Publications by authors named "Dmitry Kondrikov"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Age-associated changes in microRNAs affect the differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells: Novel role of miR-29b-1-5p expression.

Bone 2021 12 14;153:116154. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403, United States of America; Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29403, United States of America; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States of America; Center for Healthy Aging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States of America. Electronic address:

Age-associated osteoporosis is widely accepted as involving the disruption of osteogenic stem cell populations and their functioning. Maintenance of the local bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is critical for regulating proliferation and differentiation of the multipotent BM mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (BMSC) population with age. The potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating BMSCs and the BM microenvironment has recently gained attention. However, miRNAs expressed in rapidly isolated BMSCs that are naïve to the non-physiologic standard tissue culture conditions and reflect a more accurate in vivo profile have not yet been reported. Here we directly isolated CD271 positive (+) BMSCs within hours from human surgical BM aspirates without culturing and performed microarray analysis to identify the age-associated changes in BMSC miRNA expression. One hundred and two miRNAs showed differential expression with aging. Target prediction and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that the up-regulated miRNAs targeting genes in bone development pathways were considerably enriched. Among the differentially up-regulated miRNAs the novel passenger strand miR-29b-1-5p was abundantly expressed as a mature functional miRNA with aging. This suggests a critical arm-switching mechanism regulates the expression of the miR-29b-1-5p/3p pair shifting the normally degraded arm, miR-29b-1-5p, to be the dominantly expressed miRNA of the pair in aging. The normal guide strand miR-29b-1-3p is known to act as a pro-osteogenic miRNA. On the other hand, overexpression of the passenger strand miR-29b-1-5p in culture-expanded CD271+ BMSCs significantly down-regulated the expression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12)/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1(CXCL12)/CXCR4) axis and other osteogenic genes including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). In contrast, blocking of miR-29b-1-5p function using an antagomir inhibitor up-regulated expression of BMP-2 and RUNX2 genes. Functional assays confirmed that miR-29b-1-5p negatively regulates BMSC osteogenesis in vitro. These novel findings provide evidence of a pathogenic anti-osteogenic role for miR-29b-1-5p and other miRNAs in age-related defects in osteogenesis and bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116154DOI Listing
December 2021

Kynurenine Promotes RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro by Activating the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 26;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403, USA.

There is increasing evidence of the involvement of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine (KYN) in disrupting osteogenesis and contributing to aging-related bone loss. Here, we show that KYN has an effect on bone resorption by increasing osteoclastogenesis. We have previously reported that in vivo treatment with KYN significantly increased osteoclast number lining bone surfaces. Here, we report the direct effect of KYN on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells, and we propose a potential mechanism for these KYN-mediated effects. We show that KYN/RANKL treatment results in enhancement of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. KYN drives upregulation and activation of the key osteoclast transcription factors, c-fos and NFATc1 resulting in an increase in the number of multinucleated TRAP+ osteoclasts, and in hydroxyapatite bone resorptive activity. Mechanistically, the KYN receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), plays an important role in the induction of osteoclastogenesis. We show that blocking AhR signaling using an AhR antagonist, or AhR siRNA, downregulates the KYN/RANKL-mediated increase in c-fos and NFATc1 and inhibits the formation of multinucleated TRAP + osteoclasts. Altogether, this work highlights that the novelty of the KYN and AhR pathways might have a potential role in helping to regulate osteoclast function with age and supports pursuing additional research to determine if they are potential therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662708PMC
October 2020

Age-related increase of kynurenine enhances miR29b-1-5p to decrease both CXCL12 signaling and the epigenetic enzyme Hdac3 in bone marrow stromal cells.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 23;12:100270. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403, United States of America.

