Publications by authors named "Domenico Rubello"

471 Publications

The role of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in hypertensive patients with comorbidities: From clinical trials to real-world settings.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Oct 21;130:110596. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Nuclear Medicine Unit, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Sacubitril/valsartan, the first agent to be approved in a new class of drugs called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs), has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity compared to enalapril in outpatient subjects with chronic heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, there is little real-world evidence about the efficacy of ARNIs in elderly hypertensive patients with HFrEF and comorbidities.

Methods: In this prospective open-label study, 108 subjects, 54 of them (mean age 78.6 ± 8.2 years, 75.0 % male), with HFrEF (29.8 ± 4.3 %) and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III symptoms were assigned to receive ARNIs twice daily, according to the recommended dosage of 24/26, 49/51, 97/103 mg. Patients were gender- and age-matched with a control arm of patients with HFrEF receiving the optimal standard therapy for HF. The clinic blood pressure (BP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid (UA), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and NYHA class were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 12 months. During the follow-up, the clinical outcomes, including mortality and re-hospitalization for HF, were collected.

Results: NYHA class significantly improved in the ARNI arm compared to the control (24.9 vs. 6.4 %, shifting from class III to II, and 55.4 vs. 25.2 %, from class II to I, p < 0.05 for all). A significant improvement in LVEF and eGFR levels was found in the ARNI arm compared to controls (42.4 vs. 34.2 %, 73.8 vs. 61.2 mL/min, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). NT-proBNP, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, blood glucose, HbA1c and UA values were reduced in both treatment arms, but they were lower in the ARNI arm compared controls (3107 vs. 4552 pg/mL, 112.2 vs. 120.4 and 68.8 vs. 75.6 mmHg, 108.4 vs. 112.6 mg/dL, 5.4 vs. 5.9 % and 5.9 vs. 6.4 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05). Mortality and re-hospitalization for HF was lower in the ARNI arm than controls (20.1 vs. 33.6 % and 27.7 vs. 46.3 % respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Gender differences were not found in either arm. No patients refused to continue the study, and no side effects to the ARNI treatment were observed.

Conclusions: In elderly patients with HFrEF and comorbidities, ARNI treatment seems effective and safe. The improvement in LVEF and cardiac remodeling, BP, eGFR, serum glucose, UA and HbA1c could be the mechanisms by which ARNIs play their beneficial role on clinical outcomes. However, these results need to be confirmed in studies involving a greater number of subjects, and with a longer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110596DOI Listing
October 2020

Agreement Between 18F-FDG PET/CT and Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Compared With Skeletal Survey for Initial Staging and Response at End-of-Treatment Evaluation of Patients With Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 04;46(4):310-322

Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital San Pedro and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.

Purpose: To compare the agreement between whole-body (WB) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and skeletal survey (SS) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) for diagnosis, initial staging, response evaluation, and early detection of complications.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study including MM patients who were diagnosed, treated, and followed in 2 institutions. These patients were studied with SS, WB-MR, and/or 18F-FDG PET/CT. We studied bone lesions by anatomical locations and analyzed the concordance between SS and a tomographic technique (WB-MR or 18F-FDG PET/CT) and between both tomographic techniques (WB-MR and PET/CT).

Results: Forty-four MM patients with a mean age of 62.6 years (range, 38-85 years) were included from January 2012 to February 2016. Whole-body MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT found more lesions than SS in every location except in the skull. Concordance between WB-MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT was either good or excellent in most of the locations and in plasmacytoma studies. However, WB-MR was better than 18F-FDG PET/CT in the study of complications (medullar compression and vascular necrosis).

Conclusions: Our results suggest the study of MM patients should include WB-MR and/or 18F-FDG PET/CT, whereas SS is only useful for the skull. Whole-body MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT are complementary techniques, because both of them show good concordance in almost every location. It is still necessary to individualize the indication of each technique according to patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938909PMC
April 2021

Machine learning-based differentiation between multiple sclerosis and glioma WHO II°-IV° using O-(2-[18F] fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography.

J Neurooncol 2021 Apr 27;152(2):325-332. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Clinical Neurooncology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147, Essen, Germany.

Introduction: This study aimed to test the diagnostic significance of FET-PET imaging combined with machine learning for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis (MS) and glioma II°-IV°.

Methods: Our database was screened for patients in whom FET-PET imaging was performed for the diagnostic workup of newly diagnosed lesions evident on MRI and suggestive of glioma. Among those, we identified patients with histologically confirmed glioma II°-IV°, and those who later turned out to have MS. For each group, tumor-to-brain ratio (TBR) derived features of FET were determined. A support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm was constructed to enhance classification ability, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC) metric served to ascertain model performance.

Results: A total of 41 patients met selection criteria, including seven patients with MS and 34 patients with glioma. TBR values were significantly higher in the glioma group (TBRmax glioma vs. MS: p = 0.002; TBRmean glioma vs. MS: p = 0.014). In a subgroup analysis, TBR values significantly differentiated between MS and glioblastoma (TBRmax glioblastoma vs. MS: p = 0.0003, TBRmean glioblastoma vs. MS: p = 0.0003) and between MS and oligodendroglioma (ODG) (TBRmax ODG vs. MS: p = 0.003; TBRmean ODG vs. MS: p = 0.01). The ability to differentiate between MS and glioma II°-IV° increased from 0.79 using standard TBR analysis to 0.94 using a SVM based machine learning algorithm.

