Publications by authors named "Domenica Immacolata Battaglia"

5 Publications

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A novel homozygous variant in JAM3 gene causing hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and congenital cataracts (HDBSCC) with neonatal onset.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: JAM3 gene, located on human chromosome 11q25, encodes a member of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family. Mutations of this gene are associated with hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and congenital cataracts (HDBSCC).

Case Report: Herein, we present a newborn male with a prenatal suspicion of bilateral cataracts but without fetal ultrasound findings of cortical malformations. He was postnatally diagnosed with a clinical picture of HDBSCC and Early-onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy (DEE), associated to a homozygous variant of JAM3 gene.

Conclusion: Identification of this variant in affected individuals has implications for perinatal and postnatal management and genetic counseling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of a child with a JAM3 variant in Italy, from a different ethnic background than the other reported children until now (Saudi Arabian, Turkish, Afghani, and Moroccan origin). JAM3 screening could be requested in prenatal diagnosis of fetal congenital cataracts and included in Next-Generation DNA Sequencing panels.
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July 2021

Role of high-density EEG (hdEEG) in pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation in children: case report and review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 05 18;37(5):1429-1437. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Electrical source imaging (ESI) and especially hdEEG represent a noninvasive, low cost and accurate method of localizing epileptic zone (EZ). Such capability can greatly increase seizure freedom rate in surgically treated drug resistant epilepsy cases. Furthermore, ESI might be important in intracranial record planning.

Case Report: We report the case of a 15 years old boy suffering from drug resistant epilepsy with a previous history of DNET removal. The patient suffered from heterogeneous seizure semiology characterized by anesthesia and loss of tone in the left arm, twisting of the jaw to the left and dysarthria accompanied by daze; lightheadedness sometimes associated with headache and dizziness and at a relatively short time distance negative myoclonus involving the left hand. Clinical evidence poorly match scalp and video EEG monitoring thus requiring hdEEG recording followed by SEEG to define surgical target. Surgery was also guided by ECoG and obtained seizure freedom.

Discussion: ESI offers an excellent estimate of EZ, being hdEEG and intracranial recordings especially important in defining it. We analyzed our results together with the data from the literature showing how in children hdEEG might be even more crucial than in adults due to the heterogeneity in seizures phenomenology. The complexity of each case and the technical difficulties in dealing with children, stress even more the importance of a noninvasive tool for diagnosis. In fact, hdEEG not only guided in the presented case SEEG planning but may also in the future offer the possibility to replace it.
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May 2021

Sturge-Weber syndrome: an update on the relevant issues for neurosurgeons.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 10 21;36(10):2553-2570. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Neurochirurgia Infantile, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous facomatosis characterized by facial and leptomeningeal angioma, glaucoma, seizures, and neurological disability. Therefore, a challenging multidisciplinary interaction is required for its management. The goal of this paper is to review the main aspects of SWS and to present an illustrative pediatric series.

Methods: The pertinent literature has been analyzed, focused mainly on etiopathogenesis, pathology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, management, and outcome of the disease. Moreover, a series of 11 children operated on for refractory epilepsy between 2005 and 2015 (minimum follow-up 5 years, mean follow-up 9.6 years) is reported. The series consists of six boys and five girls with 6.5-month and 16.2-month mean age at seizure onset and at surgery, respectively. Seizures affected all children, followed by hemiparesis and psychomotor delay (81%), glaucoma (54%), and other neurological deficits (45%).

Results: All children underwent hemispherectomy (anatomical in three cases, functional in two cases, hemispherotomy in six cases); one patient needed a redo hemispherotomy. Mortality was nil; disseminated intravascular coagulation and interstitial pneumonia occurred in one patient each; three children had subdural fluid collection. Eight patients (72%) are in the ILAE Class 1 (completely seizure and aura free), two in Class 2 (only auras, no seizure), and one in Class 3 (1-3 seizure days per year). AEDs discontinuation was possible in 73% of cases. The most important news from the literature concerned the pathogenesis (role of the mutation of the GNAQ gene in the abnormal SWS vasculogenesis), the clinical findings (the features and pathogenesis of the stroke-like episodes are being understood), the diagnostic tools (quantitative MRI and EEG), and both the medical (migraine, seizures) and surgical management (epilepsy). The epileptic outcome of SWS patients is very good (80% are seizure-free), if compared with other hemispheric syndromes. The quality of life is affected by the neurological and cognitive deficits.

Conclusions: SWS still is an etiological and clinical challenge. However, the improvements over the time are consistent. In particular, the neurosurgical treatment of refractory epilepsy provides very good results as long as the indication to treatment is correct.
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October 2020

Calcified cephalohematoma as an unusual cause of EEG anomalies: case report.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Jan 7;19(1):46-50. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Departments of 1 Pediatric Neurosurgery and.

Cephalohematoma, one of the most common neonatal head injuries, generally undergoes spontaneous resorption. When calcified, it may cause cranial vault distortion and depression of the inner skull layer, although it remains asymptomatic. Surgery, indeed, is usually performed for cosmetic purposes. For these reasons, the long-term effects of calcified cephalohematoma (CC) are widely unknown. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a persistent calcified CC causing skull deformity and delayed electroencephalography (EEG) anomalies. These anomalies were detected during routine control EEG and were not clinically evident. The young girl underwent surgical removal of the CC for cosmetic purpose. The EEG abnormalities disappeared after surgery, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of a correlation with the brain "compression" resulting from the CC. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first time that CC-associated EEG anomalies have been described: even though these anomalies cannot be considered an indication for surgery, they merit late follow-up in case of skull deformity.
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January 2017