Mechanisms leading to age-related reductions in bone formation and subsequent osteoporosis are still incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated that kynurenine (KYN), a tryptophan metabolite, accumulates in serum of aged mice and induces bone loss. Here, we report on novel mechanisms underlying KYN's detrimental effect on bone aging. We show that KYN is increased with aging in murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). KYN reduces bone formation via modulating levels of CXCL12 and its receptors as well as histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3). BMSCs responded to KYN by significantly decreasing mRNA expression levels of CXCL12 and its cognate receptors, CXCR4 and ACKR3, as well as downregulating osteogenic gene RUNX2 expression, resulting in a significant inhibition in BMSCs osteogenic differentiation. KYN's effects on these targets occur by increasing regulatory miRNAs that target osteogenesis, specifically miR29b-1-5p. Thus, KYN significantly upregulated the anti-osteogenic miRNA miR29b-1-5p in BMSCs, mimicking the up-regulation of miR-29b-1-5p in human and murine BMSCs with age. Direct inhibition of miR29b-1-5p by antagomirs rescued CXCL12 protein levels downregulated by KYN, while a miR29b-1-5p mimic further decreased CXCL12 levels. KYN also significantly downregulated mRNA levels of Hdac3, a target of miR-29b-1-5p, as well as its cofactor NCoR1. KYN is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We hypothesized that AhR mediates KYN's effects in BMSCs. Indeed, AhR inhibitors (CH-223191 and 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone [DMF]) partially rescued secreted CXCL12 protein levels in BMSCs treated with KYN. Importantly, we found that treatment with CXCL12, or transfection with an miR29b-1-5p antagomir, downregulated the AhR mRNA level, while transfection with miR29b-1-5p mimic significantly upregulated its level. Further, CXCL12 treatment downregulated IDO, an enzyme responsible for generating KYN. Our findings reveal novel molecular pathways involved in KYN's age-associated effects in the bone microenvironment that may be useful translational targets for treating osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210406PMC
June 2020

Kynurenine inhibits autophagy and promotes senescence in aged bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

Exp Gerontol 2020 02 5;130:110805. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403, United States of America; Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29403, United States of America. Electronic address:

Osteoporosis is an age-related deterioration in bone health that is, at least in part, a stem cell disease. The different mechanisms and signaling pathways that change with age and contribute to the development of osteoporosis are being identified. One key upstream mechanism that appears to target a number of osteogenic pathways with age is kynurenine, a tryptophan metabolite and an endogenous Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. The AhR signaling pathway has been reported to promote aging phenotypes across species and in different tissues. We previously found that kynurenine accumulates with age in the plasma and various tissues including bone and induces bone loss and osteoporosis in mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are responsible for osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and overall bone regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of kynurenine on BMSCs, with a focus on autophagy and senescence as two cellular processes that control BMSCs proliferation and differentiation capacity. We found that physiological levels of kynurenine (10 and 100 μM) disrupted autophagic flux as evidenced by the reduction of LC3B-II, and autophagolysosomal production, as well as a significant increase of p62 protein level. Additionally, kynurenine also induced a senescent phenotype in BMSCs as shown by the increased expression of several senescence markers including senescence associated β-galactosidase in BMSCs. Additionally, western blotting reveals that levels of p21, another marker of senescence, also increased in kynurenine-treated BMSCs, while senescent-associated aggregation of nuclear H3K9me3 also showed a significant increase in response to kynurenine treatment. To validate that these effects are in fact due to AhR signaling pathway, we utilized two known AhR antagonists: CH-223191, and 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone to try to block AhR signaling and rescue kynurenine /AhR mediated effects. Indeed, AhR inhibition restored kynurenine-suppressed autophagy levels as shown by levels of LC3B-II, p62 and autophagolysosomal formation demonstrating a rescuing of autophagic flux. Furthermore, inhibition of AhR signaling prevented the kynurenine-induced increase in senescence associated β-galactosidase and p21 levels, as well as blocking aggregation of nuclear H3K9me3. Taken together, our results suggest that kynurenine inhibits autophagy and induces senescence in BMSCs via AhR signaling, and that this may be a novel target to prevent or reduce age-associated bone loss and osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.110805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861134PMC
February 2020

PFKFB3 in Smooth Muscle Promotes Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 09;200(5):617-627

