Publications by authors named "Doaa Taha"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In vitro evaluation of material dependent force damping behavior of implant-supported restorations using different CAD-CAM materials and luting conditions.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Associate Professor, Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Head of Fixed prosthodontics department, Faculty of Dentistry, British University, Cairo, Egypt.

Statement Of Problem: Although force-damping behavior that matches natural teeth may be unobtainable, an optimal combination of crown material and luting agent might have a beneficial effect on the force absorption capacity of implant-supported restorations. However, the force-absorbing behavior of various restorative materials has not yet been satisfactorily investigated.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the material dependent force-damping behavior of implant-supported crowns fabricated from different computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials luted to implant abutments under different conditions.

Material And Methods: Titanium inserts (N=84) were screwed to implant analogs, scanned to design zirconia abutments, and divided into 4 groups to receive CAD-CAM fabricated crowns in 4 materials: zirconia, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polymer-infiltrated ceramics (VITA Enamic), and lithium disilicate (e.max). The crowns were subdivided as per the luting agent: none, interim cement, and adhesive resin cement. Measurements were performed by loading specimens in a universal testing machine with an increasing force and measuring the resulting force with a digital forcemeter, followed by image processing and data acquisition. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to assess all interactions with multiple pairwise comparisons (α=.05).

Results: The curve progression of the applied and resulting forces varied significantly among the investigated materials, resulting in differently inclined slopes for each material (P<.001). With no cementation, the mean slope values of the resulting force curves ranged from 77.5 ±0.03 degrees for zirconia, followed by 71.8 ±0.03 degrees for lithium disilicate, 56.2 ±0.1 degrees for polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and 51.1 ±0.01 degrees for polyetheretherketone. With interim cementation, the mean slope values ranged from 75.4 ±0.01 degrees for zirconia, followed by 70.05 ±0.02 degrees for lithium disilicate, 56.1 ±0.02 degrees for polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and 52.2 ±0.1 degrees for polyetheretherketone. As with adhesive cementation, curve slopes ranged from 73.2 ±0.02 degrees for zirconia, followed by 70.5 ±0.2 degrees for lithium disilicate, 55.9 ±0.04 degrees for polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and 52.3 ±0.1 degrees for polyetheretherketone. Slope loss was significant after the cementation of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns but less significant for polymer-infiltrated ceramics and polyetheretherketone.

Conclusions: Force damping is generally material dependent, yet implant-supported crowns fabricated from resilient materials such as polymer-infiltrated ceramics and PEEK show better force absorption than rigid materials such as zirconia and lithium disilicate ceramics. Furthermore, cementation of rigid materials significantly increased slope loss, indicating enhancement in their force-damping behavior, whereas less-rigid materials benefit less from cementation. Further studies are essential to investigate the effect of prosthetic materials on the stress distribution to the peri-implant bone in the crown-abutment-implant complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.03.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Aberrant cytoplasmic intron retention is a blueprint for RNA binding protein mislocalization in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Brain 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK.

We recently described aberrantly increased cytoplasmic SFPQ intron-retaining transcripts (IRTs) and concurrent SFPQ protein mislocalization as new hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However the generalizability and potential roles of cytoplasmic IRTs in health and disease remain unclear. Here, using time-resolved deep-sequencing of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of hiPSCs undergoing motor neurogenesis, we reveal that ALS-causing VCP gene mutations lead to compartment-specific aberrant accumulation of IRTs. Specifically, we identify >100 IRTs with increased cytoplasmic abundance in ALS samples. Furthermore, these aberrant cytoplasmic IRTs possess sequence-specific attributes and differential predicted binding affinity to RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Remarkably, TDP-43, SFPQ and FUS-RBPs known for nuclear-to-cytoplasmic mislocalization in ALS-abundantly and specifically bind to this aberrant cytoplasmic pool of IRTs, as opposed to any individual IRT. Our data are therefore consistent with a novel role for cytoplasmic IRTs in regulating compartment-specific protein abundance. This study provides new molecular insight into potential pathomechanisms underlying ALS and highlights aberrant cytoplasmic IRTs as potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab078DOI Listing
March 2021

Reactive astrocytes in ALS display diminished intron retention.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 04;49(6):3168-3184

