < 0.001). This was comparable with that of patients carrying an SLC20A2 premature stop codon (63.4%; P < 0.001). The proband exhibited a 39.3% decrease of inorganic phosphate uptake in blood (P = 0.015). In HEK293 cells, we observed a 39.8% decrease in relative SLC20A2 mRNA levels after normalization on DNA copy number (P < 0.001).

Discussion: We identified a deletion of an enhancer of SLC20A2 expression, with carriers showing haploinsufficiency in similar ranges to loss-of-function alleles, and we observed reduced mRNA levels after deleting this element in a cellular model. We propose a 3-step strategy to identify and easily assess the effect of such events. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28090DOI Listing
August 2020

A Connected Network of Interacting Proteins Is Involved in Human-Tau Toxicity in .

Front Neurosci 2020 11;14:68. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, CNR-MAJ, F 76000, Department of Genetics, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen University Hospital, Normandie Université, Rouen, France.

Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of aggregates of abnormally phosphorylated Tau. Deciphering the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead from the alteration of Tau biology to neuronal death depends on the identification of Tau cellular partners. Combining genetic and transcriptomic analyses in , we identified 77 new modulators of human Tau-induced toxicity, bringing to 301 the number of Tau genetic interactors identified so far in flies. Network analysis showed that 229 of these genetic modulators constitute a connected network. The addition of 77 new genes strengthened the network structure, increased the intergenic connectivity and brought up key hubs with high connectivities, namely , and Interestingly, we established for the first time a genetic link between Tau-induced toxicity and , a recognized Alzheimer Disease protective factor. In addition, our data support the importance of the presynaptic compartment in mediating Tau toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026268PMC
February 2020

Rare genetic susceptibility variants assessment in autism spectrum disorder: detection rate and practical use.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 02 24;10(1):77. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and Reference Center for Developmental Disorders, F 76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component whose knowledge evolves quickly. Next-generation sequencing is the only effective technology to deal with the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD in a clinical setting. However, rigorous criteria to classify rare genetic variants conferring ASD susceptibility are currently lacking. We have performed whole-exome sequencing to identify both nucleotide variants and copy number variants (CNVs) in 253 ASD patients, including 68 patients with intellectual disability (ID) and 90 diagnosed as Asperger syndrome. Using explicit criteria to classify both susceptibility genes and susceptibility variants we prioritized 217 genes belonging to the following categories: syndromic genes, genes with an excess of de novo protein truncating variants and genes targeted by rare CNVs. We obtained a susceptibility variant detection rate of 19.7% (95% CI: [15-25.2%]). The rate for CNVs was 7.1% (95% CI: [4.3-11%]) and 12.6% (95% CI: [8.8-17.4%]) for nucleotide variants. The highest rate (30.1%, 95% CI: [20.2-43.2%]) was obtained in the ASD + ID subgroup. A strong contributor for at risk nucleotide variants was the recently identified set of genes (n = 81) harboring an excess of de novo protein truncating variants. Since there is currently no evidence that the genes targeted here are necessary and sufficient to cause ASD, we recommend to avoid the term "causative of ASD" when delivering the information about a variant to a family and to use instead the term "genetic susceptibility factor contributing to ASD".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0760-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039996PMC
February 2020

Moderate Overexpression of Tau in Drosophila Exacerbates Amyloid-β-Induced Neuronal Phenotypes and Correlates with Tau Oligomerization.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;74(2):637-647

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically defined by two key hallmarks: extracellular senile plaques composed primarily of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, containing abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The tau protein is encoded by the MAPT gene. Recently, the H1 and H2 haplotypes of the MAPT gene were associated with AD risk. The minor MAPT H2 haplotype has been linked with a decreased risk of developing late-onset AD (LOAD). MAPT haplotypes show different levels of MAPT/Tau expression with H1 being ∼1.5-fold more expressed than H2, suggesting that MAPT expression level could be related to LOAD risk. In this study, we investigated whether this moderate difference in MAPT/Tau expression could influence Aβ-induced toxicity in vivo. We show that modest overexpression of tau protein in Drosophila exacerbates neuronal phenotypes in AβPP/BACE1 flies. The exacerbation of neuronal defects correlates with the accumulation of insoluble dTau oligomers, suggesting that the moderate difference in level of tau expression observed between H1 and H2 haplotypes could influence Aβ toxicity through the production of oligomeric tau insoluble species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190906DOI Listing
August 2021

