Publications by authors named "Dmitriy N Atochin"

41 Publications

Modified Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Provides Detailed Intraoperative Cerebral Blood Flow Registration and Improves Neurobehavioral Evaluation.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Apr 2:109179. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with 1 -h ischemia followed by reperfusion is a widely used stroke model in rodents that has significant limitations such as high mortality and severe neurological deficit hampering comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. The goal of this study was to establish a mouse model of 30-minute MCAO followed by 48 hours of reperfusion and compare it with 1 -h MCAO followed by 24 hours of reperfusion.

New Method: Here we propose a modified MCAO model that is favorable for both neurobehavioral and infarct volume evaluation. The model includes shorter ischemic time (30 min) of MCAO followed by 48 h of reperfusion and use of standardized intraoperative partial and total reperfusion, which allows for the detailed evaluation of initial and total reperfusion by means of the monitoring of CBF by LDF.

Results And Comparison With Existing Method: Intraoperative CBF parameters and infarct volume (1-h MCAO at 24 hours: 69 ± 9; 30-minute MCAO at 48 hours: 65 ± 14 mm) did not significantly differ between groups. Neurological deficit was less severe in 30-minute MCAO group where mice also had significantly longer ambulatory distance and time, lower resting time, and higher vertical count on the OPF. The latency to fall in the rotarod test was significantly higher in 30-minute MCAO group. The mortality was higher after 1 -h MCAO.

Conclusions: 30-minute MCAO followed by 48 hours of reperfusion causes intraoperative ischemia, reperfusion and infarct volume comparable with 1 -h MCAO followed by 24 hours of reperfusion but results in lower mortality with milder neurological deficit allowing for more extensive neurobehavioral evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109179DOI Listing
April 2021

Alarmins and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) Signaling in Neuroinflammation.

Cells 2020 10 24;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Kizhner Research Center, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia.

Neuroinflammation is involved in the progression or secondary injury of multiple brain conditions, including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Alarmins, also known as damage-associated molecular patterns, are released in the presence of neuroinflammation and in the acute phase of ischemia. Defensins, cathelicidin, high-mobility group box protein 1, S100 proteins, heat shock proteins, nucleic acids, histones, nucleosomes, and monosodium urate microcrystals are thought to be alarmins. They are released from damaged or dying cells and activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors. Being principal sterile inflammation triggering agents, alarmins are considered biomarkers and therapeutic targets. They are recognized by host cells and prime the innate immune system toward cell death and distress. In stroke, alarmins act as mediators initiating the inflammatory response after the release from the cellular components of the infarct core and penumbra. Increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation may be involved in the mechanism of stress-induced release of alarmins. Putative crosstalk between the alarmin-associated pathways and JNK signaling seems to be inherently interwoven. This review outlines the role of alarmins/JNK-signaling in cerebral neurovascular inflammation and summarizes the complex response of cells to alarmins. Emerging anti-JNK and anti-alarmin drug treatment strategies are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9112350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693759PMC
October 2020

Neuroprotective Effects of a Novel Inhibitor of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in the Rat Model of Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia.

Cells 2020 08 8;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Kizhner Research Center, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia.

A novel specific inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, 11-indeno[1,2-]quinoxalin-11-one oxime sodium salt (IQ-1S), has a high affinity to JNK3 compared to JNK1/JNK2. The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms of neuroprotective activity of IQ-1S in the models of reversible focal cerebral ischemia (FCI) in Wistar rats. The animals were administered with an intraperitoneal injection of IQ-1S (5 and 25 mg/kg) or citicoline (500 mg/kg). Administration of IQ-1S exerted a pronounced dose-dependent neuroprotective effect, not inferior to the effects of citicoline. Administration of IQ-1S at doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg reduced the infarct size by 20% and 50%, respectively, 48 h after FCI, whereas administration of citicoline reduced the infarct size by 34%. The administration of IQ-1S was associated with a faster amelioration of neurological status. Control rats showed a 2.0-fold increase in phospho-c-Jun levels in the hippocampus compared to the corresponding values in sham-operated rats 4 h after FCI. Administration of IQ-1S at a dose of 25 mg/kg reduced JNK-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun by 20%. Our findings suggest that IQ-1S inhibits JNK enzymatic activity in the hippocampus and protects against stroke injury when administered in the therapeutic and prophylactic regimen in the rat model of FCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9081860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464312PMC
August 2020

Antihypertensive activity of a new c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Hypertens Res 2020 10 7;43(10):1068-1078. Epub 2020 May 7.