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

Reactive astrocytes are implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although the mechanisms controlling reactive transformation are unknown. We show that decreased intron retention (IR) is common to human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astrocytes carrying ALS-causing mutations in VCP, SOD1 and C9orf72. Notably, transcripts with decreased IR and increased expression are overrepresented in reactivity processes including cell adhesion, stress response and immune activation. This was recapitulated in public-datasets for (i) hiPSC-derived astrocytes stimulated with cytokines to undergo reactive transformation and (ii) in vivo astrocytes following selective deletion of TDP-43. We also re-examined public translatome sequencing (TRAP-seq) of astrocytes from a SOD1 mouse model, which revealed that transcripts upregulated in translation significantly overlap with transcripts exhibiting decreased IR. Using nucleocytoplasmic fractionation of VCP mutant astrocytes coupled with mRNA sequencing and proteomics, we identify that decreased IR in nuclear transcripts is associated with enhanced nonsense mediated decay and increased cytoplasmic expression of transcripts and proteins regulating reactive transformation. These findings are consistent with a molecular model for reactive transformation in astrocytes whereby poised nuclear reactivity-related IR transcripts are spliced, undergo nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation and translation. Our study therefore provides new insights into the molecular regulation of reactive transformation in astrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034657PMC
April 2021

Automated and unbiased discrimination of ALS from control tissue at single cell resolution.

Brain Pathol 2021 Feb 11:e12937. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Idiap Research Institute, Martigny, Switzerland.

Histopathological analysis of tissue sections is invaluable in neurodegeneration research. However, cell-to-cell variation in both the presence and severity of a given phenotype is a key limitation of this approach, reducing the signal to noise ratio and leaving unresolved the potential of single-cell scoring for a given disease attribute. Here, we tested different machine learning methods to analyse high-content microscopy measurements of hundreds of motor neurons (MNs) from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) post-mortem tissue sections. Furthermore, we automated the identification of phenotypically distinct MN subpopulations in VCP- and SOD1-mutant transgenic mice, revealing common morphological cellular phenotypes. Additionally we established scoring metrics to rank cells and tissue samples for both disease probability and severity. By adapting this paradigm to human post-mortem tissue, we validated our core finding that morphological descriptors robustly discriminate ALS from control healthy tissue at single cell resolution. Determining disease presence, severity and unbiased phenotypes at single cell resolution might prove transformational in our understanding of ALS and neurodegeneration more broadly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12937DOI Listing
February 2021

Regionally encoded functional heterogeneity of astrocytes in health and disease: A perspective.

Glia 2021 Jan 17;69(1):20-27. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Neuromuscular Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Increasing evidence has suggested that astrocytes demonstrate striking regionally allocated functional heterogeneity. Here, we discuss how this spatiotemporally encoded diversity determines the astrocytic phenotype along a finely grained spectrum from neuroprotective to deleterious states. With increasing recognition of their diverse and evolving roles in the central neuraxis, astrocytes now represent a tractable cellular target for therapies aiming to restore neural circuit integrity in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the determinants of astrocyte physiology along with the true extent of heterogeneity in their regional and subregional functions will ultimately inform therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23877DOI Listing
January 2021

Distinct responses of neurons and astrocytes to TDP-43 proteinopathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Brain 2020 02;143(2):430-440

Department of Neuromuscular Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by motor neuron loss, resulting in muscle wasting, paralysis and eventual death. A key pathological feature of ALS is cytoplasmically mislocalized and aggregated TDP-43 protein in >95% of cases, which is considered to have prion-like properties. Historical studies have predominantly focused on genetic forms of ALS, which represent ∼10% of cases, leaving the remaining 90% of sporadic ALS relatively understudied. Additionally, the role of astrocytes in ALS and their relationship with TDP-43 pathology is also not currently well understood. We have therefore used highly enriched human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons and astrocytes to model early cell type-specific features of sporadic ALS. We first demonstrate seeded aggregation of TDP-43 by exposing human iPSC-derived motor neurons to serially passaged sporadic ALS post-mortem tissue (spALS) extracts. Next, we show that human iPSC-derived motor neurons are more vulnerable to TDP-43 aggregation and toxicity compared with their astrocyte counterparts. We demonstrate that these TDP-43 aggregates can more readily propagate from motor neurons into astrocytes in co-culture paradigms. We next found that astrocytes are neuroprotective to seeded aggregation within motor neurons by reducing (mislocalized) cytoplasmic TDP-43, TDP-43 aggregation and cell toxicity. Furthermore, we detected TDP-43 oligomers in these spALS spinal cord extracts, and as such demonstrated that highly purified recombinant TDP-43 oligomers can reproduce this observed cell-type specific toxicity, providing further support to a protein oligomer-mediated toxicity hypothesis in ALS. In summary, we have developed a human, clinically relevant, and cell-type specific modelling platform that recapitulates key aspects of sporadic ALS and uncovers both an initial neuroprotective role for astrocytes and the cell type-specific toxic effect of TDP-43 oligomers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009461PMC
February 2020