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Glycolytic shift is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It remains unknown how glycolysis is increased and how increased glycolysis contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. To determine whether increased glycolysis is caused by 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) and how PFKFB3-driven glycolysis induces vascular remodeling in PAH. PFKFB3 levels were measured in pulmonary arteries of patients and animals with PAH. Lactate levels were assessed in lungs of animals with PAH and in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Genetic and pharmacologic approaches were used to investigate the role of PFKFB3 in PAH. Lactate production was elevated in lungs of PAH rodents and in platelet-derived growth factor-treated PASMCs. PFKFB3 protein was higher in pulmonary arteries of patients and rodents with PAH, in PASMCs of patients with PAH, and in platelet-derived growth factor-treated PASMCs. PFKFB3 inhibition by genetic disruption and chemical inhibitor attenuated phosphorylation/activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and calpain-2, and vascular remodeling in PAH rodent models, and reduced platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation/activation of ERK1/2 and calpain-2, collagen synthesis and proliferation of PASMCs. ERK1/2 inhibition attenuated phosphorylation/activation of calpain-2, and vascular remodeling in Sugen/hypoxia PAH rats, and reduced lactate-induced phosphorylation/activation of calpain-2, collagen synthesis, and proliferation of PASMCs. Calpain-2 inhibition reduced lactate-induced collagen synthesis and proliferation of PASMCs. Upregulated PFKFB3 mediates collagen synthesis and proliferation of PASMCs, contributing to vascular remodeling in PAH. The mechanism is through the elevation of glycolysis and lactate that results in the activation of calpain by ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of calpain-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201812-2290OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727156PMC
September 2019

What doesn't kill you makes you stranger: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26) proteolysis differentially modulates the activity of many peptide hormones and cytokines generating novel cryptic bioactive ligands.

Pharmacol Ther 2019 06 10;198:90-108. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403, United States; Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29403, United States; Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States; Center for Healthy Aging, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, 30912, United States. Electronic address:

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an exopeptidase found either on cell surfaces where it is highly regulated in terms of its expression and surface availability (CD26) or in a free/circulating soluble constitutively available and intrinsically active form. It is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of many peptide substrates. In this review we discuss the idea that DPP4-cleaved peptides are not necessarily inactivated, but rather can possess either a modified receptor selectivity, modified bioactivity, new antagonistic activity, or even a novel activity relative to the intact parent ligand. We examine in detail five different major DPP4 substrates: glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1 aka CXCL12). We note that discussion of the cleaved forms of these five peptides are underrepresented in the research literature, and are both poorly investigated and poorly understood, representing a serious research literature gap. We believe they are understudied and misinterpreted as inactive due to several factors. This includes lack of accurate and specific quantification methods, sample collection techniques that are inherently inaccurate and inappropriate, and a general perception that DPP4 cleavage inactivates its ligand substrates. Increasing evidence points towards many DPP4-cleaved ligands having their own bioactivity. For example, GLP-1 can work through a different receptor than GLP-1R, DPP4-cleaved GIP can function as a GIP receptor antagonist at high doses, and DPP4-cleaved PYY, NPY, and CXCL12 can have different receptor selectivity, or can bind novel, previously unrecognized receptors to their intact ligands, resulting in altered signaling and functionality. We believe that more rigorous research in this area could lead to a better understanding of DPP4's role and the biological importance of the generation of novel cryptic ligands. This will also significantly impact our understanding of the clinical effects and side effects of DPP4-inhibitors as a class of anti-diabetic drugs that potentially have an expanding clinical relevance. This will be specifically relevant in targeting DPP4 substrate ligands involved in a variety of other major clinical acute and chronic injury/disease areas including inflammation, immunology, cardiology, stroke, musculoskeletal disease and injury, as well as cancer biology and tissue maintenance in aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883480PMC
June 2019

Galectin-3 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and promotes pulmonary hypertension through changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 05 6;316(5):L784-L797. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University , Augusta, Georgia.