De novo heterozygous missense and loss-of-function variants in CDC42BPB are associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 05 7;182(5):962-973. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Center for Pediatric Genomic Medicine, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

CDC42BPB encodes MRCKβ (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase beta), a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a downstream effector of CDC42, which has recently been associated with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified 12 heterozygous predicted deleterious variants in CDC42BPB (9 missense, 2 frameshift, and 1 nonsense) in 14 unrelated individuals (confirmed de novo in 11/14) with neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, and structural brain abnormalities including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. The frameshift and nonsense variants in CDC42BPB are expected to be gene-disrupting and lead to haploinsufficiency via nonsense-mediated decay. All missense variants are located in highly conserved and functionally important protein domains/regions: 3 are found in the protein kinase domain, 2 are in the citron homology domain, and 4 in a 20-amino acid sequence between 2 coiled-coil regions, 2 of which are recurrent. Future studies will help to delineate the natural history and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms of the missense variants leading to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61505DOI Listing
May 2020

Detection of all adult Tau isoforms in a 3D culture model of iPSC-derived neurons.

Stem Cell Res 2019 10 23;40:101541. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, F 76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of pathological intracellular deposits of Tau proteins. Six isoforms of Tau are expressed in the adult human brain, resulting from alternative splicing of the MAPT gene. Tau splicing is developmentally regulated such that only the smallest Tau isoform is expressed in fetal brain, contrary to the adult brain showing the expression of all 6 isoforms. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) technology has opened up new perspectives in human disease modeling, including tauopathies. However, a major challenge to in vitro recapitulation of Tau pathology in iPSC-derived neurons is their relative immaturity. In this study, we examined the switch in Tau splicing from fetal-only to all adult Tau isoforms during the differentiation of iPSC-derived neurons in a new 3D culture system. First, we showed that iPSC-induced neurons inside Matrigel-coated alginate capsules were able to differentiate into cortical neurons. Then, using a new assay that allowed both the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of all adult MAPT mRNA isoforms individually, we demonstrated that BrainPhys-maintained neurons expressed the 6 adult MAPT mRNA transcripts from 25 weeks of maturation, making this model highly suitable for modeling Tau pathology and therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2019.101541DOI Listing
October 2019

Causative Mutations and Genetic Risk Factors in Sporadic Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease Before 51 Years.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;71(1):227-243

CMRR Department of Neurology, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Background: Pathogenic variants in the autosomal dominant genes PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, APOE4 alleles, and rare variants within TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 contribute to early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). However, sporadic EOAD patients have been insufficiently studied to define the probability of being a carrier of one of these variants.

Objective: To describe the proportion of each genetic variation among patients with very young-onset sporadic AD.

Methods: We first screened PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP in 154 EOAD patients with an onset before 51 years and a negative family history. Among 99 patients with no mutation (NMC), whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. We analyzed the APOE genotype and rare protein-truncating or missense predicted damaging variants of TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7. Neurological examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were systematically retrieved.

Results: Nineteen (12.3%) mutation carriers (MC) harbored an APP or PSEN1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Among the NMC, 54/99 carried at least one genetic risk factor, including 9 APOE4/E4 homozygous, 37 APOE4 heterozygous, and 14 with a rare variant in another risk factor gene: 3 SORL1, 4 TREM2, and 9 ABCA7. MC presented an earlier disease onset (p < 0.0001) and associated neurologic symptoms more frequently (p < 0.002). All but one patient had at least 2 CSF biomarkers in abnormal ranges.

Conclusion: The genetic component of very early sporadic EOAD gathers a substantial proportion of pathogenic variants in autosomal dominant genes and an even higher proportion of patients carrying genetic risk factors, suggesting an oligogenic determinism, even at this range of ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190193DOI Listing
October 2020

A Simple, Universal, and Cost-Efficient Digital PCR Method for the Targeted Analysis of Copy Number Variations.

Clin Chem 2019 09 10;65(9):1153-1160. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics, F76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France;

Background: Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are a major cause of genetic diseases. Simple targeted methods are required for their confirmation and segregation analysis. We developed a simple and universal CNV assay based on digital PCR (dPCR) and universal locked nucleic acid (LNA) hydrolysis probes.

Methods: We analyzed the mapping of the 90 LNA hydrolysis probes from the Roche Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL). For each CNV, selection of the optimal primers and LNA probe was almost automated; probes were reused across assays and each dPCR assay included the CNV amplicon and a reference amplicon. We assessed the assay performance on 93 small and large CNVs and performed a comparative cost-efficiency analysis.

