Publications by authors named "Dominik Szwajgier"

38 Publications

Honeys as Possible Sources of Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

Nutrients 2022 Jul 20;14(14). Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-704 Lublin, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by low levels of the neurotransmitter (acetylcholine), oxidative stress, and inflammation of the central nervous system. The only currently available form of treatment entails the administration of AChE/BChE (acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase) inhibitors to patients diagnosed with the disease. However, AD prevention is possible by administering the correct inhibitors with food. The aim of this study was to examine 19 types of honey in terms of their contents of cholinesterase inhibitors. The inhibition of AChE and BChE relative to the respective honey samples was evaluated using Ellman's colorimetric method, including the "false-positive" effect. The highest potential for AChE inhibition was observed in the case of thyme honey (21.17% inhibition), while goldenrod honey showed the highest capacity for BChE inhibition (33.89%). Our study showed that honeys may provide a rich source of cholinesterase inhibitors and, in this way, play a significant role in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14142969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319579PMC
July 2022

Digestion of plastics using in vitro human gastrointestinal tract and their potential to adsorb emerging organic pollutants.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 30;843:157108. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Excessive plastic use has inevitably led to its consumption by organisms, including humans. It is estimated that humans consume 20 kg of plastic during their lifetime. The presence of microplastics in the human body can carry serious health risks, such as biological reactions e.g. inflammation, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, as well toxic compounds leaching of unbound chemicals/monomers, free radicals or adsorbed organic pollutants, which mainly depend on the properties of the ingested plastic. Plastics are exposed to different substances (e.g., enzymes and acids) in the digestive system, which potentially affects their properties and structure. By stimulating the human digestive system and applying a set of advanced analytical tools, we showed that the surface of polystyrene and high-density polyethylene plastics frequently in contact with food undergoes fundamental changes during digestion. This results in the appearance of additional functional groups, and consequent increase in the plastic adsorption capacity for hydrophobic ionic compounds (such as triclosan and diclofenac) while reducing its adsorption capacity for hydrophobic non-ionic compounds (such as phenanthrene). Micro- and nanostructures that formed on the flat surface of the plastics after digestion were identified using scanning electron microscopy. These structures became defragmented and detached due to mechanical action, increasing micro- and nanoplastics in the environment. Due to their size, the release of plastic nanostructures after digestion can become an "accidental food source" for a wider group of aquatic organisms and ultimately for humans as the last link in the food chain. This, combined with improved adsorption capacity of digested plastics to hydrophobic ionic pollutants, can pose a serious threat to the environment including human health and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157108DOI Listing
June 2022

Hydroxybenzoic Acids as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Calorimetric and Docking Simulation Studies.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 15;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Structural Bioinformatics and High-Performance Computing Research Group (BIO-HPC), Computer Engineering Department, Universidad Católica de Murcia (UCAM), Guadalupe, 30107 Murcia, Spain.

One of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is low acetylcholine level due to high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. For this reason, AChE inhibitors are used in the treatment of AD, the prolonged use of which may cause a cholinergic crisis. There is a need to search for safe natural AChE inhibitors. The study analyzed 16 hydroxybenzoic acids using calorimetry and docking simulation as AChE inhibitors. All tested compounds were shown to inhibit the hydrolysis of ACh. The best properties were shown by methyl syringinate, which acted as competitive inhibitor at a catalytic site. The tested compounds also interacted with the anionic or peripheral binding site known to block β-amyloid plaques formation. The activity of the tested hydroxybenzoic acids IC50 ranged from 5.50 to 34.19 µmol/µmol of AChE, and the binding constant Ka from 20.53 to 253.16 L/mol, which proves their reversible, non-toxic effect, and activity at physiological concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227119PMC
June 2022

Bioaccessibility of coffee bean hydroxycinnamic acids during in vitro digestion influenced by the degree of roasting and activity of intestinal probiotic bacteria, and their activity in Caco-2 and HT29 cells.

Food Chem 2022 Oct 27;392:133328. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

In coffee beans, especially roasted, a significant part of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAs) and their esters chlorogenic acids (CHAs) is attached to melanoidins through both covalent and non-covalent bonds. Bound and, to a greater extent, unbound HCAs, including those released from the polymerized material during digestion, can be pivotal in preventing of many chronic civilization diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the amount of free CHAs and those released from coffee extracts during in vitro digestion in various sections of the gastrointestinal tract, in the presence and absence of probiotic bacteria. The concentration of free CHAs was the lowest in the stomach and achieved the highest levels in the large intestine. Probiotic bacteria caused significant release of CHAs, and in the colon their concentration was the highest. The studies with Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines showed that digested coffee extracts had cytoprotective potential against tert-BOOH induced oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133328DOI Listing
October 2022

Polyphenols composition and the biological effects of six selected small dark fruits.