A defining characteristic of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the extensive remodeling of pulmonary arteries (PAs), which results in progressive increases in vascular resistance and stiffness and eventual failure of the right ventricle. There is no cure for PH and identification of novel molecular mechanisms that underlie increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and excessive extracellular matrix production in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is a vital objective. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a chimeric lectin and potent driver of many aspects of fibrosis, but its role in regulating PASMC behavior in PH remains poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the importance of increased Gal-3 expression and signaling on PA vascular remodeling and cardiopulmonary function in experimental models of PH. Gal-3 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence imaging, and its functional role was assessed by specific Gal-3 inhibitors and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Gal-3 in the rat. In rat models of PH, we observed increased Gal-3 expression in PASMCs, which stimulated migration and resistance to apoptosis, whereas silencing or genetic deletion reduced cellular migration and PA fibrosis and increased apoptosis. Gal-3 inhibitors attenuated and reversed PA remodeling and fibrosis, as well as hemodynamic indices in monocrotaline (MCT)-treated rats in vivo. These results were supported by genetic deletion of Gal-3 in both MCT and Sugen Hypoxia rat models. In conclusion, our results suggest that elevated Gal-3 levels contribute to inappropriate PA remodeling in PH by enhancing multiple profibrotic mechanisms. Therapeutic strategies targeting Gal-3 may be of benefit in the treatment of PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00186.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589585PMC
May 2019

Heat Shock Protein 70 Prevents Hyperoxia-Induced Disruption of Lung Endothelial Barrier via Caspase-Dependent and AIF-Dependent Pathways.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(6):e0129343. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States of America; Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States of America; Research Service, Charlie Norwood Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Augusta, Georgia 30912, United States of America.

Exposure of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) to hyperoxia results in a compromise in endothelial monolayer integrity, an increase in caspase-3 activity, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a marker of caspase-independent apoptosis. In an endeavor to identify proteins involved in hyperoxic endothelial injury, we found that the protein expression of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was increased in hyperoxic PAECs. The hyperoxia-induced Hsp70 protein expression is from hspA1B gene. Neither inhibition nor overexpression of Hsp70 affected the first phase barrier disruption of endothelial monolayer. Nevertheless, inhibition of Hsp70 by using the Hsp70 inhibitor KNK437 or knock down Hsp70 using siRNA exaggerated and overexpression of Hsp70 prevented the second phase disruption of lung endothelial integrity. Moreover, inhibition of Hsp70 exacerbated and overexpression of Hsp70 prevented hyperoxia-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and increase in nuclear AIF protein level in PAECs. Furthermore, we found that Hsp70 interacted with AIF in the cytosol in hyperoxic PAECs. Inhibition of Hsp70/AIF association by KNK437 correlated with increased nuclear AIF level and apoptosis in KNK437-treated PAECs. Finally, the ROS scavenger NAC prevented the hyperoxia-induced increase in Hsp70 expression and reduced the interaction of Hsp70 with AIF in hyperoxic PAECs. Together, these data indicate that increased expression of Hsp70 plays a protective role against hyperoxia-induced lung endothelial barrier disruption through caspase-dependent and AIF-dependent apoptotic pathways. Association of Hsp70 with AIF prevents AIF nuclear translocation, contributing to the protective effect of Hsp70 on hyperoxia-induced endothelial apoptosis. The hyperoxia-induced increase in Hsp70 expression and Hsp70/AIF interaction is contributed to ROS formation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129343PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465980PMC
April 2016

Novel peptide for attenuation of hyperoxia-induced disruption of lung endothelial barrier and pulmonary edema via modulating peroxynitrite formation.

