Publications by authors named "Dmitry M Polokhov"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Platelet function and bleeding at different phases of childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9401. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology Named After Dmitry Rogachev, Russian Ministry of Healthcare, 1 Samory Mashela Str, Moscow, Russia, 117997.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is believed to be associated with platelet function defects. However, their mechanisms are poorly understood, in particular with regard to differences between ITP phases, patient age, and therapy. We investigated platelet function and bleeding in children with either persistent or chronic ITP, with or without romiplostim therapy. The study included 151 children with ITP, of whom 56 had disease duration less than 12 months (grouped together as acute/persistent) and 95 were chronic. Samples of 57 healthy children were used as controls, while 5 patients with leukemia, 5 with aplastic anemia, 4 with MYH9-associated thrombocytopenia, and 7 with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome were used as non-ITP thrombocytopenia controls. Whole blood flow cytometry revealed that platelets in both acute/persistent and chronic ITP were increased in size compared with healthy donors. They were also pre-activated as assessed by PAC1, CD62p, cytosolic calcium, and procoagulant platelet levels. This pattern was not observed in other childhood thrombocytopenias. Pre-activation by CD62p was higher in the bleeding group in the chronic ITP cohort only. Romiplostim treatment decreased size and pre-activation of the patient platelets, but not calcium. Our data suggest that increased size, pre-activation, and cytosolic calcium are common for all ITP platelets, but their association with bleeding could depend on the disease phase.
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April 2021

Platelet function and bleeding in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients on ibrutinib.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10;18(10):2672-2684

City Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Therapy with irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is associated with bleeding.

Objectives: To propose the predictive markers of such bleeding, as well as mechanisms responsible for decreased bleeding at later therapy stages.

Patients/methods: We investigate platelet functional activity in 50 CLL and 16 MCL patients on ibrutinib using flow cytometry and light transmission aggregometry.

Results: Prior to treatment, both patient groups had decreased platelet counts; impaired aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP); and decreased binding of CD62P, PAC1, and annexin V upon stimulation. Bleeding in patients treated with ibrutinib was observed in 28 (56%) CLL patients, who had decreased aggregation with ADP and platelet count before therapy. Their platelet count on therapy did not change, platelet aggregation with ADP steadily improved, and aggregation with collagen first decreased and then increased in anticorrellation with bleeding. Bleeding in MCL was observed in 10 (62%) patients, who had decreased dense granule release before therapy. ADP and ristocetin induced platelet aggregation in ibrutinib-treated MCL patients increased on therapy, while collagen-induced aggregation evolved similarly to CLL patients.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that ibrutinib-dependent bleeding in CLL patients involves three mechanisms: decreased platelet count (the most important discriminator between bleeding and non-bleeding patients), impaired platelet response to ADP caused by CLL, and inhibition by ibrutinib. Initially, ibrutinib shifts the balance to bleeding, but then it is restored because of the improved response to ADP.
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October 2020

Flow cytometry for pediatric platelets.

Platelets 2019 4;30(4):428-437. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

a Cellular Hemostasis and Thrombosis Lab , National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology named after Dmitry Rogachev, Russian Ministry of Healthcare , Moscow , Russian Federation.

The ability of platelets to carry out their hemostatic function can be impaired in a wide range of inherited and acquired conditions: trauma, surgery, inflammation, pre-term birth, sepsis, hematological malignancies, solid tumors, chemotherapy, autoimmune disorders, and many others. Evaluation of this impairment is vitally important for research and clinical purposes. This problem is particularly pronounced in pediatric patients, where these conditions occur frequently, while blood volume and the choice of blood collection methods could be limited. Here we describe a simple flow cytometry-based screening method of comprehensive whole blood platelet function testing that was validated for a range of pediatric and adult samples (n = 31) in the hematology hospital setting including but not limited to: classic inherited platelet function disorders (Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier, Wiscott-Aldrich, and Hermasky-Pudlak syndromes, MYH9-dependent thrombocytopenia), healthy and pre-term newborns, acute and chronic immune thrombocytopenia, chronic lympholeukemia, effects of therapy on platelet function, etc. The method output includes levels of forward and side scatter, levels of major adhesion and aggregation glycoproteins Ib and IIb-IIIa, active integrins' level based on PAC-1 binding, major alpha-granule component P-selectin, dense granule function based on mepacrine uptake and release, and procoagulant activity quantified as a percentage of annexin V-positive platelets. This analysis is performed for both resting and dual-agonist-stimulated platelets. Preanalytical and analytical variables are provided and discussed. Parameter distribution within the healthy donor population for adults (n = 72) and children (n = 17) is analyzed.
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May 2019

Impaired platelet activity and hypercoagulation in healthy term and moderately preterm newborns during the early neonatal period.

Pediatr Res 2019 01 18;85(1):63-71. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: Preterm newborns are at thrombohemorrhagic risk during the early neonatal period. Taking into account the lack of informative tools for the laboratory diagnosis of hemostasis disorders in newborns, our goal was to determine the baseline values of thrombodynamics and platelet functional activity in healthy term and moderately preterm newborns during the early neonatal period future potential clinical use of these tests.

Methods: Coagulation was assessed using an integral assay of thrombodynamics and standard coagulation assays, and platelet functional activity was estimated by flow cytometry.

Results: Hypercoagulation of newborns, represented by a significantly higher clot growth velocity and the presence of spontaneous clots in the thrombodynamics, was combined with platelet hypoactivity. Granule release, phosphatidylserine exposure, and the ability to change shape upon activation were decreased in the platelets of moderately preterm newborns. The platelet function remained at the same level over the first four days of life, whereas the hypercoagulation became less pronounced.

Conclusions: The hemostasis of newborns is characterized by hypercoagulation combined with reduced platelet functional activity. Moderately preterm and term newborns do not differ in the parameters of coagulation, while some of the functional responses of platelets are lower in moderately preterm newborns than in term.
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January 2019

Thrombodynamics-A new global hemostasis assay for heparin monitoring in patients under the anticoagulant treatment.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(6):e0199900. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Dmitry Rogachev National Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Heparin therapy and prophylaxis may be accompanied by bleeding and thrombotic complications due to individual responses to treatment. Dosage control based on standard laboratory assays poorly reflects the effect of the therapy. The aim of our work was to compare the heparin sensitivity of new thrombodynamics (TD) assay with sensitivity of other standard and global coagulation tests available to date.

Study Population And Methods: A total of 296 patients with high risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis (DVT), early postoperative period, hemoblastosis) were enrolled in the study. We used a case-crossover design to evaluate the sensitivity of new thrombodynamics assay (TD) to the hemostatic state before and after unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy/prophylaxis and to compare it with the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), anti-Xa activity test, thrombin generation test (TGT) and thromboelastography (TEG). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate changes before and after heparin prophylaxis and therapy. Blood was sampled before heparin injection, at the time of maximal blood heparin concentration and before the next injection.

Results: Hypercoagulation before the start of heparin treatment was detected by TD, TGT and TEG but not by APTT. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was maximal for TD and anti-Xa, intermediate for TGT and TEG and minimal for APTT.

Conclusions: These results indicate that TD has a high sensitivity to the effects of UFH and LMWH after both prophylactic and therapeutic regimes and may be used for heparin monitoring.
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December 2018