Results: UPL-LNA probes presented nearly 20000000 occurrences on the human genome and were homogeneously distributed with a mean interval of 156 bp. The assay accurately detected all the 93 CNVs, except one (<200 bp), with coefficient of variation <10%. The assay was more cost-efficient than all the other methods.

Conclusions: The universal dPCR CNV assay is simple, robust, and cost-efficient because it combines a straightforward design allowed by universal probes and end point PCR, the advantages of a relative quantification of the target to the reference within the same reaction, and the high flexibility of the LNA hydrolysis probes. This method should be a useful tool for genomic medicine, which requires simple methods for the interpretation and segregation analysis of genomic variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2019.304246DOI Listing
September 2019

Biallelic MYORG mutation carriers exhibit primary brain calcification with a distinct phenotype.

Brain 2019 06;142(6):1573-1586

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, F, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurogenetic disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Mutations in four genes cause autosomal dominant PFBC: SLC20A2, XPR1, PDGFB and PDGFRB. Recently, biallelic mutations in the MYORG gene have been reported to cause PFBC with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We screened MYORG in 29 unrelated probands negatively screened for the autosomal dominant PFBC genes and identified 11 families with a biallelic rare or novel predicted damaging variant. We studied the clinical and radiological features of 16 patients of these 11 families and compared them to that of 102 autosomal dominant PFBC patients carrying a mutation in one of the four known autosomal dominant PFBC genes. We found that MYORG patients exhibited a high clinical penetrance with a median age of onset of 52 years (range: 21-62) with motor impairment at the forefront. In particular, dysarthria was the presenting sign in 11/16 patients. In contrast to patients with autosomal dominant PFBC, 12/15 (80%) symptomatic patients eventually presented at least four of the following five symptoms: dysarthria, cerebellar syndrome, gait disorder of any origin, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome and pyramidal signs. In addition to the most severe clinical pattern, MYORG patients exhibited the most severe pattern of calcifications as compared to the patients from the four autosomal dominant PFBC gene categories. Strikingly, 12/15 presented with brainstem calcifications in addition to extensive calcifications in other brain areas (lenticular nuclei, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, ±cortex). Among them, eight patients exhibited pontine calcifications, which were observed in none of the autosomal dominant PFBC patients and hence appeared to be highly specific. Finally, all patients exhibited cerebellar atrophy with diverse degrees of severity on CT scans. We confirmed the existence of cerebellar atrophy by performing MRI voxel-based morphometry analyses of MYORG patients with autosomal dominant PFBC mutation carriers as a comparison group. Of note, in three families, the father carried small pallido-dentate calcifications while carrying the mutation at the heterozygous state, suggesting a putative phenotypic expression in some heterozygous carriers. In conclusion, we confirm that MYORG is a novel major PFBC causative gene and that the phenotype associated with such mutations may be recognized based on pedigree, clinical and radiological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz095DOI Listing
June 2019

SORL1 genetic variants and Alzheimer disease risk: a literature review and meta-analysis of sequencing data.

Acta Neuropathol 2019 08 25;138(2):173-186. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, 76000, Rouen, France.

Massive parallel sequencing recently allowed the identification of three genes carrying a higher burden of rare, protein-truncating and missense predicted damaging variants in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases as compared to controls: TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7. SORL1 encodes SorLA, a key protein involved in the processing of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) and the secretion of the Aβ peptide, the aggregation of which triggers AD pathophysiology. Common SORL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms had originally been associated with AD with modest odds ratios (ORs). The association of AD with rare SORL1 coding variants has been demonstrated at the gene level by aggregating protein-truncating (PTV) and rare predicted damaging missense variants. In addition to the loss of SorLA function induced by PTVs, a few missense variants were studied in vitro, showing diverse degrees of decreased SorLA function and leading to increased Aβ secretion. However, the exact functional consequences of most of the missense variants remain to be determined as well as corresponding levels of AD risk. Hereby we review the evidence of the association of SORL1 common and rare variants with AD risk and conduct a meta-analysis of published data on SORL1 rare variants in five large sequencing studies. We observe a significant enrichment in PTVs with ORs of 12.29 (95% confidence interval = [4.22-35.78]) among all AD cases and 27.50 [7.38-102.42] among early-onset cases. Rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) < 1%] and ultra-rare (MAF < 10) missense variants that are predicted damaging by 3/3 bioinformatics tools also show significant associations with corresponding ORs of 1.87 [1.54-2.28] and 3.14 [2.30-4.28], respectively. Per-domain analyses show significant association with the APP-binding CR cluster class A repeats and the Aβ-binding VPS10P domains, as well as the fibronectin type III domain, the function of which remains to be specified. These results further support a critical role for SORL1 rare coding variants in AD, although functional and segregation analyses are required to allow an accurate use in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-01991-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Copy Number Variants in miR-138 as a Potential Risk Factor for Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;68(3):1243-1255

Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Rouen University Hospital, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) accounts for 5-10% of all AD cases, with a heritability ranging between 92% to 100%. With the exception of rare mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes causing autosomal dominant EOAD, little is known about the genetic factors underlying most of the EOAD cases. In this study, we hypothesized that copy number variations (CNVs) in microRNA (miR) genes could contribute to risk for EOAD. miRs are short non-coding RNAs previously implicated in the regulation of AD-related genes and phenotypes. Using whole exome sequencing, we screened a series of 546 EOAD patients negative for autosomal dominant EOAD mutations and 597 controls. We identified 86 CNVs in miR genes of which 31 were exclusive to EOAD cases, including a duplication of the MIR138-2 locus. In functional studies in human cultured cells, we could demonstrate that miR-138 overexpression leads to higher Aβ production as well as tau phosphorylation, both implicated in AD pathophysiology. These changes were mediated in part by GSK-3β and FERMT2, a potential risk factor for AD. Additional disease-related genes were also prone to miR-138 regulation including APP and BACE1. This study suggests that increased gene dosage of MIR138-2 could contribute to risk for EOAD by regulating different biological pathways implicated in amyloid and tau metabolism. Additional studies are now required to better understand the role of miR-CNVs in EOAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180940DOI Listing
August 2020

Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer's disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aβ, tau, immunity and lipid processing.

Nat Genet 2019 03 28;51(3):414-430. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Research Center and Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades-Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer's or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aβ processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0358-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463297PMC
March 2019

Identification of TCERG1 as a new genetic modulator of TDP-43 production in Drosophila.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 12 12;6(1):138. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm, U1245, IRIB, Rouen, France.

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a ubiquitously expressed DNA-/RNA-binding protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of the mRNA life cycle. Similar to many RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Cell function and survival depend on the strict control of TDP-43 protein levels. TDP-43 has been identified as the major constituent of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Several observations argue for a pathogenic role of elevated TDP-43 levels in these disorders. Modulation of the cycle of TDP-43 production might therefore provide a new therapeutic strategy. Using a Drosophila model mimicking key features of the TDP-43 autoregulatory feedback loop, we identified CG42724 as a genetic modulator of TDP-43 production in vivo. We found that CG42724 protein influences qualitatively and quantitatively the TDP-43 mRNA transcript pattern. CG42724 overexpression promotes the production of transcripts that can be efficiently released into the cytoplasm for protein translation. Importantly, we showed that TCERG1, the human homolog of the Drosophila CG42724 protein, also caused an increase of TDP-43 protein steady-state levels in mammalian cells. Therefore, our data suggest the possibility that targeting TCERG1 could be therapeutic in TDP-43 proteinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-018-0639-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292132PMC
December 2018

Identification of potential genetic risk factors for bipolar disorder by whole-exome sequencing.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 12 5;8(1):268. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Research, Centre hospitalier du Rouvray, Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France.

This study aims at assessing the burden of rare (minor allele frequency < 1%) predicted damaging variants in the whole exome of 92 bipolar I disorder (BD) patients and 1051 controls of French ancestry. Patients exhibiting an extreme phenotype (earlier onset and family history of mood disorder) were preferentially included to increase the power to detect an association. A collapsing strategy was used to test the overall burden of rare variants in cases versus controls at the gene level. Only protein-truncating and predicted damaging missense variants were included in the analysis. Thirteen genes exhibited p values exceeding 10 and could be considered as potential risk factors for BD. Furthermore, the validity of the association was supported when the Exome Aggregation Consortium database non-Finnish European population was used as controls for eight of them. Their gene products are involved in various cerebral processes, some of which were previously implicated in BD and belong to pathways implicated in the therapeutic effect of lithium, the main mood stabilizer. However, exome-wide threshold for association study was not reached, emphasizing that larger samples are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0291-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281607PMC
December 2018

Somatic variants in autosomal dominant genes are a rare cause of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement 2018 12 13;14(12):1632-1639. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes.