Food Chem 2022 Oct 21;391:133281. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Bioanalytics, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Jaczewskiego 8b, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The health-promoting activities of fruits are in the limelight in view of the growing risks posed by civilisational diseases and are connected with polyphenols. The present study examined bilberry, blueberry, blackcurrant, redcurrant, cherry and plum for their polyphenolic content and biological activities. The contents of total polyphenolic compounds and their subclasses were determined. Liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterise the polyphenolic profiles. Small dark fruits' antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cholinesterase activities were also extensively determined. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the analysed fruits' polyphenols composition and biological activities were demonstrated. The highest polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities were established in blackcurrant fruit, but bilberry also had our attention due to an additional mild influence on antioxidant enzymes. The condensed tannin content in small dark fruits is developed. All tested fruits exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinesterase activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133281DOI Listing
October 2022

The Distribution of Glucosinolates in Different Phenotypes of and Their Role as Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors-In Silico and In Vitro Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 27;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Therapeutic Research, TTD International Pty Ltd., 39 Leopard Ave., Elanora, Gold Coast 4221, Australia.

The aim of the study was to present the fingerprint of different tuber extracts showing glucosinolates-containing substances possibly playing an important role in preventinting dementia and other memory disorders. Different phenotypes of (Brassicaceae) tubers were analysed for their glucosinolate profile using a liquid chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS platform). Qualitative analysis in 50% ethanolic extracts confirmed the presence of ten compounds: aliphatic, indolyl, and aromatic glucosinolates, with glucotropaeolin being the leading one, detected at levels between 0-1.57% depending on phenotype, size, processing, and collection site. The PCA analysis showed important variations in glucosinolate content between the samples and different ratios of the detected compounds. Applied in vitro activity tests confirmed inhibitory properties of extracts and single glucosinolates against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (15.3-28.9% for the extracts and 55.95-57.60% for individual compounds) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) (71.3-77.2% for the extracts and 36.2-39.9% for individual compounds). The molecular basis for the activity of glucosinolates was explained through molecular docking studies showing that the tested metabolites interacted with tryptophan and histidine residues of the enzymes, most likely blocking their active catalytic side. Based on the obtained results and described mechanism of action, it could be concluded that glucosinolates exhibit inhibitory properties against two cholinesterases present in the synaptic cleft, which indicates that selected phenotypes of tubers cultivated under well-defined environmental and ecological conditions may present a valuable plant material to be considered for the development of therapeutic products with memory-stimulating properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9101689PMC
April 2022

A review of research on the impact of E171/TiO NPs on the digestive tract.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2022 Jul 28;72:126988. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, Lublin 20-950, Poland.

Nanotechnology utilises particles of between 1 and 100 nm in size. In recent years, it has enjoyed widespread application in a variety of areas. However, this has also raised increasing concerns regarding the effects that the use of nanoparticles may have on human health. The nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO NPs) are among the most promising nanomaterials and have already found wide use in cosmetics, medicine and, the food industry. A nano-sized (diameter < 100 nm) fraction of TiO is present, at a certain percentage, in the E171 ( in the EU) pigment commonly used as an additive in food, whose presence raises particular concerns in terms of its potential negative health impact. The consumption of E171 food additive is increasingly associated with disorders of the intestinal barrier, including intestinal dysbiosis. It may disrupt the normal functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) including: enzymatic digestion of primary nutrients (lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates). The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and reliable overview of studies conducted in recent years in terms of the substance's potentially negative impact on human and animal alimentary systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.126988DOI Listing
July 2022

Biological Activity of an L. (Fireweed) Infusion after In Vitro Digestion.

Molecules 2022 Feb 2;27(3). Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland.