Conclusions: FET-PET imaging may help differentiate MS from glioma II°-IV° and SVM based machine learning approaches can enhance classification performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-021-03701-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Novel Experience in Hybrid Tracers: Clinical Evaluation of Feasibility and Efficacy in Using ICG-99mTc Nanotop for Sentinel Node Procedure in Breast Cancer Patients.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Apr;46(4):e181-e187

Hospital Pharmacy.

Purpose: The clinical introduction of a radioactive and fluorescent hybrid tracer allowed for preoperative lymphatic mapping and intraoperative real-time fluorescence tracing of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by a single injection. The aim of this feasibility study is to evaluate the first-in-human use of the hybrid tracer by combining indocyanine green (ICG) and radiocolloid based on Nanotop compound (99mTc Nanotop) for SLN biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients.

Methods: The day before surgery, ICG-99mTc Nanotop was injected periareolarly in breast cancer patients scheduled for SLNB. Planar lymphoscintigraphic (PL) and SPECT/CT images were then acquired. An intraoperative optonuclear probe was used to detect SLN gamma and fluorescent signals. The harvested SLNs were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and patients were clinically evaluated 1 month after surgery.

Results: Twenty-one consecutive patients were enrolled. The PL and SPECT/CT techniques identified at least 1 SLN in all patients for a preoperative sentinel detection rate of 100%. SPECT/CT revealed 3 additional lymph nodes in the same nodal basin, which had not been visualized on conventional PL (κ = 0.747; P < 0.005). All 30 preoperative SLNs were localized and excised up to 16 hours after injection. The counts measured via gamma tracing showed a very strong correlation with those measured via near-infrared fluorescent tracing (P < 0.005, r = 0.964). No adverse reactions were observed.

Conclusions: The SLNB technique used with the ICG-99mTc Nanotop tracer resulted to be feasible, reliable, and safe. This hybrid compound allowed us to obtain excellent performance in terms of both preoperative lymphatic mapping and intraoperative SLN detection in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003478DOI Listing
April 2021

Selective internal radiation therapy of hepatic tumors: Morphologic and functional imaging for voxel-based computer-aided dosimetry.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 3;132:110865. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, 1220 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is used for the treatment of hepatic tumors. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare two dosimetric approaches based on Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and Y PET/CT, using SimplicitY™ versus the supplier suggested method of activity calculation.

Material And Methods: A total of 19 patients underwent 21 SIRT after baseline angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT, followed by 90Y PET/CT. Overlap between 99mTc-MAA and 90Y-microspheres was quantified with different thresholds isocontours. The perfused volume and tumor absorbed dose were estimated using Simplicit90Y™ based on SPECT/CT and PET/CT, then compared with the supplier suggested method. These data were related to overall survival to evaluate their prognostic impact.

Results: The overlap between PET/CT and SPECT/CT was dependent on thresholds, decreasing with an increasing threshold. The overlap between the 99mTc-MAA and 90Y-microspheres biodistributions versus the tumor distribution on morphological imaging was suboptimal, in particular for small tumor volume. The tumor absorbed dose estimated after 90Y PET/CT was not different from tumor absorbed dose estimated after SPECT/CT. The Perfused lobe absorbed dose was significantly lower while the volume of the perfused lobe was significantly higher when estimated by Simplicit90Y™ compared to the supplier suggested conventional approach. A statistical parameter based on overlap between tumor and 90Y-microspheres distribution as well as tumoral dosimetry was significantly related to the overall survival.

Conclusion: Post-treatment imaging remains paramount to estimate the irradiation dosimetry, due to an imperfect overlap. The perfused volume could be estimated from functional imaging, given its impact on dosimetry. Finally, survival seems related to tumoral overlap and dosimetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110865DOI Listing
December 2020

Enhanced antitumor efficacy of lapachol-loaded nanoemulsion in breast cancer tumor model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 27;133:110936. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Lapachol (LAP) is a natural compound with various biological properties, including anticancer activity. However, its clinical application is limited due to the low aqueous solubility and potential adverse side effects. Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that can assist in the administration of hydrophobic drugs, increasing their bioavailability and protecting from degradation. Thus, this study aimed to prepare a LAP-loaded nanoemulsion (NE-LAP), and evaluate its antitumor activity. For this purpose, the nanoemulsion was prepared using a hot homogenization method and characterized morphologically by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Mean diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta potential was evaluated by DLS, encapsulation efficiency was measured by HPLC. Moreover, the short-term storage stability, the drug release and hemolysis in vitro was determined. Additionally, pharmacokinetic, toxicology and toxicity properties ofTc-NE-LAP were evaluated in a breast cancer (4T1) tumor model. The cryo-TEM showed spherical globules, and the physicochemical characterization of NE-LAP showed a homogeneous stable nanoemulsion with a mean diameter of ∼170 nm, zeta potential of around -20 mV, and encapsulation greater than 85 %. In vitro studies validated that encapsulation did not impair the cytotoxicity activity of LAP. The nanoemulsion was successfully radiolabeled and Tc-NE-LAP showed prolonged blood circulation and tumor affinity was confirmed by tumor-to-muscle ratio. Moreover, NE-LAP showed higher antitumor activity than the free drug and the treatment did not result in any signs of toxicity. Therefore, these findings suggest that NE-LAP can be considered an effective strategy for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110936DOI Listing
January 2021

Venous Air Embolism Identified by 18F-Fluorocholine Dual-Phase PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Feb;46(2):171-172

From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital San Pedro and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.