Minimally invasive prosthodontic correction of pseudo class III malocclusion by implementing a systematic digital workflow: A clinical report.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Jan 5;125(1):8-14. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Professor, Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

This clinical report describes the digital workflow for implementing different virtual and digital aids for the restoration of tooth wear and loss of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). This conservative approach was implemented in an adult with pseudo class III malocclusion by using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic restorations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.11.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury by urinary YKL-40 in critically ill patients in ICU: a pilot study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2020 Feb 1;52(2):351-361. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine (For Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: In critically ill patients, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating problem often associated with adverse outcomes. Depending on the conventional markers for diagnosis of AKI, an undesirable delay in the diagnosis and initiation of treatment has occurred. Thus, it is challenging to find a biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. We sought to evaluate urinary YKL-40 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI among critically ill patients compared with conventional markers and to assess its relation to the severity of AKI.

Methods: Thirty-six patients without AKI at the time of ICU admission who enrolled in this prospective cohort study had the following measured: serum creatinine as well as urine YKL-40 at admission and thereafter at 4 time intervals (0, 12, and 24 ± 48 h) (therefore, we studied 94 urine samples in 36 patients). Urine YKL-40 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, which include three stages (1, 2, and 3) of progressive renal dysfunction.

Results: In this study, 18 (50%) patients developed AKI within 48-72 h. Moreover, urine YKL-40 increased significantly within 12 h in patients who developed AKI (n = 18, 11.75 ± 1.94), but not in non-AKI patients (n = 18, 5.66 ± 3.42) ng/ml (P < 0.001) and, at the same time, we did not find any significant difference in the serum creatinine levels between the two groups. In addition, AKI group showed rising levels with KIDGO classes.

Conclusion: In this pilot study we found that urinary YKL-40 can be used as a valuable and noninvasive marker for early diagnosis of AKI among critically ill patients in ICU as compared to conventional markers and its level is increasing with the severity of AKI classes. However, the small sample size is important limitation. Therefore, large multicenter studies may be needed to confirm it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02364-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Nonautonomous dynamics of acute cell injury.

Phys Rev E 2019 Nov;100(5-1):052407

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Medical conditions due to acute cell injury, such as stroke and heart attack, are of tremendous impact and have attracted huge amounts of research effort. The biomedical research that seeks cures for these conditions has been dominated by a qualitative, inductive mind-set. Although the inductive approach has not been effective in developing medical treatments, it has amassed enough information to allow construction of quantitative, deductive models of acute cell injury. In this work we develop a modeling approach by extending an autonomous nonlinear dynamic theory of acute cell injury that offered new ways to conceptualize cell injury but possessed limitations that decrease its effectiveness. Here we study the global dynamics of the cell injury theory using a nonautonomous formulation. Different from the standard scenario in nonlinear dynamics that is determined by the steady state and fixed points of the model equations, in this nonautonomous model with a trivial fixed point, the system property is dominated by the transient states and the corresponding dynamic processes. The model gives rise to four qualitative types of dynamical patterns that can be mapped to the behavior of cells after clinical acute injuries. The nonautonomous theory predicts the existence of a latent stress response capacity (LSRC) possessed by injured cells. The LSRC provides a theoretical explanation of how therapies, such as hypothermia, can prevent cell death after lethal injuries. The nonautonomous theory of acute cell injury provides an improved quantitative framework for understanding cell death and recovery and lays a foundation for developing effective therapeutics for acute injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.100.052407DOI Listing
November 2019

The Effect of Different Wax Pattern Fabrication Techniques on the Marginal Fit of Customized Lithium Disilicate Implant Abutments.

J Prosthodont 2019 Dec 11;28(9):1018-1023. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different wax pattern fabrication techniques on the fit of customized pressed lithium disilicate implant abutments on titanium inserts before and after pressing. The marginal fit results of pressed lithium disilicate implant abutments were then compared with those of milled lithium disilicate abutments.