The biological activity of an in vitro digested infusion of (fireweed) was examined in a model system of intestinal epithelial and colon cancer tissues. The content of selected phenolic compounds in the digested aqueous extract of fireweed was determined using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Biological activity was examined using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HT-29 and CaCo-2 and the human colon epithelial cell line CCD 841 CoTr. Cytotoxicity was assessed by an MTT assay, a Neutral Red uptake assay, May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and a label-free Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing cytotoxicity assay. The effect of the infusion on the growth of selected intestinal bacteria was also examined. The extract inhibited the growth of intestinal cancer cells HT-29. This effect can be attributed to the activity of quercetin and kaempferol, which were the most abundant phenolic compounds found in the extract after in vitro digestion. The cytotoxicity of the fireweed infusion was dose-dependent. The highest decrease in proliferation (by almost 80%) compared to the control was observed in HT-29 line treated with the extract at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The fireweed infusion did not affect the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, but it did significantly inhibit . The cytotoxic effect of the fireweed extract indicates that it does not lose its biological activity after in vitro digestion. It can be concluded that the fireweed infusion has the potential to be used as a supporting agent in colon cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8839289PMC
February 2022

Lichen-Derived Compounds and Extracts as Biologically Active Substances with Anticancer and Neuroprotective Properties.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Dec 10;14(12). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Święcickiego 4, 60-781 Poznan, Poland.

Lichens are a source of chemical compounds with valuable biological properties, structurally predisposed to penetration into the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, our research aimed to examine the biological potential of lipophilic extracts of , , , and their major secondary metabolites, in the context of searching for new therapies for CNS diseases, mainly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The extracts selected for the study were standardized for their content of salazinic acid, evernic acid, and (-)-usnic acid, respectively. The extracts and lichen metabolites were evaluated in terms of their anti-tumor activity, i.e., cytotoxicity against A-172 and T98G cell lines and anti-IDO1, IDO2, TDO activity, their anti-inflammatory properties exerted by anti-COX-2 and anti-hyaluronidase activity, antioxidant activity, and anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity. The results of this study indicate that lichen-derived compounds and extracts exert significant cytotoxicity against GBM cells, inhibit the kynurenine pathway enzymes, and have anti-inflammatory properties and weak antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase properties. Moreover, evernic acid and (-)-usnic acid were shown to be able to cross the blood-brain barrier. These results demonstrate that lichen-derived extracts and compounds, especially (-)-usnic acid, can be regarded as prototypes of pharmacologically active compounds within the CNS, especially suitable for the treatment of GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14121293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8704315PMC
December 2021

Blackberry Leaves as New Functional Food? Screening Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Microbiological Activities in Correlation with Phytochemical Analysis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 3, 60-806 Poznan, Poland.

Blackberry fruits are recognized as functional foods while blackberry leaves are outside this classification and they also contain active compounds with health-promoting potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was the phytochemical analysis of blackberry leaves of varieties (Chester, Loch Ness, Loch Tay and Ruczaj) and screening of their biological activity (antioxidant potential, possibility of inhibition of enzymes, anti-inflammatory and microbial activity). The following compounds from selected groups: phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid), flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol) and their glycosides (rutin, isoquercetin, hyperoside) and flavon-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin) were chromatographically determined in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaves extracts. All tested blackberry leaves extracts showed antioxidant effects, but the highest compounds content (TPC = 101.31 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity (e.g., DPPH IC = 57.37 μg/mL; ABTS IC = 24.83 μg/mL; CUPRAC IC = 62.73 μg/mL; FRAP IC = 39.99 μg/mL for hydroalcoholic extracts) was indicated for the Loch Tay variety. Blackberry leaf extracts' anti-inflammatory effect was also exceptionally high for the Loch Tay variety (IC = 129.30 μg/mL), while leaves extracts of the Loch Ness variety showed a significant potential for microbial activity against spp. and spp. Summarizing, the best multidirectional pro-health effect was noted for leaves extracts of Loch Tay variety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8750396PMC
December 2021

Cyclodextrin as Functional Carrier in Development of Mucoadhesive Tablets Containing Extract with Potential for Dental Applications.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Nov 12;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Święcickiego 4, 60-781 Poznan, Poland.

root is a resveratrol-rich source with anti-inflammatory, angiogenic and neuroprotective effects. The raw material was standardized for the content of resveratrol, for which there is a special justification for administration within the oral mucosa. To improve the solubility of resveratrol and to assure its high content in plant material, an ultrasound-assisted extraction method was applied. The addition of cyclodextrin was found to increase the extraction efficiency of resveratrol (from 13 to 297 µg per 1 g of plant material in case of 50% ethanol extracts) and enhanced its antioxidant activity as compared to pure extract/resveratrol. Cyclodextrin plays the role of a functional extract regarding technological properties (increasing the extraction of resveratrol from the extract, improving mucoadhesive properties). Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop mucoadhesive tablets containing combinations of the extract with a cyclodextrin carrier for buccal delivery. The tests sequentially included extract preparation and characterization of its physical and biological properties and then formulation studies with a broad description of the prototype properties. The test results indicate that cyclodextrin increases the efficiency of resveratrol extraction from rhizome, which is a rich source of resveratrol, and its extract enclosed in a mucoadhesive tablet guarantees prolonged action at the site of administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13111916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619530PMC
November 2021

Is Phytomelatonin Complex Better Than Synthetic Melatonin? The Assessment of the Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

Molecules 2021 Oct 8;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Therapeutic Research, TTD International Pty Ltd., 39 Leopard Ave., Gold Coast 4221, Australia.