Abstract: A 60-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism with previous nonconclusive imaging studies was referred for 18F-fluorocholine (18F-FCH) PET/CT as part of the preoperative diagnostic imaging workup to localize the adenoma before minimally invasive surgery. 18F-FCH PET/CT with dual time point was performed, acquiring immediately and 60 minutes after 18F-FCH administration. The early images demonstrated possible hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in the mediastinum, located in the right upper paratracheal space (region 2R), with an incidental iatrogenic subclavian venous air bubble embolism presenting as high uptake in the early images that disappeared in the late images. No symptomatology was reported during the examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003397DOI Listing
February 2021

PET/CT Integrated With CT Colonography in Preoperative Obstructive Colorectal Cancer by Incomplete Optical Colonoscopy: A Prospective Study.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Dec;45(12):943-947

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate if integrating whole-body PET/CT with CT colonography (PET/CTC) improves the preoperative diagnosis of obstructive colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: We prospectively included 47 consecutive patients (18 women and 29 men; mean age, 71 ± 14 years) suspected of having CRC by optical colonoscopy, which was not completed due to obstructive masses. To perform PET/CTC, a small caliber Foley catheter was inserted to distend the colon with CO2 insufflations. Polyps measuring 10 mm or larger were considered as high risk of malignancy. All findings were histologically confirmed.

Results: Colorectal cancer was localized in the sigmoid (n = 21), rectum (n = 7), rectosigmoid junction (n = 5), ascending (n = 7), descending (n = 5), and transverse (n = 2) colon. All tumors showed FDG uptake (mean ± SD SUVmax, 20.02 ± 9.9) including one synchronic tumor (SUVmax, 10.46). Forty-seven polyps were histologically confirmed as smaller than 10 mm (n = 35) and 10 mm or larger (n = 12). All 12 polyps 10 mm or larger showed FDG uptake (SUVmax range, 3.08-19.5), but only one smaller than 10 mm could be identified by PET. Pathological lymph nodes were diagnosed in 17/47 cases after surgical removal with a sensitivity and specificity for CTC and PET/CTC of 71% and 97% and 59% and 100%, respectively. Liver metastases were confirmed in 9 patients and in 4/9 along with lung metastases (n = 2) or implants (n = 2), showing a sensitivity and specificity for CTC of 89% and 100% and both 100% for PET/CTC.

Conclusions: PET/CTC is a reliable technique for staging CRC and diagnosing synchronous tumors. In this series, PET/CTC was not able to identify small polyps but showed potential use for ruling out 10 mm or larger polyps at high risk of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003252DOI Listing
December 2020

Reorganization of a Nuclear Medicine Department in Northern Italy During a 2-Month Lockdown for COVID-19 Pandemic.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Nov;45(11):854-859

From the Nuclear Medicine Department, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has profoundly changed the organization of hospital activities. We present our experience of reorganization of a nuclear medicine service settled in Northern Italy during the pandemic period of March and April 2020 characterized a government-mandated lockdown. Our service remained open during the whole period, performing approximately 80% of the routine practice, while maintaining it COVID-free despite the geographical context characterized by a high risk of infection. Reorganization involved all aspects of a nuclear medicine department, following local, national, and international guidelines for prioritizing patients, telephone and physical triages, deployment of appropriate personal protective equipment, social distancing, and logistic changes for scheduling examinations and disinfection procedures. All staff remained COVID-19-negative despite the unintentional admission of 4 patients who later turned out to be positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. These adopted measures would serve as the basis for safe nuclear medicine services in the post-lockdown phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003244DOI Listing
November 2020

Sentinel Node Imaging and Radioguided Surgery in the Era of SPECT/CT and PET/CT: Toward New Interventional Nuclear Medicine Strategies.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Oct;45(10):771-777

From the Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory.

We review recent technological advances and new clinical indications for sentinel node (SN) and radioguided surgery in order to delineate future tendencies of interventional nuclear medicine in this field. A literature research was performed in PubMed to select relevant articles to be used as key references for analysis of the current approaches and tendencies in SN and radioguided surgery, as well as the evolving contribution of nuclear medicine intervention techniques to the various clinical applications. For classic indications such as melanoma and breast cancer, the incorporation of the SN approach based on the combined use of existing and new preoperative and intraoperative technologies in high-risk patient categories is becoming an emerging area of clinical indication. For SN biopsy staging in other malignancies with more complex lymphatic drainage, the incorporation of sophisticated tools is most helpful. The consecutive use of PET/CT and the SN procedure is increasing as a potential combined approach for the management of specific areas such as the axilla and the pelvis in patients at high risk of regional dissemination. Also, for the management of locoregional metastasis and oligometastatic disease, interventional nuclear medicine techniques are becoming valuable alternatives. The extended experience with SN biopsy is leading to technological advances facilitating the incorporation of this procedure to stage other malignancies with complex lymphatic drainage. New nuclear medicine-based approaches, incorporating SPECT/CT and PET/CT to guide resection of SNs and occult metastases, have recently been gaining ground.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003206DOI Listing
October 2020

Is It Time to Introduce PET/CT in Rectal Cancer Guidelines?