J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 14;289(48):33355-63. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

From the the Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Vascular Biology Center, and Medicine, Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912

Pulmonary damages of oxygen toxicity include vascular leakage and pulmonary edema. We have previously reported that hyperoxia increases the formation of NO and peroxynitrite in lung endothelial cells via increased interaction of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) with β-actin. A peptide (P326TAT) with amino acid sequence corresponding to the actin binding region of eNOS residues 326-333 has been shown to reduce the hyperoxia-induced formation of NO and peroxynitrite in lung endothelial cells. In the present study, we found that exposure of pulmonary artery endothelial cells to hyperoxia (95% oxygen and 5% CO2) for 48 h resulted in disruption of monolayer barrier integrity in two phases, and apoptosis occurred in the second phase. NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated the endothelial barrier disruption in both phases. Peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid did not affect the first phase but ameliorated the second phase of endothelial barrier disruption and apoptosis. P326TAT inhibited hyperoxia-induced disruption of monolayer barrier integrity in two phases and apoptosis in the second phase. More importantly, injection of P326TAT attenuated vascular leakage, pulmonary edema, and endothelial apoptosis in the lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia. P326TAT also significantly reduced the increase in eNOS-β-actin association and protein tyrosine nitration. Together, these results indicate that peptide P326TAT ameliorates barrier dysfunction of hyperoxic lung endothelial monolayer and attenuates eNOS-β-actin association, peroxynitrite formation, endothelial apoptosis, and pulmonary edema in lungs of hyperoxic mice. P326TAT can be a novel therapeutic agent to treat or prevent acute lung injury in oxygen toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.585356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246092PMC
November 2014

Akita spontaneously type 1 diabetic mice exhibit elevated vascular arginase and impaired vascular endothelial and nitrergic function.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(8):e72277. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Elevated arginase (Arg) activity is reported to be involved in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. It can reduce L-arginine availability to nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and NO production. Akita mice, a genetic non-obese type 1 diabetes model, recapitulate human diabetes. We determined the role of Arg in a time-course of diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction in aorta and corpora cavernosa (CC) from Akita mice.

Methods And Results: Endothelium-dependent relaxation, Arg and NOS activity, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS were assessed in aortas and CC from Akita and non-diabetic wild type (WT) mice at 4, 12 and 24 wks of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed by tail cuff. In aorta and CC, Akita mice exhibited a progressive impairment of vascular endothelial and nitrergic function increased Arg activity and expression (Arg1 in aorta and both Arg1 and Arg2 in CC) compared with that of age-matched WT mice. Treatment of aorta and CC from Akita mice with an Arg inhibitor (BEC or ABH) reduced diabetes-induced elevation of Arg activity and restored endothelial and nitrergic function. Reduced levels of phospho-eNOS at Ser(1177) (in aorta and CC) and nNOS expression (in CC) were observed in Akita mice at 12 and 24 wks. Akita mice also had decreased NOS activity in aorta and CC at 12 and 24 wks that was restored by BEC treatment. Further, Akita mice exhibited moderately increased SBP at 24 wks and increased sensitivity to PE-induced contractions in aorta and sympathetic nerve stimulation in CC at 12 and 24 wks.

Conclusions: Over 24 wks of diabetes in Akita mice, both aortic and cavernosal tissues exhibited increased Arg activity/expression, contributing to impaired endothelial and nitrergic function and reduced NO production. Our findings demonstrate involvement of Arg activity in diabetes-induced impairment of vascular function in Akita mouse.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072277PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747112PMC
January 2015

The role of RhoA and cytoskeleton in myofibroblast transformation in hyperoxic lung fibrosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2013 Aug 18;61:26-39. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Center for Biotechnology & Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. Electronic address:

Myofibroblast transformation is a key process in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. We have previously reported that hyperoxia induces RhoA activation in HFL-1 lung fibroblasts and RhoA mediates collagen synthesis in hyperoxic lung fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA and actin cytoskeleton in hyperoxia-induced myofibroblast transformation. Exposure of HFL-1 lung fibroblasts to hyperoxia stimulated actin filament formation, shift of G-actin to F-actin, nuclear colocalization of myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A), recruitment of MRTF-A to the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) gene promoter, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen-I synthesis. Inhibition of RhoA by C3 transferase CT-04 or dominant-negative RhoA mutant T19N, and inhibition of ROCK by Y27632, prevented myofibroblast transformation and collagen-I synthesis. Moreover, inhibition of RhoA by CT-04 prevented hyperoxia-induced actin filament formation, shift of G-actin to F-actin, and nuclear colocalization of MRTF-A. In addition, disrupting actin filaments with cytochalasin D or scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tiron attenuated actin filament formation, nuclear colocalization of MRTF-A, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen-I synthesis. Furthermore, overexpression of constitutively active RhoA mutant Q63L or stabilization of actin filaments recapitulated the effects of hyperoxia on the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear colocalization of MRTF-A, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen-I synthesis. Interestingly, knocking down MRTF-A prevented hyperoxia-induced increase in the recruitment of MRTF-A to the serum response factor transcriptional complex on the α-SMA gene promoter, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen-I synthesis. Finally, Y27632 and tiron attenuated hyperoxia-induced increases in α-SMA and collagen-I in mouse lungs. Together, these results indicate that the actin cytoskeletal reorganization due to the ROS/RhoA-ROCK pathway mediates myofibroblast transformation and collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis of oxygen toxicity. MRTF-A contributes to the regulatory effect of the actin cytoskeleton on myofibroblast transformation during hyperoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.03.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849210PMC
August 2013

Reactive oxygen species-dependent RhoA activation mediates collagen synthesis in hyperoxic lung fibrosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2011 Jun 23;50(11):1689-98. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

Lung fibrosis is an ultimate consequence of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in human and animal models. Excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, e.g., collagen-I, is the most important feature of pulmonary fibrosis in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. In this study, we investigated the roles of RhoA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in collagen-I synthesis in hyperoxic lung fibroblasts and in a mouse model of oxygen toxicity. Exposure of human lung fibroblasts to hyperoxia resulted in RhoA activation and an increase in collagen-I synthesis and cell proliferation. Inhibition of RhoA by C3 transferase CT-04, dominant-negative RhoA mutant T19N, or RhoA siRNA prevented hyperoxia-induced collagen-I synthesis. The constitutively active RhoA mutant Q63L mimicked the effect of hyperoxia on collagen-I expression. Moreover, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 inhibited collagen-I synthesis in hyperoxic lung fibroblasts and fibrosis in mouse lungs after oxygen toxicity. Furthermore, the ROS scavenger tiron attenuated hyperoxia-induced increases in RhoA activation and collagen-I synthesis in lung fibroblasts and mouse lungs after oxygen toxicity. More importantly, we found that hyperoxia induced separation of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) from RhoA in lung fibroblasts and mouse lungs. Further, tiron prevented the separation of GDI from RhoA in hyperoxic lung fibroblasts and mouse lungs with oxygen toxicity. Together, these results indicate that ROS-induced separation of GDI from RhoA leads to RhoA activation with oxygen toxicity. ROS-dependent RhoA activation is responsible for the increase in collagen-I synthesis in hyperoxic lung fibroblasts and mouse lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3097427PMC
June 2011

eNOS-beta-actin interaction contributes to increased peroxynitrite formation during hyperoxia in pulmonary artery endothelial cells and mouse lungs.

J Biol Chem 2010 Nov 7;285(46):35479-87. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