Methods: We applied an ultrasensitive approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes followed by deep next generation sequencing of 11 genes to 100 brain and 355 blood samples from 445 sporadic patients with AD (>80% exhibited an early onset, <66 years).

Results: We identified and confirmed nine somatic variants (allele fractions: 0.2%-10.8%): two APP, five SORL1, one NCSTN, and one MARK4 variants by independent amplicon-based deep sequencing.

Discussion: Two of the SORL1 variant might have contributed to the disease, the two APP variants were interpreted as likely benign and the other variants remained of unknown significance. Somatic variants in the autosomal dominant AD genes may not be a common cause of sporadic AD, including early onset cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.06.3056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544509PMC
December 2018

Whole exome sequencing study identifies novel rare and common Alzheimer's-Associated variants involved in immune response and transcriptional regulation.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 08 14;25(8):1859-1875. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) undertook whole exome sequencing in 5,740 late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases and 5,096 cognitively normal controls primarily of European ancestry (EA), among whom 218 cases and 177 controls were Caribbean Hispanic (CH). An age-, sex- and APOE based risk score and family history were used to select cases most likely to harbor novel AD risk variants and controls least likely to develop AD by age 85 years. We tested ~1.5 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 50,000 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for association to AD, using multiple models considering individual variants as well as gene-based tests aggregating rare, predicted functional, and loss of function variants. Sixteen single variants and 19 genes that met criteria for significant or suggestive associations after multiple-testing correction were evaluated for replication in four independent samples; three with whole exome sequencing (2,778 cases, 7,262 controls) and one with genome-wide genotyping imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel (9,343 cases, 11,527 controls). The top findings in the discovery sample were also followed-up in the ADSP whole-genome sequenced family-based dataset (197 members of 42 EA families and 501 members of 157 CH families). We identified novel and predicted functional genetic variants in genes previously associated with AD. We also detected associations in three novel genes: IGHG3 (p = 9.8 × 10), an immunoglobulin gene whose antibodies interact with β-amyloid, a long non-coding RNA AC099552.4 (p = 1.2 × 10), and a zinc-finger protein ZNF655 (gene-based p = 5.0 × 10). The latter two suggest an important role for transcriptional regulation in AD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0112-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375806PMC
August 2020

Primary brain calcification: an international study reporting novel variants and associated phenotypes.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 10 28;26(10):1462-1477. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Genome Damage & Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare cerebral microvascular calcifying disorder with a wide spectrum of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is typically inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait with four causative genes identified so far: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, and XPR1. Our study aimed at screening the coding regions of these genes in a series of 177 unrelated probands that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for primary brain calcification regardless of their family history. Sequence variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or of uncertain significance (VUS), based on the ACMG-AMP recommendations. We identified 45 probands (25.4%) carrying either pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (n = 34, 19.2%) or VUS (n = 11, 6.2%). SLC20A2 provided the highest contribution (16.9%), followed by XPR1 and PDGFB (3.4% each), and PDGFRB (1.7%). A total of 81.5% of carriers were symptomatic and the most recurrent symptoms were parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disturbances (52.3%, 40.9%, and 38.6% of symptomatic individuals, respectively), with a wide range of age at onset (from childhood to 81 years). While the pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants identified in this study can be used for genetic counseling, the VUS will require additional evidence, such as recurrence in unrelated patients, in order to be classified as pathogenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0185-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138755PMC
October 2018

FTLD/ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations do not alter TDP-43's ability to self-regulate its expression in Drosophila.

Brain Res 2018 09 17;1695:1-9. Epub 2018 May 17.

Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm, U1245, IRIB, Rouen, France. Electronic address:

TDP-43 is a major disease-causing protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Today, >50 missense mutations in the TARDBP/TDP-43 gene have been described in patients with FTLD/ALS. However, the functional consequences of FTLD/ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations are not fully elucidated. In the physiological state, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Maintaining normal TDP-43 protein levels is critical for proper physiological functions of the cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FTLD/ALS-associated mutations could interfere with TDP-43 protein's capacity to modulate its own protein levels using Drosophila as an experimental model. Our data show that FTLD/ALS-associated mutant proteins regulate TDP-43 production with the same efficiency as the wild-type form of the protein. Thus, FTLD/ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations do not alter TDP-43's ability to self-regulate its expression and consequently of the homeostasis of TDP-43 protein levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.05.021DOI Listing
September 2018