Kizhner Research Center, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia.

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are involved in the myocardial and aortic remodeling, increased arterial tone, and arterial blood pressure elevation associated with hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a new JNK inhibitor, 1H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime sodium salt (IQ-1S), on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Experiments were performed using normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHRs. Experimental groups of SHRs received IQ-1S intragastrically for 6 weeks in daily doses of 5 and 50 mg/kg; experimental groups of WKY rats received 50 mg/kg IQ-1S according to the same regimen. The IQ-1S administration regimen induced decreases in systolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, blood viscosity, hematocrit, myocardial cell cross-sectional area, and aortic wall thickness in SHRs vs untreated SHRs. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure values between the control and experimental groups of WKY rats during the treatment period. A concentration-dependent decrease in the tone of carotid arterial rings isolated from SHRs was observed after JNK inhibitor application in vitro. Application of the JNK inhibitor diminished endothelin-1 secretion by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. The main mechanisms of the antihypertensive effect of IQ-1S included the attenuation of blood viscosity due to decreased hematocrit, a vasodilatory effect on arterial smooth muscle cells, and a decrease in endothelin-1 production by endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-0446-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Inhibitory effect of IQ-1S, a selective c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, on phenotypical and cytokine-producing characteristics in human macrophages and T-cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Jul 18;878:173116. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Kizhner Research Center, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a critical mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) implicated in inflammatory processes, with IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime sodium salt) being a high-affinity JNK inhibitor with pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we studied direct effects of IQ-1S on phenotypical and cytokine-producing characteristics of activated human monocytes/macrophages and T cells in vitro. Purified monocyte/macrophage cells were activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) for 24 h, while T cells were activated by particles conjugated with antibodies (Abs) against human CD2, CD3, and CD28 for 48 h. Treatment with IQ-1S (0.5-25 μМ) in the presence of LPS reduced percentages of CD197 (CCR7)-positive cells in macrophage cultures, without affecting CD16 (FcγRIII, low-affinity Fc-receptor), CD119 (interferon-γ receptor 1), and CD124 (IL-4 receptor α-subunit) cells. In addition, IQ-1S reduced production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10 in macrophage cultures. In activated T cell cultures, IQ-1S decreased CD25 cell numbers in both CD4-positive and CD4-negative T cell compartments. Central memory СD45RA/СD197 and effector memory СD45RA/СD197 T cells were more sensitive to IQ-1S-mediated suppression, as compared to naïve СD45RA/СD197 and terminally-differentiated effector СD45RA/СD197 T cells. IQ-1S also suppressed T-cell cytokine production (IL-2, interferon-ɣ, IL-4, and IL-10). Collectively, the results suggest that both human macrophage and T cells could be immediate cell targets for IQ-1S-based anti-inflammatory immunotherapy. IQ-1S-mediated suppressive effects were unlikely to be associated with macrophage/T helper polariation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173116DOI Listing
July 2020

cGMP-dependent protein kinase I in vascular smooth muscle cells improves ischemic stroke outcome in mice.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 12 18;39(12):2379-2391. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Recent works highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent pathways in the context of brain ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has emerged as a key mediator of the protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP, the mechanisms by which cGKI attenuates IRI remain poorly understood. We used a novel, conditional cGKI knockout mouse model to study its role in cerebral IRI. We assessed neurological deficit, infarct volume, and cerebral perfusion in tamoxifen-inducible vascular smooth muscle cell-specific cGKI knockout mice and control animals. Stroke experiments revealed greater cerebral infarct volume in smooth muscle cell specific cGKI knockout mice (males: 96 ± 16 mm; females: 93 ± 12 mm, mean±SD) than in all control groups: wild type (males: 66 ± 19; females: 64 ± 14), cGKI control (males: 65 ± 18; females: 62 ± 14), cGKI control with tamoxifen (males: 70 ± 8; females: 68 ± 10). Our results identify, for the first time, a protective role of cGKI in vascular smooth muscle cells during ischemic stroke injury. Moreover, this protective effect of cGKI was found to be independent of gender and was mediated via improved reperfusion. These results suggest that cGKI in vascular smooth muscle cells should be targeted by therapies designed to protect brain tissue against ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19870583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893979PMC
December 2019

Somatostatin+/nNOS+ neurons are involved in delta electroencephalogram activity and cortical-dependent recognition memory.