Oxygen toxicity is the most severe side effect of oxygen therapy in neonates and adults. Pulmonary damage of oxygen toxicity is related to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the effect of hyperoxia on the production of peroxynitrite in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) and mouse lungs. Incubation of PAEC under hyperoxia (95% O(2)) for 24 h resulted in an increase in peroxynitrite formation. Uric acid, a peroxynitrite scavenger, prevented hyperoxia-induced increase in peroxynitrite. The increase in peroxynitrite formation is accompanied by increases in nitric oxide (NO) release and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. We have previously reported that association of eNOS with β-actin increases eNOS activity and NO production in lung endothelial cells. To study whether eNOS-β-actin association contributes to increased peroxynitrite production, eNOS-β-actin interaction were inhibited by reducing β-actin availability or by using a synthetic peptide (P326TAT) containing a sequence corresponding to the actin binding site on eNOS. We found that disruption of eNOS-β-actin interaction prevented hyperoxia-induced increases in eNOS-β-actin association, eNOS activity, NO and peroxynitrite production, and protein tyrosine nitration. Hyperoxia failed to induce the increases in eNOS activity, NO and peroxynitrite formation in COS-7 cells transfected with plasmids containing eNOS mutant cDNA in which amino acids leucine and tryptophan were replaced with alanine in the actin binding site on eNOS. Exposure of mice to hyperoxia resulted in significant increases in eNOS-β-actin association, eNOS activity, and protein tyrosine nitration in the lungs. Our data indicate that increased association of eNOS with β-actin in PAEC contributes to hyperoxia-induced increase in the production of peroxynitrite which may cause nitrosative stress in pulmonary vasculature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.140269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2975172PMC
November 2010

Beta-actin association with endothelial nitric-oxide synthase modulates nitric oxide and superoxide generation from the enzyme.

J Biol Chem 2010 Feb 28;285(7):4319-27. Epub 2009 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

Protein-protein interactions represent an important post-translational mechanism for endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) regulation. We have previously reported that beta-actin is associated with eNOS oxygenase domain and that association of eNOS with beta-actin increases eNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO) production. In the present study, we found that beta-actin-induced increase in NO production was accompanied by decrease in superoxide formation. A synthetic actin-binding sequence (ABS) peptide 326 with amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 326-333 of human eNOS, one of the putative ABSs, specifically bound to beta-actin and prevented eNOS association with beta-actin in vitro. Peptide 326 also prevented beta-actin-induced decrease in superoxide formation and increase in NO and L-citrulline production. A modified peptide 326 replacing hydrophobic amino acids leucine and tryptophan with neutral alanine was unable to interfere with eNOS-beta-actin binding and to prevent beta-actin-induced changes in NO and superoxide formation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the actin-binding domain of eNOS replacing leucine and tryptophan with alanine yielded an eNOS mutant that exhibited reduced eNOS-beta-actin association, decreased NO production, and increased superoxide formation in COS-7 cells. Disruption of eNOS-beta-actin interaction in endothelial cells using ABS peptide 326 resulted in decreased NO production, increased superoxide formation, and decreased endothelial monolayer wound repair, which was prevented by PEG-SOD and NO donor NOC-18. Taken together, this novel finding indicates that beta-actin binding to eNOS through residues 326-333 in the eNOS protein results in shifting the enzymatic activity from superoxide formation toward NO production. Modulation of NO and superoxide formation from eNOS by beta-actin plays an important role in endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.063172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836036PMC
February 2010

Beta-actin: a regulator of NOS-3.

Sci STKE 2007 Sep 18;2007(404):pe52. Epub 2007 Sep 18.

Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Beta-actin is traditionally considered a structural protein that organizes and maintains the shape of nonmuscle cells, although data now indicate that beta-actin is also a signaling molecule. beta-actin is directly associated with nitric oxide synthase type 3 (NOS-3) in endothelial cells and platelets, and this interaction increases NOS-3 activity and the affinity of NOS-3 for heat shock protein 90 kD (Hsp90). The beta-actin-induced increase in NOS-3 activity may be caused directly by beta-actin, the binding of Hsp90 to NOS-3, or both. Alterations in the interaction between beta-actin and NOS-3 could be caused by changes either in the availability of beta-actin or in the affinity of NOS-3 for beta-actin, and these alterations probably contribute to vascular complications and platelet aggregation. Studies examining the interactions between NOS-3, beta-actin, and Hsp90 could potentially lead to the discovery of effective peptides for the treatment of diseases associated with impaired NOS-3 activity and nitric oxide release, such as systemic and pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, and thrombotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/stke.4042007pe52DOI Listing
September 2007

Cytoskeletal regulation of nitric oxide synthase.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2005 ;43(3):439-49