Materials And Methods: After scanning the titanium inserts and designing an implant abutment, wax patterns were fabricated with three techniques (n = 15 each): computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling, 3D printing and conventional layering. The marginal fit (µm) was measured using a stereomicroscope for all the wax patterns before pressing them into the lithium disilicate abutments. The pressed implant abutments were measured again for marginal fit, and the results were compared to those of the milled lithium disilicate abutments. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess different wax pattern fabrication techniques in each stage before and after pressing. One-way ANOVA was also used to compare the groups of pressed and milled lithium disilicate abutments. Multiple pairwise comparisons were performed using the Tukey post hoc test in each stage.

Results: There were statistically significant differences between the marginal fit of the three wax patterns groups (p < 0.001; f = 123.33), wherein the mean marginal fit was the highest for conventionally layered wax patterns (30 ± 13.09) µm. Furthermore, after pressing, there were statistically significant differences between the marginal fit of the three pressed abutments groups (p < 0.001; f = 518.62), wherein the mean marginal fit was the highest for pressed e.max abutments fabricated from conventionally layered wax patterns (25.26 ± 3.9) µm. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean marginal fit of the pressed abutments fabricated from conventional layered wax patterns and that of the milled CAD/CAM abutments. However, the mean marginal fit of the milled CAD/CAM abutments was higher than that of the pressed abutments fabricated from both CAD/CAM wax and 3D printed wax.

Conclusion: All the tested fabrication methods provided degrees of accuracy that lie well within accepted limits. The use of pressed lithium disilicate abutments fabricated from conventional layering wax pattern technique should provide a more consistent better marginal fit between the titanium insert and the abutment and may therefore be the preferable fabrication method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.13112DOI Listing
December 2019

Widespread FUS mislocalization is a molecular hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Brain 2019 09;142(9):2572-2580

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, UK.

Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clearly implicate ubiquitously expressed and predominantly nuclear RNA binding proteins, which form pathological cytoplasmic inclusions in this context. However, the possibility that wild-type RNA binding proteins mislocalize without necessarily becoming constituents of cytoplasmic inclusions themselves remains relatively unexplored. We hypothesized that nuclear-to-cytoplasmic mislocalization of the RNA binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS), in an unaggregated state, may occur more widely in ALS than previously recognized. To address this hypothesis, we analysed motor neurons from a human ALS induced-pluripotent stem cell model caused by the VCP mutation. Additionally, we examined mouse transgenic models and post-mortem tissue from human sporadic ALS cases. We report nuclear-to-cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS in both VCP-mutation related ALS and, crucially, in sporadic ALS spinal cord tissue from multiple cases. Furthermore, we provide evidence that FUS protein binds to an aberrantly retained intron within the SFPQ transcript, which is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Collectively, these data support a model for ALS pathogenesis whereby aberrant intron retention in SFPQ transcripts contributes to FUS mislocalization through their direct interaction and nuclear export. In summary, we report widespread mislocalization of the FUS protein in ALS and propose a putative underlying mechanism for this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6735815PMC
September 2019

Assessment of marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of endocrown restorations utilizing different machinable blocks subjected to thermomechanical aging.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2018 07 16;30(4):319-328. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: This in vitro study was conducted to assess the marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturer (CAD-CAM) fabricated endocrowns restoring endodontically treated molars using different machinable blocks with thermomechanical loading protocols.

Materials And Methods: Devitalized mandibular molars were prepared in a standardized way and divided into 4 groups (n = 10) to receive CAD/CAM fabricated endocrowns using four materials (Lithium disilicate ceramics, polymer infiltrated ceramics, zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramics and resin nanoceramics. Marginal gaps (µm) were measured using stereomicroscope before cementation and after cementation. After thermomechanical aging, marginal gap measurements were repeated, and then fracture resistance test was performed. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD multiple comparisons were used to assess the effect of material on the marginal gap before, after cementation, and after thermomechanical aging. One Way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of material on the fracture resistance.

Results: The difference between marginal gaps values of the tested materials was statistically insignificant but with significant increase after cementation and after thermomechanical aging. Cerasmart endocrowns showed the highest mean fracture load value (1508.5 ± 421.7N) with statistically significant difference than Vita Enamic endocrowns and Celtra Duo.

Conclusion: The tested materials showed marginal vertical gap readings within the limits of clinically acceptable standards. Resin nanoceramics and lithium disilicate showed the highest values of fracture resistance followed by polymer infiltrated ceramics favoring their use for endocrown restorations.