Sleep 2019 10;42(10)

Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, West Roxbury, MA.

Slow-wave activity (SWA) is an oscillatory neocortical activity occurring in the electroencephalogram delta (δ) frequency range (~0.5-4 Hz) during nonrapid eye movement sleep. SWA is a reliable indicator of sleep homeostasis after acute sleep loss and is involved in memory processes. Evidence suggests that cortical neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons that coexpress somatostatin (SST) play a key role in regulating SWA. However, previous studies lacked selectivity in targeting specific types of neurons that coexpress nNOS-cells which are activated in the cortex after sleep loss. We produced a mouse model that knocks out nNOS expression in neurons that coexpress SST throughout the cortex. Mice lacking nNOS expression in SST positive neurons exhibited significant impairments in both homeostatic low-δ frequency range SWA production and a recognition memory task that relies on cortical input. These results highlight that SST+/nNOS+ neurons are involved in the SWA homeostatic response and cortex-dependent recognition memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783898PMC
October 2019

Protective Effects of a New C-Jun N-terminal Kinase Inhibitor in the Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

Molecules 2019 May 3;24(9). Epub 2019 May 3.

Kizhner Research Center, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050, Russia.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated by various brain insults and is implicated in neuronal injury triggered by reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Some JNK inhibitors demonstrated neuroprotective potential in various models, including cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of the present work was to study the neuroprotective activity of a new specific JNK inhibitor, IQ-1S (11-indeno[1,2-]quinoxalin-11-one oxime sodium salt), in the model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI) in rats compared with citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine), a drug approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and to search for pleiotropic mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of IQ-1S. The experiments were performed in a rat model of ischemic stroke with three-vessel occlusion (model of 3VO) affecting the brachiocephalic artery, the left subclavian artery, and the left common carotid artery. After 7-min episode of GCI in rats, 25% of animals died, whereas survived animals had severe neurological deficit at days 1, 3, and 5 after GCI. At day 5 after GCI, we observing massive loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area, increase in lipid peroxidation products in the brain tissue, and decrease in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) in the parietal cortex. Moreover, blood hyperviscosity syndrome and endothelial dysfunction were found after GCI. Administration of IQ-1S (intragastrically at a dose 50 mg/kg daily for 5 days) was associated with neuroprotective effect comparable with the effect of citicoline (intraperitoneal at a dose of 500 mg/kg, daily for 5 days).The neuroprotective effect was accompanied by a decrease in the number of animals with severe neurological deficit, an increase in the number of animals with moderate degree of neurological deficit compared with control GCI group, and an increase in the number of unaltered neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area along with a significant decrease in the number of neurons with irreversible morphological damage. In rats with IQ-1S administration, the LCBF was significantly higher (by 60%) compared with that in the GCI control. Treatment with IQ-1S also decreases blood viscosity and endothelial dysfunction. A concentration-dependent decrease (IC = 0.8 ± 0.3 μM) of tone in isolated carotid arterial rings constricted with phenylephrine was observed after IQ-1S application in vitro. We also found that IQ-1S decreased the intensity of the lipid peroxidation in the brain tissue in rats with GCI. 2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging for IQ-1S in acetonitrile and acetone exceeded the corresponding values for ionol, a known antioxidant. Overall, these results suggest that the neuroprotective properties of IQ-1S may be mediated by improvement of cerebral microcirculation due to the enhanced vasorelaxation, beneficial effects on blood viscosity, attenuation of the endothelial dysfunction, and antioxidant/antiradical IQ-1S activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539151PMC
May 2019

Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one derivatives and tryptanthrin-6-oxime as c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Jan 12;161:179-191. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA. Electronic address:

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) play a central role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. We synthesized novel 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime analogs and tryptanthrin-6-oxime (indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dion-6-oxime) and evaluated their effects on JNK activity. Several compounds exhibited sub-micromolar JNK binding affinity and were selective for JNK1/JNK3 versus JNK2. The most potent compounds were 10c (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one O-(O-ethylcarboxymethyl) oxime) and tryptanthrin-6-oxime, which had dissociation constants (K) for JNK1 and JNK3 of 22 and 76 nM and 150 and 275 nM, respectively. Molecular modeling suggested a mode of binding interaction at the JNK catalytic site and that the selected oxime derivatives were potentially competitive JNK inhibitors. JNK binding activity of the compounds correlated with their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-κB/activating protein 1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation in human monocytic THP-1Blue cells and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by human MonoMac-6 cells. Thus, oximes with indenoquinoxaline and tryptanthrin nuclei can serve as specific small-molecule modulators for mechanistic studies of JNK, as well as potential leads for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.10.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261293PMC
January 2019

Oral nitrite restores age-dependent phenotypes in eNOS-null mice.

JCI Insight 2018 08 23;3(16). Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Alterations in the synthesis and bioavailability of NO are central to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Although endothelial NO synthase-derived (eNOS-derived) NO affects mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation, the pathophysiological significance of this regulation remains unclear. Accordingly, we determined the contributions of eNOS/NO signaling in the adaptive metabolic responses to fasting and in age-induced metabolic dysfunction. Four-month-old eNOS-/- mice are glucose intolerant and exhibit serum dyslipidemia and decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids. However, during fasting, eNOS-/- mice redirect acetyl-CoA to ketogenesis to elevate circulating levels of β-hydroxybutyrate similar to wild-type mice. Treatment of 4-month-old eNOS-/- mice with nitrite for 10 days corrected the hypertension and serum hyperlipidemia and normalized the rate of fatty acid oxidation. Fourteen-month-old eNOS-/- mice exhibited metabolic derangements, resulting in reduced utilization of fat to generate energy, lower resting metabolic activity, and diminished physical activity. Seven-month administration of nitrite to eNOS-/- mice reversed the age-dependent metabolic derangements and restored physical activity. While the eNOS/NO signaling is not essential for the metabolic adaptation to fasting, it is critical for regulating systemic metabolic homeostasis in aging. The development of age-dependent metabolic disorder is prevented by low-dose replenishment of bioactive NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.122156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141175PMC
August 2018

c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNKs) in Myocardial and Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

Front Pharmacol 2018 5;9:715. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

In this article, we review the literature regarding the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in cerebral and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Numerous studies demonstrate that JNK-mediated signaling pathways play an essential role in cerebral and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. JNK-associated mechanisms are involved in preconditioning and post-conditioning of the heart and the brain. The literature and our own studies suggest that JNK inhibitors may exert cardioprotective and neuroprotective properties. The effects of modulating the JNK-depending pathways in the brain and the heart are reviewed. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective mechanisms of JNK inhibitors are discussed in detail including synthetic small molecule inhibitors (AS601245, SP600125, IQ-1S, and SR-3306), ion channel inhibitor GsMTx4, JNK-interacting proteins, inhibitors of mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) and MLK-interacting proteins, inhibitors of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide (NO) donors, and anesthetics. The role of JNKs in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart in diabetes mellitus is discussed in the context of comorbidities. According to reviewed literature, JNKs represent promising therapeutic targets for protection of the brain and the heart against ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction, respectively. However, different members of the JNK family exert diverse physiological properties which may not allow for systemic administration of non-specific JNK inhibitors for therapeutic purposes. Currently available candidate JNK inhibitors with high therapeutic potential are identified. The further search for selective JNK3 inhibitors remains an important task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041399PMC
July 2018

Connexins and Nitric Oxide Inside and Outside Mitochondria: Significance for Cardiac Protection and Adaptation.

Front Physiol 2018 16;9:479. Epub 2018 May 16.

Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Irreversible myocardial damage happens in the presence of prolonged and severe ischemia. Several phenomena protect the heart against myocardial infarction and other adverse outcomes of ischemia and reperfusion (IR), namely: hibernation related to stunned myocardium, ischemic preconditioning (IPC), ischemic post-conditioning, and their pharmacological surrogates. Ischemic preconditioning consists in the induction of a brief IR to reduce damage of the tissue caused by prolonged and severe ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays an essential role in IPC. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase type I-signaling pathway protects against the IR injury during myocardial infarction. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive and Ca-activated K channels are involved in NO-mediated signaling in IPC. Independently of the cGMP-mediated induction of NO production, -nitrosation represents a regulatory molecular mechanism similar to phosphorylation and is essential for IPC. Unlike conditioning phenomena, the mechanistic basis of myocardial stunning and hibernation remains poorly understood. In this review article, we hypothesize that the disruption of electrical syncytium of the myocardium may underly myocardial stunning and hibernation. Considering that the connexins are the building blocks of gap junctions which represent primary structural basis of electrical syncytium, we discuss data on the involvement of connexins into myocardial conditioning, stunning, and hibernation. We also show how NO-mediated signaling is involved in myocardial stunning and hibernation. Connexins represent an essential element of adaptation phenomena of the heart at the level of both the cardio- myocytes and the mitochondria. Nitric oxide targets mitochondrial connexins which may affect electrical syncytium continuum in the heart. Mitochondrial connexins may play an essential role in NO-dependent mechanisms of myocardial adaptation to ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964197PMC
May 2018

Quantitative assessment of demyelination in ischemic stroke in vivo using macromolecular proton fraction mapping.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 05 26;38(5):919-931. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

1 Laboratory of Neurobiology, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.

A recent MRI method, fast macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, was used to quantify demyelination in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat stroke model. MPF and other quantitative MRI parameters (T, T, proton density, and apparent diffusion coefficient) were compared with histological and immunohistochemical markers of demyelination (Luxol Fast Blue stain, (LFB)), neuronal loss (NeuN immunofluorescence), axonal loss (Bielschowsky stain), and inflammation (Iba1 immunofluorescence) in three animal groups ( n = 5 per group) on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th day after MCAO. MPF and LFB optical density (OD) were significantly reduced in the ischemic lesion on all days after MCAO relative to the symmetrical regions of the contralateral hemisphere. Percentage changes in MPF and LFB OD in the ischemic lesion relative to the contralateral hemisphere significantly differed on the first day only. Percentage changes in LFB OD and MPF were strongly correlated (R = 0.81, P < 0.001) and did not correlate with other MRI parameters. MPF also did not correlate with other histological variables. Addition of T into multivariate regression further improved agreement between MPF and LFB OD (R = 0.89, P < 0.001) due to correction of the edema effect. This study provides histological validation of MPF as an imaging biomarker of demyelination in ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X18755203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987939PMC
May 2018

Cell-Based Drug Delivery and Use of Nano-and Microcarriers for Cell Functionalization.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 02 30;7(3). Epub 2017 Nov 30.

RASA Center in Tomsk, Tomsk Polytechnic University, pros. Lenina, 30, Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

Cell functionalization with recently developed various nano- and microcarriers for therapeutics has significantly expanded the application of cell therapy and targeted drug delivery for the effective treatment of a number of diseases. The aim of this progress report is to review the most recent advances in cell-based drug vehicles designed as biological transporter platforms for the targeted delivery of different drugs. For the design of cell-based drug vehicles, different pathways of cell functionalization, such as covalent and noncovalent surface modifications, internalization of carriers are considered in greater detail together with approaches for cell visualization in vivo. In addition, several animal models for the study of cell-assisted drug delivery are discussed. Finally, possible future developments and applications of cell-assisted drug vehicles toward targeted transport of drugs to a designated location with no or minimal immune response and toxicity are addressed in light of new pathways in the field of nanomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201700818DOI Listing
February 2018

An improved three-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in rats.