This work aims to assess the recently established anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of melatonin of plant origin extracted from the plant matrix as a phytomelatonin complex (PHT-MLT), and compare its activity with synthetic melatonin (SNT-MLT) when used on its own or with vitamin C. For this purpose, a COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity test, an antiradical activity in vitro and on cell lines assays, was performed on both PHT-MLT and SNT-MLT products. COX-2 inhibitory activity of PHT-MLT was found to be ca. 6.5 times stronger than that of SNT-MLT (43.3% and 6.7% enzyme inhibition, equivalent to the activity of acetylsalicylic acid in conc. 30.3 ± 0.2 and 12.0 ± 0.3 mg/mL, respectively). Higher antiradical potential and COX-2 inhibitory properties of PHT-MLT could be explained by the presence of additional naturally occurring constituents in alfalfa, chlorella, and rice, which were clearly visible on the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS fingerprint. The antiradical properties of PHT-MLT determined in the DPPH test (IC of 21.6 ± 1 mg of powder/mL) were found to originate from the presence of other metabolites in the 50% EtOH extract while SNT-MLT was found to be inactive under the applied testing conditions. However, the antioxidant studies on HaCaT keratinocytes stimulated with HO revealed a noticeable activity in all samples. The presence of PHT-MLT (12.5, 25 and 50 µg/mL) and vitamin C (12.5, 25 and 50 µg/mL) in the HO-pretreated HaCaT keratinocytes protected the cells from generating reactive oxygen species. This observation confirms that MLT-containing samples affect the intracellular production of enzymes and neutralize the free radicals. Presented results indicated that MLT-containing products in combination with Vitamin C dosage are worth to be considered as a preventive alternative in the therapy of various diseases in the etiopathogenesis, of which radical and inflammatory mechanisms play an important role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512846PMC
October 2021

Insulin receptors in the CA1 field of hippocampus and selected blood parameters in diabetic rats fed with bilberry fruit.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2021 Sep 20;28(3):430-436. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy and Histology, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

Introduction: Bilberry fruit is believed to be a promising factor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Chronic hyperglycaemia affects the function of the central nervous system, which may be manifested as changes in hypothalamic insulin signalling.

Material And Methods: Using DPPH and ABTS assays, total phenolic content in bilberry fruit and its antioxidant activities were examined. The selected biochemical parameters of blood (glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides), as well as the expression of insulin receptors, were studied in the hippocampal CA1 field of healthy and diabetic (streptozotocin-induced; 60 mg kg-1 body weight) Wistar rats fed with bilberry fruit (16 g kg-1 body weight per day; 6 weeks), as well as of the corresponding control groups.

Results: Biochemical analyses revealed ambiguous results, but a significantly (P<0.05) decrease in the level of LDL-cholesterol was observed in the group of healthy rats supplemented with bilberry pulp after 6 weeks of the treatment. There was also a difference (P<0.05) in the level of LDL-cholesterol in the mentioned healthy animals fed with bilberry, versus the healthy control group. An increased number of insulin receptors-immunoreactive neurons as well as nerve fibres in the CA1 field of diabetic rats fed with bilberry fruit was also found.

Conclusions: An inclusion of bilberry fruit in the daily diet during the course of diabetes can lead to plasticity of hippocampal neurons/nerve fibres, manifested by changes in insulin receptors expression. Whether or not the observed changes had protective effects (by reducing damages caused by diabetes mellitus) on the function of the central nervous system neurons needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/128879DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of TiO on Selected Pathogenic and Opportunistic Intestinal Bacteria.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 May 23;200(5):2468-2474. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences, Skromna Street 8, 20-704, Lublin, Poland.

Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO) containing a nanoparticle fraction (TiO NPs-nanoparticles) is widely used as a food additive (E171 in the EU). In recent years, questions concerning its effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota have been raised. In the present study, we examined interactions between bacteria and TiO. The study involved six pathogenic/opportunistic bacterial strains and four different-sized TiO types: three types of food-grade E171 compounds and TiO NPs (21 nm). Each bacterial strain was exposed to four concentrations of TiO (60, 150, 300, and 600 mg/L TiO). The differences in the growth of the analyzed strains, caused by the type and concentration of TiO, were observed. The growth of a majority of the strains was shown to be inhibited after exposure to 300 and 600 mg/L of the food-grade E171 and TiO NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02843-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9023387PMC
May 2022

Peripheral Oxidation Markers in Down Syndrome Patients: The Better and the Worse.

Dis Markers 2021 28;2021:5581139. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Calisia University, Nowy Świat 4, 62-800 Kalisz, Poland.

Oxidative stress plays an important role in Down syndrome (DS) pathology since the gene dose effect leads to abnormal levels of certain enzymes and metabolites. In this review, we focused on relatively easy-to-obtain, peripheral markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in order to compare the levels of these markers in DS patients and chromosomally healthy persons. Studies taking into account age- and sex-matched control groups were of particular interest in this context. We analyzed the factors that influence the levels of said markers in both groups (i.e., the usefulness of the markers), including the age of DS patients, occurrence of regular trisomy 21 or mosaicism, physical activity of patients, and the onset of Alzheimer's disease in DS. This paper was conceived as a handbook-to help for selecting suitable, easy-to-obtain markers for monitoring of the health status of DS patients (e.g., in nutritional studies and during dietary supplementation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5581139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260317PMC
December 2021

Four Types of TiO Reduced the Growth of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains.

Foods 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Cytobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO) containing a nanoparticle fraction (TiO NPs -nanoparticles) is widely used as a food additive (E171 in the EU). In recent years, it has increasingly been raising controversies as to the presence or absence of its harmful effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota. The complexity and variability of microbiota species present in the human gastrointestinal tract impede the assessment of the impact of food additives on this ecosystem. As unicellular organisms, bacteria are a very convenient research model for investigation of the toxicity of nanoparticles. We examined the effect of TiO (three types of food-grade E171 and one TiO NPs, 21 nm) on the growth of 17 strains of lactic acid bacteria colonizing the human digestive tract. Each bacterial strain was treated with TiO at four concentrations (60, 150, 300, and 600 mg/L TiO). The differences in the growth of the individual strains were caused by the type and concentration of TiO. It was shown that the growth of a majority of the analyzed strains was decreased by the application of E171 and TiO NPs already at the concentration of 150 and 300 mg/L. At the highest dose (600 mg/L) of the nanoparticles, the reactions of the bacteria to the different TiO types used in the experiment varied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146636PMC
April 2021

Permeability of Extract Component-Physodic Acid through the Blood-Brain Barrier as an Important Argument for Its Anticancer and Neuroprotective Activity within the Central Nervous System.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Święcicki 4 Str, 60-781 Poznań, Poland.

Lichen secondary metabolites are characterized by huge pharmacological potential. Our research focused on assessing the anticancer and neuroprotective activity of acetone extract (HP extract) and physodic acid, its major component. The antitumor properties were evaluated by cytotoxicity analysis using A-172, T98G, and U-138 MG glioblastoma cell lines and by hyaluronidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. The neuroprotective potential was examined using COX-2, tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity tests. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of the tested substances was examined, and the chemical composition of the extract was analyzed. For physodic acid, the permeability through the blood-brain barrier using Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay for the Blood-Brain Barrier assay (PAMPA-BBB) was assessed. Our study shows that the tested substances strongly inhibited glioblastoma cell proliferation and hyaluronidase activity. Besides, HP extract diminished COX-2 and tyrosinase activity. However, the AChE and BChE inhibitory activity of HP extract and physodic acid were mild. The examined substances exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Importantly, we proved that physodic acid crosses the blood-brain barrier. We conclude that physodic acid and should be regarded as promising agents with anticancer, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities, especially regarding the central nervous system diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038629PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by bioactive coffee compounds protecting serotonin degradation.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;348:129108. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Structural Bioinformatics and High-Performance Computing Research Group (BIO-HPC), Computer Science Department, Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a major enzyme responsible for the deamination of neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system. The decrease in 5-HT levels is accompanied by disorders at the affective and somatic levels, leading to depression and disorders of the satiety center. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of MAO-A inhibition by chlorogenic acids, as well as green, light-, and dark-roasted coffee extracts and bioactive compounds from beans of the species Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Data for analysis was obtained using isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking. The results showed that caffeine and ferulic acid, as well as green Robusta coffee, demonstrated the greatest inhibition of MAO-A activity, which may increase the bioavailability of serotonin. We believe that green coffee shows potential antidepressant activity by inhibiting MAO-A, and may be used for treating depression and potentially, type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129108DOI Listing
June 2021

Chocolate desserts with ricotta hydrolysates: In vitro study of inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme and cholinesterase.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 16;85(10):3003-3011. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Poznań, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71b, Poznań, 60-630, Poland.