Biallelic Loss of Function of SORL1 in an Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease Patient.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;62(2):821-831

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, F 76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Heterozygous SORL1 protein truncating variants (PTV) are a strong risk factor for early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). In case control studies performed at the genome-wide level, PTV definition is usually straightforward. Regarding splice site variants, only those affecting canonical sites are typically included. Some other variants, not annotated as PTV, could, however, affect splicing and hence result in a loss of SORL1 function. We took advantage of the whole exome sequencing data from the 9/484 patients with a previously reported SORL1 PTV in the French EOAD series and searched for a second variant which may affect splicing and eventually result in more than 50% loss of function overall. We found that one patient, known to carry a variant predicted to disrupt the canonical 5' splice site of exon 8, also carried a second novel intronic variant predicted to affect SORL1 splicing of exon 29. Segregation analysis showed that the second variant was located in trans from the known PTV. We performed ex vivo minigene splicing assays and showed that both variants led to the generation of transcripts containing a premature stop codon. This is therefore the first evidence of a human carrying biallelic SORL1 PTV. This patient had a family history of dementia in both maternal and paternal lineages with later ages of onset than the proband himself. However, his 55 years age at onset was in the same ranges as previously published SORL1 heterozygous PTV carriers. This suggests that biallelic loss of SORL1 function is an extremely rare event that was not associated with a dramatically earlier age at onset than heterozygous SORL1 loss-of-function variant carriers, in this single patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170981DOI Listing
February 2019

Estimation of minimal disease prevalence from population genomic data: Application to primary familial brain calcification.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Jan 20;177(1):68-74. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Primary Familial Brain Calcification (PFBC) is a rare calcifying disorder of the brain with autosomal dominant inheritance, of unknown prevalence. Four causal genes have been identified so far: SLC20A2, PDGFB, PDGFRB, and XPR1, with pathogenic, probably pathogenic or missense variants of unknown significance found in 27.7% probands in the French PFBC series. Estimating PFBC prevalence from a clinical input is arduous due to a large diversity of symptoms and ages of onset and to incomplete clinical penetrance. Abnormal calcifications on CT scan can be used as a reliable diagnostic biomarker whatever the clinical status, but differential diagnoses should be ruled out including the challenging exclusion of common basal ganglia calcifications. Our primary aim was to estimate the minimal prevalence of PFBC due to a variant in one of the known genes. We extracted variants from the four known genes present in the gnomAD database gathering genomic data from 138,632 individuals. We interpreted all variants based on their predicted effect, their frequency, and previous studies on PFBC patients. Using the most conservative estimate, the minimal prevalence of PFBC related to a variant in one of the four known genes was 4.5 p. 10,000 (95%CI [3.4-5.5] p. 10,000). We then used variant detection rates in patients to extrapolate an overall minimal prevalence of PFBC to 2.1 p. 1,000 (95%CI [1.9-2.4] p. 1,000). The population-based genomic analysis indicates that PFBC is not an exceptionally rare disorder, still underestimated and underdiagnosed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32605DOI Listing
January 2018

Splicing factors act as genetic modulators of TDP-43 production in a new autoregulatory TDP-43 Drosophila model.

Hum Mol Genet 2017 09;26(17):3396-3408

Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm, U1245, IRIB, Rouen, France.

TDP-43 is a critical RNA-binding factor associated with RNA metabolism. In the physiological state, maintaining normal TDP-43 protein levels is critical for proper physiological functions of the cells. As such, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. TDP-43 is a major disease-causing protein in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Several studies argue for a pathogenic role of elevated TDP-43 levels in these disorders. Modulating the cycle of TDP-43 production might therefore provide a new therapeutic strategy. In this study, we developed a new transgenic Drosophila model mimicking the TDP-43 autoregulatory feedback loop in order to identify genetic modulators of TDP-43 protein steady-state levels in vivo. First, we showed that our TDP-43_TDPBR Drosophila model recapitulates key features of the TDP-43 autoregulatory processes previously described in mammalian and cellular models, namely alternative splicing events, differential usage of polyadenylation sites, nuclear retention of the transcript and a decrease in steady-state mRNA levels. Using this new Drosophila model, we identified several splicing factors, including SF2, Rbp1 and Sf3b1, as genetic modulators of TDP-43 production. Interestingly, our data indicate that these three RNA-binding proteins regulate TDP-43 protein production, at least in part, by controlling mRNA steady-state levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx229DOI Listing
September 2017

Contribution to Alzheimer's disease risk of rare variants in TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 in 1779 cases and 1273 controls.