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Aug;45(8):611-617

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, (IRST), IRCCS, Meldola, Italy.

At the moment, international guidelines for rectal cancer suggest to consider F-FDG PET/CT scan in a few conditions: (1) at disease presentation in case of suspected or proven metastatic synchronous adenocarcinoma with potentially curable M1 disease; (2) in the recurrence workup for serial carcinoembryonic antigen level elevation; (3) in the recurrence workup with metachronous metastases documented by CT, MRI, or biopsy; (4) in case of strong contraindication to IV contrast agent administration; and (5) to evaluate an equivocal finding on a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. PET/CT is not indicated in the follow-up or surveillance of rectal cancer. On the other hand, an attentive evaluation of the literature shows that PET/CT may also be used in some circumstances with significant levels of diagnostic accuracy. This review article aims to emphasize differences between current international guidelines and scientific literature in the role of PET/CT in rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003132DOI Listing
August 2020

18F-FDG PET/CT in Hodgkin Lymphoma With Unsuspected COVID-19.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Aug;45(8):652-653

From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital San Pedro and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.

We present an asymptomatic 70-year-old man referred for an F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging of a Hodgkin lymphoma. F-FDG PET/CT showed bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy (stage II). Incidentally, the CT demonstrated bilateral ground-glass opacities with low-grade F-FDG activity. CT findings were suspicious for COVID-19 pneumonitis. The COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) examination result was negative. Given the high clinical suspicion for COVID-19, the patient was isolated and repeat RT-PCR was positive at 72 hours. RT-PCR may be falsely negative in early COVID-19 disease, even with positive CT findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315831PMC
August 2020

Comparison of Tc-Labeled Colloid SPECT/CT and Planar Lymphoscintigraphy in Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Melanoma: A Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 2;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

We compared the detection rate (DR) for sentinel lymph nodes (SLN), the number of SLNs and the subjects with additional SLNs of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and planar lymphoscintigraphy (PL) in patients with melanoma. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of SPECT/CT on surgical plans. Articles containing head-to-head comparisons between SPECT/CT and PL were searched in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Scopus. The literature search was updated until December 31st, 2019. DR was calculated on a per patient-based analysis; the studies were pooled by their odds ratios (ORs) with a random effects model to assess the significance of difference ( < 0.05). The number of additional SLNs (calculated as the relative risk) and pooled proportion of patients with additional SLNs were investigated. The pooled ratio of surgical procedures influenced by the SPECT/CT findings was calculated. Seventeen studies with 1438 patients were eligible for the calculation of DR of SPECT/CT and PL. The average DR was 98.28% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 97.94-99.19%) for the SPECT/CT and 95.53% (95% CI: 92.55-97.77%) for the PL; OR of 2.31 (95% CI: 1.66-4.18, < 0.001) in favor of the SPECT/CT. There was a relative risk of a higher number of SLNs (1.13) for the SPECT/CT and 17.87% of patients with additional SLNs were detected by SPECT/CT. The average impact of SPECT/CT on surgery resulted in 37.43% of cases. This meta-analysis favored SPECT/CT over PL for the identification of SLNs in patients with melanoma due to a higher DR, reproducibility, number of SLNs depicted, proportion of patients with additional SLNs and the impact on the surgical plan. However, PL remains a good option due to the high values of the DR for SLNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356992PMC
June 2020

Is It Time to Introduce PET/CT in Colon Cancer Guidelines?

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Jul;45(7):525-530

Nuclear Medicine Department, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, IRCCS, Meldola, Italy.

International colon cancer guidelines suggest F-FDG PET/CT in a few circumstances: (1) at disease presentation in case of suspected or proven metastatic synchronous adenocarcinoma; (2) in the workup of recurrent colon cancer with metachronous metastases documented by CT, MRI, or biopsy and in case of serial CEA elevation with negative colonoscopy and negative CT; and (3) in case of contraindication to iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents. However, review of the literature has shown that PET/CT can also be used in other scenarios with significant levels of diagnostic advantage. This review aims to emphasize differences between guidelines and scientific literature for the use of PET/CT in colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003076DOI Listing
July 2020

The sentinel lymph node biopsy technique in papillary thyroid carcinoma: The issue of false-negative findings.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 06 15;46(6):967-975. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: The management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is changed after introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) technique for nodal staging. Some debate still surrounds the accuracy of this procedure in terms of wide heterogeneity of sentinel lymph node detection and false-negative findings.

Aim: to identify the key issues which make it difficult the usefulness of SNB in PTC.