Clinical Significance: The mechanical behavior of ceramic materials varies with the variation of their structure and mechanical properties. Accordingly, further investigation is always needed to explore the biomechanical behavior of recent materials when used as endocrowns before clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12396DOI Listing
July 2018

Intron retention and nuclear loss of SFPQ are molecular hallmarks of ALS.

Nat Commun 2018 05 22;9(1):2010. Epub 2018 May 22.

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) strongly implicate ubiquitously expressed regulators of RNA processing. To understand the molecular impact of ALS-causing mutations on neuronal development and disease, we analysed transcriptomes during in vitro differentiation of motor neurons (MNs) from human control and patient-specific VCP mutant induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identify increased intron retention (IR) as a dominant feature of the splicing programme during early neural differentiation. Importantly, IR occurs prematurely in VCP mutant cultures compared with control counterparts. These aberrant IR events are also seen in independent RNAseq data sets from SOD1- and FUS-mutant MNs. The most significant IR is seen in the SFPQ transcript. The SFPQ protein binds extensively to its retained intron, exhibits lower nuclear abundance in VCP mutant cultures and is lost from nuclei of MNs in mouse models and human sporadic ALS. Collectively, we demonstrate SFPQ IR and nuclear loss as molecular hallmarks of familial and sporadic ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04373-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964114PMC
May 2018

Abstraction and Idealization in Biomedicine: The Nonautonomous Theory of Acute Cell Injury.

Brain Sci 2018 Feb 27;8(3). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Neuroprotection seeks to halt cell death after brain ischemia and has been shown to be possible in laboratory studies. However, neuroprotection has not been successfully translated into clinical practice, despite voluminous research and controlled clinical trials. We suggested these failures may be due, at least in part, to the lack of a general theory of cell injury to guide research into specific injuries. The nonlinear dynamical theory of acute cell injury was introduced to ameliorate this situation. Here we present a revised nonautonomous nonlinear theory of acute cell injury and show how to interpret its solutions in terms of acute biomedical injuries. The theory solutions demonstrate the complexity of possible outcomes following an idealized acute injury and indicate that a "one size fits all" therapy is unlikely to be successful. This conclusion is offset by the fact that the theory can (1) determine if a cell has the possibility to survive given a specific acute injury, and (2) calculate the degree of therapy needed to cause survival. To appreciate these conclusions, it is necessary to idealize and abstract complex physical systems to identify the fundamental mechanism governing the injury dynamics. The path of abstraction and idealization in biomedical research opens the possibility for medical treatments that may achieve engineering levels of precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8030039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870357PMC
February 2018

Fracture resistance and failure modes of polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations with variations in margin design and occlusal thickness.

J Prosthodont Res 2018 Jul 11;62(3):293-297. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Section Medical Materials Science & Technology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of varying the margin designs and the occlusal thicknesses on the fracture resistance and mode of failures of endodontically treated teeth restored with polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations.

Methods: Root canal treated mandibular molars were divided into four groups (n=8) and were prepared to receive Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) fabricated polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrowns (ENAMIC blocks). Group B2 represents teeth prepared with a butt joint design receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group B3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. Group S2 represents teeth prepared with 1mm shoulder finish line receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group S3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. After cementation and thermal aging, fracture resistance test was performed and failure modes were observed.

Results: Group S3.5 showed the highest mean fracture load value (1.27±0.31kN). Endocrowns with shoulder finish line had significantly higher mean fracture resistance values than endocrowns with butt margin (p<0.05). However, the results were not statistically significant regarding the restoration thickness. Evaluation of the fracture modes revealed no statistically significant difference between the modes of failure of tested groups.

Conclusions: For the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, adding a short axial wall and shoulder finish line can increase the fracture resistance. However, further investigations, especially the fatigue behavior, are needed to ensure this effect applies with small increases of restoration thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpor.2017.11.003DOI Listing
July 2018

Grain Boundary Structures and Collective Dynamics of Inversion Domains in Binary Two-Dimensional Materials.