Neurobiol Aging 2017 11 14;59:220.e1-220.e9. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Normandy Centre for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France; Department of Research, Centre hospitalier du Rouvray, Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France. Electronic address:

We performed whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in 927 late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) cases, 852 early-onset AD (EOAD) cases, and 1273 controls from France. We assessed the evidence for gene-based association of rare variants with AD in 6 genes for which an association with such variants was previously claimed. When aggregating protein-truncating and missense-predicted damaging variants, we found exome-wide significant association between EOAD risk and rare variants in SORL1, TREM2, and ABCA7. No exome-wide significant signal was obtained in the LOAD sample, and significance of the order of 10 was observed in the whole AD group for TREM2. Our study confirms previous gene-level results for TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 and provides a clearer insight into the classes of rare variants involved. Despite different effect sizes and varying cumulative minor allele frequencies, the rare protein-truncating and missense-predicted damaging variants in TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 contribute similarly to the heritability of EOAD and explain between 1.1% and 1.5% of EOAD heritability each, compared with 9.12% for APOE ε4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.07.001DOI Listing
November 2017

DoEstRare: A statistical test to identify local enrichments in rare genomic variants associated with disease.

PLoS One 2017 24;12(7):e0179364. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, l'institut du thorax, Nantes, France.

Next-generation sequencing technologies made it possible to assay the effect of rare variants on complex diseases. As an extension of the "common disease-common variant" paradigm, rare variant studies are necessary to get a more complete insight into the genetic architecture of human traits. Association studies of these rare variations show new challenges in terms of statistical analysis. Due to their low frequency, rare variants must be tested by groups. This approach is then hindered by the fact that an unknown proportion of the variants could be neutral. The risk level of a rare variation may be determined by its impact but also by its position in the protein sequence. More generally, the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease architecture may involve specific protein domains or inter-genic regulatory regions. While a large variety of methods are optimizing functionality weights for each single marker, few evaluate variant position differences between cases and controls. Here, we propose a test called DoEstRare, which aims to simultaneously detect clusters of disease risk variants and global allele frequency differences in genomic regions. This test estimates, for cases and controls, variant position densities in the genetic region by a kernel method, weighted by a function of allele frequencies. We compared DoEstRare with previously published strategies through simulation studies as well as re-analysis of real datasets. Based on simulation under various scenarios, DoEstRare was the sole to consistently show highest performance, in terms of type I error and power both when variants were clustered or not. DoEstRare was also applied to Brugada syndrome and early-onset Alzheimer's disease data and provided complementary results to other existing tests. DoEstRare, by integrating variant position information, gives new opportunities to explain disease susceptibility. DoEstRare is implemented in a user-friendly R package.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5524342PMC
September 2017

Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Genet 2017 09 17;49(9):1373-1384. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10, odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.0059, MAF = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10, OR = 1.43, MAF = 0.011, MAF = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10, OR = 1.67, MAF = 0.0143, MAF = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669039PMC
September 2017

Deletion of exons 9 and 10 of the Presenilin 1 gene in a patient with Early-onset Alzheimer Disease generates longer amyloid seeds.

Neurobiol Dis 2017 Aug 28;104:97-103. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and CNR-MAJ, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, F 76000 Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations are the main cause of autosomal dominant Early-onset Alzheimer Disease (EOAD). Among them, deletions of exon 9 have been reported to be associated with a phenotype of spastic paraparesis. Using exome data from a large sample of 522 EOAD cases and 584 controls to search for genomic copy-number variations (CNVs), we report here a novel partial, in-frame deletion of PSEN1, removing both exons 9 and 10. The patient presented with memory impairment associated with spastic paraparesis, both starting from the age of 56years. He presented a positive family history of EOAD. We performed functional analysis to elucidate the impact of this novel deletion on PSEN1 activity as part of the γ-secretase complex. The deletion does not affect the assembly of a mature protease complex but has an extreme impact on its global endopeptidase activity. The mutant carboxypeptidase-like activity is also strongly impaired and the deleterious mutant effect leads to an incomplete digestion of long Aβ peptides and enhances the production of Aβ43, which has been shown to be potently amyloidogenic and neurotoxic in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2017.04.020DOI Listing
August 2017
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