Methods: A comprehensive computer literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane library database until June 30, 2019 was conducted. We used a search algorithm based on this combination of terms: (i) "thyroid neoplasm" or "thyroid cancer" or "thyroid carcinoma" or "thyroid malignancy" or "meta-analysis" or "systematic review") AND (ii) "sentinel lymph node biopsy".

Results: Comparing 4 written meta-analyses published in the literature, the diagnostic performance of SNB technique in PTC has been summarized. Relatively high false-negative rates (FNR) were reported for each SNB methods: vital-dye (VD: 12.7%; 7%; 0-38%), 99mTc-nanocolloid planar lymphoscintigraphy with the use of intraoperative hand-held gamma probes (LS: 11.3%; 16%; 0-40%), combined LS with VD (LS+VD: 0%; 0-17%), LS with the additional contribution of preoperative SPECT/CT (7-8%).

Conclusion: Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of SNB in PTC are increasing. The nuclear medicine community should reach a consensus on the operational definition of the SLN to better guide the surgeon in identifying the lymph nodes most likely contain metastatic cells. Standardization of SLN identification, removal and analysis are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.02.007DOI Listing
June 2020

Thermosensitive Nanosystems Associated with Hyperthermia for Cancer Treatment.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2019 Nov 25;12(4). Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31279-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Conventional chemotherapy regimens have limitations due to serious adverse effects. Targeted drug delivery systems to reduce systemic toxicity are a powerful drug development platform. Encapsulation of antitumor drug(s) in thermosensitive nanocarriers is an emerging approach with a promise to improve uptake and increase therapeutic efficacy, as they can be activated by hyperthermia selectively at the tumor site. In this review, we focus on thermosensitive nanosystems associated with hyperthermia for the treatment of cancer, in preclinical and clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph12040171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958340PMC
November 2019

Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients With Locally Advanced Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Jan;45(1):38-43

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine.

Purpose: The outcome of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is heterogeneous, and favorable response to this treatment is a key factor in the patient's prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate F-FDG PET/CT in assessing metabolic response in patients with AEG.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study evaluated all consecutive patients with potentially operable locally advanced AEG who were candidates for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. PET/CT and contrast-enhanced thoracoabdominal CT were performed at baseline and 2 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy for response evaluation. The response rate was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria for contrast-enhanced thoracoabdominal CT and Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria for PET/CT. The regression rate was assessed using a 5-grade histopathology scoring system of the surgically resected tumor. Metastatic lesions were confirmed by histopathology examination or imaging and clinical follow-up at 6 months.

Results: A total of 40 cases were finally included in the study. Distant metastases were found in the baseline PET/CT in 6 of 40 cases (retroperitoneal [2] or mediastinal/hiliar [1] lymph nodes and liver [2] or bone [1] metastases) and were therefore excluded from surgery. Pathologic response correlated with the ΛSUVmax threshold of ≤45% (P = 0.033). CT response correlated well with both the baseline SUVmax (P = 0.039) and the ΛSUVmax (P = 0.001). Five-year survival curves for AEG correlated with the ΛSUVmax using a threshold of ≤45% for both progression-free and overall survival.

Conclusions: F-FDG PET/CT is useful for diagnosing nonsuspected metastasis before neoadjuvancy in potentially operable AEG. The ΛSUV correlates with pathologic response and is a long-term independent prognostic factor of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002840DOI Listing
January 2020

Long-term effect of the perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine single-pill combination on left ventricular hypertrophy in outpatient hypertensive subjects.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Dec 15;120:109539. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, Medical Physics, Clinical Laboratory, Microbiology, Pathology, Trasfusional Medicine, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy.

Background: Most antihypertensive drugs used in monotherapy or in combination therapy reduce the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). However, little is known about the effects on LVMI of a triple fixed-dose combination (TFC) therapy, containing in a single pill an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), a diuretic and a calcium channel blocker (CCB).

Methods: In this prospective open-label study, 92 patients with essential hypertension were randomized to treatment with a TFC of perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine at different doses or a triple free combination therapy (FCT) including ACEI/diuretic/CCB. Office blood pressure (BP) measurement, 24 h-ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography were performed at baseline and during a 14-month follow-up. The BP variability (BPV) over 24 h was calculated as ± standard deviation of the daytime systolic BP. Differences between office and monitored BP and LVMI were evaluated by ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results: A significant BP-lowering effect was observed for both treatments. At follow-up, BPV was reduced in both the treatment groups vs. the baseline (14.0±1.5 vs. 17.0±1.8 and 16.2±2.1 vs. 17.6±2.3, respectively), but it was lower in the TFC vs. the FCT group (14.0±1.5 vs. 16.1±2.2, P < 0.05). LVMI was lower in both the treatment groups, but the change was greater for TFC vs. FCT (-8.3±4.9% vs. -2.0 ±2.1%, P < 0.0001). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) regression was greater in the TFC vs. the FCT group (43.5% vs. 30.4%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Independently of BP values achieved, the antihypertensive TFC therapy was more effective than FCT in LVMI reduction and LVH regression, possibly related to drugs' intrinsic properties and to BPV modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104809PMC
December 2019

A new mobile self-dispensing and administering system for F-FDG: evaluation of operator dose reduction.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Mar 9;40(1):243-252. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Medical Physics Unit, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy.