Food can be a source of valuable peptides with high bioactivity, which regulate the functioning of cardiovascular and nervous systems. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of usage ricotta after hydrolysis to obtain innovative chocolate desserts. It was shown that the hydrolysis of whey proteins in ricotta had insignificant effect on the texture indices of the products, except gumminess, as it declined to 16% in ricotta samples and to 7% in case of chocolate dessert samples. Confirmed was that the hydrolysis of the ricotta affected the activity of prepared desserts with respect to cholinesterases and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysate of ricotta may be consider as a semifinished product of high functional activity, and its further application in dessert production allows to provide novel prohealth new products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Study results indicate new feasibilities of ricotta application as functional ingredient of new products--chocolate desserts. The results show that ricotta after the stage of enzyme hydrolysis of proteins might have noticeable effect on product functionality. A measurable benefit for the consumer is the receipt of a new product with favorable health-promoting properties, and for the entrepreneur new possibilities to expand the range of functional products. Moreover, described technology allows to use dairy byproducts for new products developments, such as chocolate desserts, due to sustainability development strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15445DOI Listing
October 2020

Regardless of the Brewing Conditions, Various Types of Tea are a Source of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 6;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized, among others, by abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a significant role in the process through hydrolysis of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Currently, the main method for treatment of AD at a symptomatic stage entails administration of AChE inhibitors to patients diagnosed with the disease. However, it is also possible to take certain steps to treat AD by delivering inhibitors with food. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that tea () shows numerous beneficial properties, including improving cognitive abilities. This is particularly important in the case of AD patients. The study assessed the impact of brewing conditions on the inhibition of AChE activity observed in tea extracts (black, white, or fruit). Our study revealed that neither temperature nor time of brewing influenced the respective infusions' ability to inhibit the activity of AChE. Anticholinesterase activity was observed in most of the different types of tea that were analyzed, with the highest rate of inhibition (30.46%-48.54%) evidenced in the Biofix Tea Wild Strawberry brand. The results of our research show that tea may be used as a rich source of cholinesterase inhibitors which play a significant role in AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146204PMC
March 2020

Activity-guided isolation of cholinesterase inhibitors quercetin, rutin and kaempferol from fruit.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2020 Mar 12;75(3-4):87-96. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie, Universität des Saarlandes, Campus C2 3, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

fruit is a source of anti-cholinesterase agents and led to an increase of acetylcholine levels in brain tissue as a usefull tool in the Alzheimer's disease therapy. This study aimed to propose a convenient method for the purification of cholinesterase inhibitors from water extract. Water extract from the fruit was ultrafiltered (0.2 μm→5 kDa→3 kDa) followed by preparative chromatography (Sephadex LH-20, high pressure C18) and high pressure analytical C18 chromatography. The chemical structures of inhibitors were confirmed using infrared and H-NMR spectroscopies. The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was measured using the colorimetric method in fractions obtained after each stage of purification. Polyphenolic cholinesterase inhibitors identified in peach fruit were kaempferol, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin). The relatively fast purification procedure elaborated in this work can be adopted for the isolation of phenolic cholinesterase inhibitors from fruit extracts related to fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/znc-2019-0079DOI Listing
March 2020

The Role of Dietary Antioxidants in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Their Impact on Cerebral Oxidoreductive Balance.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 8;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive diseases of the nervous system that lead to neuron loss or functional disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases require long-term, sometimes life-long pharmacological treatment, which increases the risk of adverse effects and a negative impact of pharmaceuticals on the patients' general condition. One of the main problems related to the treatment of this type of condition is the limited ability to deliver drugs to the brain due to their poor solubility, low bioavailability, and the effects of the blood-brain barrier. Given the above, one of the main objectives of contemporary scientific research focuses on the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. As disorders related to the competence of the antioxidative system are a marker in all diseases of this type, the primary prophylactics should entail the use of exogenous antioxidants, particularly ones that can be used over extended periods, regardless of the patient's age, and that are easily available, e.g., as part of a diet or as diet supplements. The paper analyzes the significance of the oxidoreductive balance in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Based on information published globally in the last 10 years, an analysis is also provided with regard to the impact of exogenous antioxidants on brain functions with respect to the prevention of this type of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12020435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071337PMC
February 2020

Alzheimer's disease: review of current nanotechnological therapeutic strategies.