Department of Medicine, MSB M452, Box 100225, University of Florida, 1600 S.W. Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

The three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)--endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neural NOS (nNOS)--colocalize with the cytoskeleton including actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments directly or indirectly. These colocalizations enable optimal nitric oxide production and help NOS exert their functions. The reorganization of cytoskeletal polymerization state induced by extracellular stimuli such as shear stress, hypoxia, and drugs regulates eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS. Alterations of nitric oxide production caused by cytoskeletal reorganization play an important role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review focuses on recent data regarding the regulation of NOS by the cytoskeleton at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/CBB:43:3:439DOI Listing
February 2006

Growth and density-dependent regulation of NO synthase by the actin cytoskeleton in pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2006 Jan 19;290(1):L41-50. Epub 2005 Aug 19.

Department of Medicine, Universityof Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

We previously reported association of eNOS with actin increases eNOS activity. In the present study, regulation of activity of eNOS by actin cytoskeleton during endothelial growth was studied. We found eNOS activity in PAEC increased when cells grew from preconfluence to confluence. eNOS activity was much greater in PAEC in higher density than those in lower density, suggesting increase in eNOS activity during cell growth is caused by increase in cell density. Although eNOS protein contents were also increased when endothelial cells grew from preconfluence to confluence, magnitude of increase in eNOS activity was much higher than increase in eNOS protein content, suggesting posttranslational mechanisms played an important role in regulation of eNOS activity during endothelial growth. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed eNOS was colocalized with G-actin in preconfluent cells in perinuclear region, with both G-actin in perinuclear area and cortical F-actin in plasma membrane in confluent cells. There was more beta-actin coimmunoprecipitated with eNOS in Triton X-100-soluble fraction in confluent cells in later growth phase and in high density. Decrease in eNOS association with beta-actin by silencing beta-actin expression using beta-actin siRNA causes inhibition of eNOS activity, NO production, and endothelial monolayer wound repair in PAEC. Moreover, PAEC incubation with cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide resulted in increases in eNOS/actin association and in eNOS activity without changes in eNOS protein content. Yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested strong association between eNOS oxygenase domain and beta-actin. These results indicate increase in eNOS association with actin is responsible for greater eNOS activity in confluent PAEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00444.2004DOI Listing
January 2006

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha signaling is involved in androgen depletion-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

Oncogene 2003 Oct;22(43):6704-16

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984525 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4525, USA.

The neuroendocrine (NE) cells represent the third cell population in the normal prostate. Results of several clinical studies strongly indicate that the NE cell population is greatly increased in prostate carcinomas during androgen ablation therapy that correlates with hormone-refractory growth and poor prognosis. However, the mechanism of NE cell enrichment in prostate carcinoma remains an enigma. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which androgen-sensitive C-33 LNCaP human prostate cancer cells become NE-like cells in an androgen-reduced environment, mimicking clinical phenomenon. In the androgen-depleted condition, androgen-sensitive C-33 LNCaP cells gradually acquired the NE-like morphology and expressed an increased level of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a classical marker of neuronal cells. Several NE-like subclone cells were established. Biochemical characterizations of these subclone cells showed that receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) is elevated and ERK is constitutively activated, several folds higher than that in parental cells. In androgen-depleted condition, PD98059, an MEK inhibitor, could efficiently block not only the activation of ERK, but also the acquisition of the NE-like morphology and the elevation of NSE in C-33 LNCaP cells. In RPTPalpha cDNA-transfected C-33 LNCaP cells, ERK was activated and NSE was elevated. In those cells in the presence of PD98059, the ERK activation and NSE elevation were abolished, following a dose-response fashion. Additionally, in constitutively active MEK mutant cDNA-transfected C-33 LNCaP cells, ERK was activated and NSE level was elevated, and cells obtained the NE-like phenotype. Our data collectively indicated that RPTPalpha signaling via ERK is involved in the NE transdifferentiation of androgen-sensitive C-33 LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in the androgen-depleted condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206764DOI Listing
October 2003
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