Purpose: Recently new mobile systems for dispensing positron emitters have been produced, designed to guarantee dispensing cycles in an aseptic environment. The aim of the present work was to assess the advantage of one of these systems in radiation protection of operators in clinical settings.

Methods: Recently, in our centre the new self-dispensing system named KARL by Tema Sinergie was adopted for F-FDG radiopharmaceuticals. The system is associated with an automatic Rad-inject infuser. The system that was previously used was a fixed isolator NMC DSI (Tema Sinergie), equipped with a μDDS-An activity fractioning system, together with a pneumatic post for the syringe delivery. The dosimetric evaluations on both systems were carried out through environmental measurements with an ionisation chamber and with the use of personal dosimeters.

Results: The operations of preparation and administration of F-FDG dose to the patient, with the use of Karl + RadInject, involve exposures much lower than those obtained by the fixed isolator. The average body exposure of the technician was reduced by 31%, and for the physician by 77%. On the extremities, the equivalent dose to the hands of the technician was reduced by 78%, and for the physician by 96%. Also the additional dosimeters worn by the technician confirmed the estimated environmental assessments.

Conclusions: The exposures of the working personnel were significantly reduced with the introduction of the new KARL system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab4287DOI Listing
March 2020

Folate-coated, long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes enhance doxorubicin antitumor effect in a breast cancer animal model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Oct 7;118:109323. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Long circulating pH-sensitive liposomes have been shown to effectively deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to tumors and reduce its toxic effects. Folic acid receptors are upregulated in a wide variety of solid, epithelial tumors, including breast cancer. In order to improve liposomal endocytosis and antitumor activity, folic acid has been added to nanoparticles surfaces to exploit overexpression of folate receptors in tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo of long circulating pH-sensitive folate-coated DOX-loaded liposomes (SpHL-DOX-Fol) in a 4T1 breast cancer model system in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies were performed and in vivo electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated. A higher tumor uptake for radiolabeled SpHL-Fol (Tc-SpHL-Fol) 4 h after intravenous administration was observed in comparision with non-folate-coated liposomes (Tc-SpHL). Antitumor activity showed that SpHL-DOX-Fol treatment led to a 68% growth arrest and drastically reduce pulmonary metastasis foci. Additionally, eletrocardiographic parameters analysis revealed no dispersion in the QT and QTc interval was observed in liposomal treated mice. In summary, this novel multifunctional nanoplatform deomonstrated higher tumor uptake and antitumor activity. SpHL-DOX-Fol represents a drug delivery platform to improve DOX tumor delivery and reduce dose-limiting toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104811PMC
October 2019

Letter to the editor-in-chief of Head and Neck.

Head Neck 2019 12 5;41(12):4234-4235. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.25902DOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of infection and inflammation in oncologic F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Sep 1;117:109168. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, Interventional Radiology, Pathology, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy. Electronic address:

Sites of infection and inflammation can be misleading in oncology PET/CT imaging because these areas commonly show F-FDG activity. Caution in the interpretation must be taken to avoid the misdiagnosis of malignancy. Utilization of both CT findings as well as patient history can help differentiate benign infectious and inflammatory processes from malignancy, although occasionally additional work-up may be required. This article discusses the mechanism of F-FDG uptake in infection and inflammation with illustrative examples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104808PMC
September 2019

Detection of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Peritoneal Lesions by SPECT/CT and ROLL Technique.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 Oct;44(10):826-828

From the Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine.

We reported the preoperative radio-guided localization of 4 peritoneal metastatic nodules in the case of a 45-year-old woman with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Three lines of chemotherapy were tried, but cardiotoxicity occurred. Within the context of so-called GOSTT (guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting), preoperative radio-guided localization of peritoneal metastases enabled their subsequent radio-guided excisional biopsy. SPECT/CT allowed for anatomical localization of the hot lesions and generated a 3-dimensional volume-rendering roadmap, facilitating a surgical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002725DOI Listing
October 2019

In Vivo Microbial Targeting of 99mTc-Labeled Human β-Defensin-3 in a Rat Model of Infection.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 Nov;44(11):e602-e606

From the Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Human Pathology.

Objective: Differentiation of infection from aseptic inflammation represents a major clinical issue. None of the commercially available compounds (labeled granulocytes, antigranulocyte antibodies, Ga-citrate, labeled immunoglobulin G, F-FDG) is capable of this differentiation, producing a nonnegligible false-positive rate. Recently, our group reported on a reliable labeling procedure of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 3 (HBD-3) with Tc. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo Tc-HBD-3 uptake in a rat model of infection.

Methods: Recombinant HBD-3 was radiolabeled with Tc. Radiolabeling yield and specific activity of the compound were calculated. Chromatographic behavior and biological activity of Tc-HBD-3 were also assessed. An experimental model involving Staphylococcus aureus-induced infection and carrageenan-induced aseptic inflammation was performed in 5 Wistar rats. Serial planar scintigraphic acquisitions were performed from 15 to 180 minutes after Tc-HBD-3 intravenous administration. Radiotracer uptake was evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively as a target-to-nontarget ratio.