Expert Rev Neurother 2020 03 27;20(3):271-279. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative pathology characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The most important markers in AD pathology include excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) proteins. One of the possible therapeutic strategies entails the elimination of such deposits by inhibiting Aβ aggregation. For years, one of the major problems in the treatment of AD has been the limited ability to deliver drugs to the brain for reasons related to poor solubility, low bioavailability, and the impact of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).: In recent years, the authors have observed an increasing scientific interest in nanotechnological solutions as the factors potentially capable of facilitating the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors discuss recent reports regarding the use of nanotechnology in the therapy and treatment of AD.: The current advances in nanotechnology promise a chance to overcome the obstacles posed by said limitations. The size and diversity of nanoparticles in terms of both composition and shape create new possibilities for a variety of therapeutic applications, also in the context of the treatment and diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases, for instance in combination with magnetic resonance imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2020.1719069DOI Listing
March 2020

Honey as the Potential Natural Source of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Alzheimer's Disease.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2020 Mar;75(1):30-32

Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized, among others by abnormal levels of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase in the brain. In this study, 47 types of Polish honeys were examined (using colorimetric method) as a source of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors. The highest potential for AChE inhibition was observed in the case of buckwheat honey (39.51% inhibition), while multi-floral honey showed the highest capacity for BChE inhibition (39.76%). Our study revealed that honeys can be a rich source of cholinesterase inhibitors and therefore may play a role in AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-019-00791-1DOI Listing
March 2020

Terpenes and Phenylpropanoids as Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Comparative Study.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2019 ;16(10):963-973

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Cholinesterase inhibitors are routinely applied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and seeking new cholinesterase inhibitors is a priority.

Objectives: Twenty seven compounds were compared, including ones not previously tested. An attempt was undertaken to precisely describe the role of alcohol in the inhibitory activity. This paper underlines the role of a "false positive" blank sample in the routine analysis.

Methods: The inhibition of cholinesterase was measured using Ellman's colorimetric method with a few modifications designed by the authors (including the "false-positive" effect). The inhibitory role of ethanol and methanol was also carefully evaluated. The present and past results were compared taking the source of enzyme and alcohol content into consideration.

Results: For the first time, new inhibitors were identified, namely: methyl jasmonate, 1R-(-)-nopol ((anti-acetyl-(AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity)) and 1,4-cineole, allo-aromadendrene, nerolidol, β-ionone, and (R)-(+)-pulegone (anti-BChE activity). Oleanolic acid and (+)-β-citronellene (not previously studied) proved to be inefficient inhibitors. For a number of well-known inhibitors (such as nerol, (-)-menthol, (+)-menthol, isoborneol, (-)-bornyl acetate, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α- ionone, and eugenol) some serious discrepancies were observed between our findings and the results of previous studies. Ethanol and methanol showed no anti-AChE activity up to 0.29% (v/v) and 0.23% (v/v), respectively. Similarly, ethanol up to 0.33% (v/v) and methanol up to 0.29% (v/v) did not inhibit the activity of BChE.

Conclusion: It can be stated that the impact of alcohol should be precisely determined and that blank "false-positive" samples should be processed together with test samples. Furthermore, the effect of the enzyme origin on the result of this test must be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205016666191010105115DOI Listing
October 2020

Study on Biological Activity of Bread Enriched with Natural Polyphenols in Terms of Growth Inhibition of Tumor Intestine Cells.

J Med Food 2020 Feb 10;23(2):181-190. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