Phys Rev Lett 2017 Jun 20;118(25):255501. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Understanding and controlling the properties and dynamics of topological defects is a lasting challenge in the study of two-dimensional materials, and is crucial to achieve high-quality films required for technological applications. Here grain boundary structures, energies, and dynamics of binary two-dimensional materials are investigated through the development of a phase field crystal model that is parametrized to match the ordering, symmetry, energy, and length scales of hexagonal boron nitride. Our studies reveal some new dislocation core structures for various symmetrically and asymmetrically tilted grain boundaries, in addition to those obtained in previous experiments and first-principles calculations. We also identify a defect-mediated growth dynamics for inversion domains governed by the collective atomic migration and defect core transformation at grain boundaries and junctions, a process that is related to inversion symmetry breaking in binary lattice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.255501DOI Listing
June 2017

STUDYING THE STRUCTURAL, OPTICAL, CHEMICAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL ETCHING CHANGES OF CR-39 FOR DOSEMETRIC APPLICATIONS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2017 Dec;177(3):272-279

Physics Department, University College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work shows the induced modification of the structural, optical, chemical etching and electrochemical etching parameters of CR-39 irradiated with alpha-particles. CR-39 polymer track detectors were irradiated with different fluences (1.62 × 106, 2.72 × 106, 3.82 × 106 and 5.21 × 106 particles/cm2) of alpha-particles using 241Am source. The structural and optical properties were measured by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV/Vis spectroscopy, respectively. The FT-IR spectra reveal that no major changes in the typical functional groups of irradiated polymer detectors. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that a broad band in the region of 12° < 2θ > 27°, which refers to the presence of the combination of amorphous and crystalline phases. UV/Vis responses of irradiated polymer track detectors exhibit a single absorption band in the range of 254-352 nm that is correlated to the occurrence of electronic transition. Also, the changes in the chemical and electrochemical parameters due to alpha-irradiation are examined and thoroughly discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncx040DOI Listing
December 2017

Inductive and Deductive Approaches to Acute Cell Injury.

Int Sch Res Notices 2014 13;2014:859341. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Many clinically relevant forms of acute injury, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and myocardial infarction, have resisted treatments to prevent cell death following injury. The clinical failures can be linked to the currently used inductive models based on biological specifics of the injury system. Here we contrast the application of inductive and deductive models of acute cell injury. Using brain ischemia as a case study, we discuss limitations in inductive inferences, including the inability to unambiguously assign cell death causality and the lack of a systematic quantitative framework. These limitations follow from an overemphasis on qualitative molecular pathways specific to the injured system. Our recently developed nonlinear dynamical theory of cell injury provides a generic, systematic approach to cell injury in which attractor states and system parameters are used to quantitatively characterize acute injury systems. The theoretical, empirical, and therapeutic implications of shifting to a deductive framework are discussed. We illustrate how a deductive mathematical framework offers tangible advantages over qualitative inductive models for the development of therapeutics of acutely injured biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/859341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897055PMC
July 2016

R1 motif is the major actin-binding domain of TRIOBP-4.

Biochemistry 2013 Aug 22;52(31):5256-64. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University , Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.

TRIOBP is an actin-bundling protein. Mutations of TRIOBP are associated with human deafness DFNB28. In vitro, TRIOBP isoform 4 (TRIOBP-4) forms dense F-actin bundles resembling the inner ear hair cell rootlet structure. Deletion of TRIOBP isoforms 4 and 5 leads to hearing loss in mice due to the absence of stereocilia rootlets. The mechanism of actin bundle formation by TRIOBP is not fully understood. The amino acid sequences of TRIOBP isoforms 4 and 5 contain two repeated motifs, referred to here as R1 and R2. To examine the potential role of R1 and R2 motifs in F-actin binding, we generated TRIOBP-4 mutant proteins deleted for R1 and/or R2, and then assessed their actin-binding activity and bundle formation in vitro using actin cosedimentation assays, and fluorescence and electron microscopy. Cellular distributions of the TRIOBP-4 mutants were examined by confocal microscopy. We showed that deletion of both R1 and R2 motifs completely disrupted the actin binding/bundling activities of TRIOBP-4 and impaired its localization to cellular actin cytoskeleton structures. By contrast, TRIOBP-4, lacking only R2 motif, retained its F-actin bundling ability and remained localized to actin filaments in cells, similar to full length TRIOBP-4. On the contrary, the R1 motif-deleted TRIOBP-4 mutant, which mainly consists of the R2 motif, formed thin F-actin bundles in vitro but failed to colocalize to actin filaments in cells. These results indicate that R1 motif is the major actin-binding domain of TRIOBP-4, and the binding of R2 motif with actin filaments is nonspecific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi400585hDOI Listing
August 2013