Results: Radiolabeling yield of Tc-HBD-3 was 70% with a specific activity of 6 to 8 MBq/μg. A significant and progressive Tc-HBD-3 uptake was observed in the site of S. aureus-induced infection, with a maximum average target-to-nontarget ratio of 5.7-fold higher in the infection site compared with an inflammation site observed at 140 minutes.

Conclusions: In vivo imaging with Tc-HBD-3 in a rat model of S. aureus-induced infection demonstrated favorable uptake in the infection site compared with sterile inflammation and background. These promising results, together with previous ex vivo uptake and toxicity assessment, suggest the potential of Tc-HBD-3 as a novel agent for specific infection imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002713DOI Listing
November 2019

Intradermal-Stress-Lymphoscintigraphy in Early Detection and Clinical Management of Secondary Lymphedema: A Pictorial Essay.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 Aug;44(8):669-673

Centre for Surgical Treatment of Lymphedema, Plastic Surgery Department, Agostino Gemelli Hospital, Cattolica del Sacro Cuore University, Rome.

Stress-lymphoscintigraphy evaluates the effects of exercise on lymph drainage. Results may predict outcomes of complex physical therapy as a first-line lymphedema treatment. Microsurgical approaches are best in patients with lymphangectasia or dermal backflow. Lymphatic pathway mapping helps plan lympho-venous anastomoses. For improved lymphatic visualization, we suggest a scan at rest, after a quick exercise (stepping or weight lifting for 2 min) and delayed scanning after prolonged symptom limited exercise (walking or hand squeezing for 30-40 min). In advanced lymphedema, identification of lymph pathways and residual regional lymph nodes might be difficult. In these patients, lymph node transplant is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002560DOI Listing
August 2019

European Association of Nuclear Medicine Practice Guideline/Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Procedure Standard 2019 for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2019 Sep 29;46(10):2112-2137. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Purpose: Diverse radionuclide imaging techniques are available for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Beyond their ability to detect and localise the disease, these imaging approaches variably characterise these tumours at the cellular and molecular levels and can guide therapy. Here we present updated guidelines jointly approved by the EANM and SNMMI for assisting nuclear medicine practitioners in not only the selection and performance of currently available single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography procedures, but also the interpretation and reporting of the results.

Methods: Guidelines from related fields and relevant literature have been considered in consultation with leading experts involved in the management of PPGL. The provided information should be applied according to local laws and regulations as well as the availability of various radiopharmaceuticals.

Conclusion: Since the European Association of Nuclear Medicine 2012 guidelines, the excellent results obtained with gallium-68 (Ga)-labelled somatostatin analogues (SSAs) in recent years have simplified the imaging approach for PPGL patients that can also be used for selecting patients for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy as a potential alternative or complement to the traditional theranostic approach with iodine-123 (I)/iodine-131 (I)-labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine. Genomic characterisation of subgroups with differing risk of lesion development and subsequent metastatic spread is refining the use of molecular imaging in the personalised approach to hereditary PPGL patients for detection, staging, and follow-up surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04398-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446938PMC
September 2019

Role of F-FDG PET/CT in establishing new clinical and therapeutic modalities in lung cancer. A short review.

Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol (Engl Ed) 2019 Jul - Aug;38(4):229-233. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Imaging (Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Radiology) and of Clinical Laboratory (Laboratory, Transfusional Centre, Microbiology, Pathology, Rovigo Hospital, Italy. Electronic address:

Lung cancer is a fairly common malignancy. An early diagnosis and a reliable staging and re-staging with the aim to detect both local and distant relapse are of utmost importance in planning the therapeutic management. The imaging diagnostic work-up of patients with lung cancer usually includes conventional imaging (chest X-ray, contrast-enhanced CT, bone scan) and more recently F-FDG PET/CT. Great advances in the management of lung cancer are based on the information provided by F-FDG PET/CT, as it supplies both metabolic and anatomic information (better localisation). There is vast evidence in the literature demonstrating its utility in (a) characterising benign versus malignant solitary nodules, (b) staging and re-staging lung cancer, (c) guiding the type of therapy, (d) monitoring treatment response and (e) predicting outcome. In particular, given its specificity in differentiating F-FDG-avid relapse from post-surgical changes or post-radiation fibrosis (which do not take up F-FDG), PET/CT can detect recurrent disease after initial treatment and (being a whole-body technique) has demonstrated high accuracy in the detection of distant metastases or secondary tumours. In conclusion, F-FDG PET/CT can be considered a highly accurate and reliable method for staging and re-staging lung cancer, and is highly effective in guiding personalised therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.remn.2019.02.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Lymphoscintigraphy for the evaluation of limb lymphatic flow disorders: Report of technical procedural standards from an Italian Nuclear Medicine expert panel.

Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol (Engl Ed) 2019 Sep - Oct;38(5):335-340. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Departamento de Medicina Nuclear y Centro PET, Hospital de Santa Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo, Italia. Electronic address:

Lymphoscintigraphy represents the "gold standard" for diagnosis of lymphedema, but an important limitation is the lack of procedural standardization. The aim of this Italian expert panel was to provide a procedural standard for lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphatic system disorders. Topic anaesthetic gels containing lidocaine should be avoided. Patients should remove compressive dressings. Total recommended activity for Tc-nanocolloid administration in adults is 74MBq, or 37MBq per limb and per investigated compartment, in single or multiple aliquots. 2-3 subcutaneous injections should be performed (II-III±I interdigital space of each hand/foot), avoiding intravascular injection. Deep lymphatic system of lower limbs should be evaluated in presence of dermal back-flow or lymphatic stasis (1-2 subfascial administrations in retro-malleolar or plantar region). Planar images should be acquired from injection site to liver with whole-body or serial static acquisitions 20' and 90' after subcutaneous administration. Additional information on lymphatic pathways is obtained after a quick and/or prolonged exercise protocol. SPECT/CT is recommended to study the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic territories. When required, deep lymphatic system of lower limbs should be evaluated with static acquisition 90' after subfascial administration. The report should describe administration and imaging procedure, exercise protocol, qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis (wash-out rate, transport index), potential sources of error. Due to the essential role fulfilled by lymphoscintigraphy in clinical management of primary and secondary lymphedema, an effort for the standardization of this technique should be made to provide the clinicians with a homogeneous and reliable technical methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.remn.2019.02.005DOI Listing
May 2020

Diuresis renography in equivocal urinary tract obstruction. A historical perspective.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Aug 25;116:108981. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, and Clinical Pathology, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy. Electronic address:

Obstructive nephropathy may be suspected for the incidental detection of dilated renal collecting system at ultrasonography, CT or MRI. A dilated renal collecting dilation (calyco-pelvis or ureteres) might be related 1) to an anatomical variant of the excretory tract without obstruction and, therefore, without consequence on renal function, or 2) to an obstruction/stenosis of the urinary tract that may cause a damage of kidney function. In the present review we annotated the various methods proposed for Diuresis Renography (DR) used with the purpose to make early diagnosis of obstructive nephropathy. First, the F + 20 method (i.e. furosemide 40 mg injected IV 20 min after radiotracer injection) in seated position (sp) (F + 20) was reported to distinguish between an anatomical dilation from an anatomical obstruction of the urinary tract. It was also suggested to perform DR with the patient in supine or prone position in order to minimize possible furosemide-induced hypotension and patient's movements during exam. Other DR methods were proposed administering furosemide EV to the patient in supine position at different times: F-15 (furosemide injected IV 15 min prior to radiotracer), F0 (furosemide injected contemporary to radiotracer), F + 20 (furosemide injected 20 min after the radiotracer), F-20 and Well Tempered (other than F + 20 this modality requires saline infusion for all duration of the test plus bladder catheterization). Unfortunately, in all the above described DR methods with patientin supine position, despite the furosemide administration, a sensitive slowing down of urinary outflow could be related to the supine position itself of the patient during the examination. Lastly, there are reports of a new DR method based on furosemide IV injection 10 min after radiotracer with the patient in seated position, F+10. This method allows a better timing between hydration (400 mL of water) at 5 min, and the injection of relatively low dose of furosemide (20 mg), thus avoiding side effects as diuretic-induced hypotension and favouring bladder filling, therefore ameliorating patient compliance and reducing equivocal responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104806PMC
August 2019

Comparison of L-Methyl-11C-Methionine PET With Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Detecting Newly Diagnosed Glioma.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 Jun;44(6):e375-e381

Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging and Clinical Pathology, Rovigo, Italy.

Aims: Amino acid PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are at the forefront of noninvasive imaging techniques used for detection and subtyping of glioma-suspicious lesions. In this pilot study, we compare L-methyl-C-methionine PET and MRS for their ability to predict glioma subtypes.

Methods: Nineteen patients with histologically, confirmed newly diagnosed glioma underwent preoperative L-methyl-C-methionine PET and MRS in 1 diagnostic session. According to the molecular portfolio and histopathologic diagnosis, patients were subdivided in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type glioblastoma, IDH wild-type grade II/III glioma, IDH-mutant grade II/III glioma without 1p/19q codeletion, and with 1p/19q codeletion subgroups. Maximum tumor-to-brain ratio (TBRmax), creatine, choline, and N-acetyl aspartate peaks were correlated with postoperative histopathologic tumor diagnoses.

Results: Maximum tumor-to-brain ratio was highest in glioblastoma patients (4.18) followed by patients with IDH wild-type grade II and III glioma (3.41). The latter TBRmax values were higher compared with those in patients with IDH-mutant grade II/III glioma without 1p/19q codeletion (1.95) and in patients with IDH-mutant 1p/19q codeleted grade II and III glioma (2.79). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy marker distribution showed no clear trend. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed TBRmax to be the best performing parameter in identifying IDH status (area under the curve, 0.67) and all spectroscopy markers combined in identifying glioma subgroups (area under the curve, 0.68), respectively.

Conclusions: L-Methyl-C-methionine PET and MRS bear limited potential in glioma subgrouping. L-Methyl-C-methionine PET appears to be superior in differentiating IDH status, whereas MRS is more helpful in glioma subgrouping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002577DOI Listing
June 2019
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