A complex plant polyphenolic preparation (PP) was produced from chokeberry, raspberry, wild strawberry, peach, bilberry, apricot, cranberry, and parsley, using ultrafiltration and C18 preparative chromatography. Thirty main compounds were identified in PP (LC-MS), with the highest contribution of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, p-coumaroyl glucoside, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and isoquercetin. PP was used (at 0.16% m/m) for the production of a sourdough bread (based on rye flour, water, and salt), followed by digestion. Fluid obtained after PP-enriched bread digestion (EBD fluid) was tested in terms of cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, antioxidant activity, and morphological changes in cancerous intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and normal (CCD 841 CoTr). Results show that EBD fluid concentration over 125 g/mL significantly decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase in HT-29 cells and reduced their viability of 25%. At this concentration of EBD fluid, modification in cellular morphology was also observed. DPPH analysis revealed that the highest antioxidant activity was observed at concentration of 75 g/mL, both PP and EBD fluid. Our results show that an introduction of PP into relatively low-polyphenolic, baking products should be carefully considered because polyphenols still retain its biological activity. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols is one of the mechanisms that explains the observed effect of inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.0082DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Exposure on Human Health-a Review.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Jan 13;193(1):118-129. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Recently, an increased interest in nanotechnology applications can be observed in various fields (medicine, materials science, pharmacy, environmental protection, agriculture etc.). Due to an increasing scope of applications, the exposure of humans to nanoparticles (NPs) is inevitable. A number of studies revealed that after inhalation or oral exposure, NPs accumulate in, among other places, the lungs, alimentary tract, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys and cardiac muscle. In addition, they disturb glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice and rats. In a wide group of nanoparticles currently used on an industrial scale, titanium dioxide nanoparticles-TiO NPs-are particularly popular. Due to their white colour, TiO NPs are commonly used as a food additive (E 171). The possible risk to health after consuming food containing nanoparticles has been poorly explored but it is supposed that the toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their size, morphology, rate of migration and amount consumed. Scientific databases inform that TiO NPs can induce inflammation due to oxidative stress. They can also have a genotoxic effect leading to, among others, apoptosis or chromosomal instability. This paper gives a review of previous studies concerning the effects of exposure to TiO NPs on a living organism (human, animal). This information is necessary in order to demonstrate potential toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01706-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914717PMC
January 2020

[Selected indicators of inflammation in patients hospitalized with various degrees of obesity and metabolic syndrome].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2018 Sep;45(267):102-106

Department of Clinical Genetics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland.

In people with metabolic syndrome, obesity and diseases of the cardiovascular system are more often observed. At the basis of the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, chronic inflammation plays a significant role. One of the markers of this process is C-reactive protein (CRP) - one of the indicators of the acute phase of inflammation. The role of other biochemical parameters in obesity has been less well understood.

Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the correlation of selected factors of inflammation in obese people and the relevant anthropometric parameters.

Materials And Methods: 263 patients participated in the study. In all subjects anthropometric measurements (body weight, waist/hip ratio and body mass index) were performed and selected biochemical parameters related to MS were determined. The obtained data were analyzed with the division into three degrees of obesity, taking into account gender and place of residence.

Results: The mean C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was 5,32 ± 14 mg/dl; in women, the highest concentration in 2° of obesity (5mg/dL) and in men in 1-potency (8,41mg/dL). A statistically significant difference in the level of leukocytes between 1° and 3° of obesity in the study group was obtained (p = 0,02). In 3° of obesity in both sexes the highest concentration of monocytes was demonstrated. Positive correlations between leukocyte levels and individual parameters were demonstrated: triglyceride levels (r = 0,134); and the BMI value (r = 0,155); a waist (r = 0,147); and the level of PLT (r = 0,381) and RBC (r = 0,187).

Conclusions: The consequence of obesity is the continuous production of inflammatory factors causing destruction of the body's own tissues. In the present study, CRP values were shown to slightly exceed (p<0,05) above the accepted norm, while the remaining analyzed indicators were within diagnostic standards (in their upper ranges).
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September 2018

Phenolic Acids Exert Anticholinesterase and Cognition-Improving Effects.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2018 ;15(6):531-543

Department of Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Human Nutrition and the Science of Food Commodities, Skromna Street 8, Lublin 20-950, Poland.

Numerous authors have provided evidence regarding the beneficial effects of phenolic acids and their derivatives against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, the role of phenolic acids as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is discussed, including the structure-activity relationship. In addition, the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on the formation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils is presented. We also cover the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies concerning the prevention and treatment of the cognitive enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205014666171128102557DOI Listing
May 2019

Inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(11):e0188583. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract at a concentration of 100 μg/mL suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the down-regulation of PPARγ (67%), C/EBPα (72%), SREBP1 (62%), aP2 (24%), FAS (32%), LPL (40%), HSL (39%), and PLIN1 (32%) gene expression. Moreover, the extract significantly increased the expression of adiponectin (4.4-fold) and decreased leptin expression (90%) and respectively regulated the production of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds that support long-term weight maintenance and promote the effective management of obesity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188583PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705115PMC
December 2017
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