Brain Res Bull 2017 06 8;132:213-221. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Goldberg Research Institute of Pharmacology and Regenerative Medicine, Tomsk NRMC, 3 Lenin pr-t, 634028 Tomsk, Russia. Electronic address:

We developed an improved three-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in rats. This method consists in cessation of cerebral blood flow by accessing a. carotis communis sinistra through the ventral surface of the neck as well as tr. brachiocephalicus and a. subclavia sinistra through the first intercostal space, bypassing the pleural cavity and excluding pneumothorax. After the occlusion of the vessels that resulted in interruption of their blood flow, according to laser-Doppler flowmetry, there was a sharp decline in local cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex to 4±1% of the initial level. After restoring the level of local cerebral blood flow at the 5th minute, 10th minute, 20th minute and 24th hour of reperfusion, the levels of local cerebral blood flow were 51±7%, 41±5%, 35±8% and 54±9% of the initial level, respectively. Histo-quantitative analysis of changes in neurons of the hippocampus of rats showed that after ischemic injury, the numerical density of neurons in hippocampal zone CA1 in the observed 1mm region decreased by 29%, 22%, and 35%, respectively, compared to sham-operated animals (p<0.05). By the first day after global cerebral ischemia, the experimental group had shown a mean neurological deficit score equal to 7.5±1.0 and 7.9±0.7 points, followed by a decrease up to score 6.5±1.1 and 5.9±0.7 on the third day, 4.6±0.8 and 4.7±0.5 on the fifth day (on chloral hydrate and propofol anesthesia correspondently).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.06.005DOI Listing
June 2017

Targeting thrombomodulin to circulating red blood cells augments its protective effects in models of endotoxemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

FASEB J 2017 02 11;31(2):761-770. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Pharmacology, The Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; USA;

Endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) regulates coagulation and inflammation via several mechanisms, including production of activated protein C (APC). Recombinant APC and soluble fragments of TM (sTM) have been tested in settings associated with insufficiency of the endogenous TM/APC pathway, such as sepsis. We previously designed a fusion protein of TM [single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv)/TM] targeted to red blood cells (RBCs) to improve pharmacokinetics and antithrombotic effects without increasing bleeding. Here, scFv/TM was studied in mouse models of systemic inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Injected concomitantly with or before endotoxin, scFv/TM provided more potent protection against liver injury and release of pathological mediators than sTM, showing similar efficacy at up to 50-fold lower doses. scFv/TM provided protection when injected after endotoxin, whereas sTM did not, and augmented APC production by thrombin ∼50-fold more than sTM. However, scFv/TM injected after endotoxin did not reduce thrombin/antithrombin complexes; nor did antibodies that block APC anticoagulant activity suppress the prophylactic anti-inflammatory effect of scFv/TM. Therefore, similar to endogenous TM, RBC-anchored scFv/TM activates several protective pathways. Finally, scFv/TM was more effective at reducing cerebral infarct volume and alleviated neurological deficits than sTM after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. These results indicate that RBC-targeted scFv/TM exerts multifaceted cytoprotective effects and may find utility in systemic and focal inflammatory and ischemic disorders.-Carnemolla, R., Villa, C. H., Greineder, C. F., Zaitseva, S., Patel, K. R., Kowalska, M. A., Atochin, D. N., Cines, D. B., Siegel, D. L., Esmon, C. T., Muzykantov, V. R. Targeting thrombomodulin to circulating red blood cells augments its protective effects in models of endotoxemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201600912RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240667PMC
February 2017

Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice.

Diabetes 2016 07 26;65(7):1996-2005. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Center for Pulmonary and Vascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX

Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db15-1605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915578PMC
July 2016

Neuroprotective effects of p-tyrosol after the global cerebral ischemia in rats.

Phytomedicine 2016 Jun 22;23(7):784-92. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "E.D. Goldberg Institute of Pharmacology and Regenerative Medicine", 3 Lenin Street, Tomsk 634028, Russia. Electronic address:

Background: Salidroside is a biologically active compound derived from Rhodiola rosea L. Studies showed that salidroside after i.v. injection is extensively metabolized to p-tyrosol and only trace amounts of salidroside are found in the brain tissue.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of p-tyrosol in the global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCI) model.

Study Design: A total of 103 Wistar rats were assigned to groups of sham-operated (n=10), control (n=42), p-tyrosol-treated (n=36), and pentoxifylline-treated (n=15) animals. The rats of control, p-tyrosol-treated, and pentoxifylline-treated groups received intravenously 0.9% NaCl solution, 2% solution of p-tyrosol in doses of 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg, and 20mg/kg, and pentoxifylline in a dose of 100mg/kg, respectively, daily for 5 days. Rats were examined at days 1, 3, and 5 after GCI. After evaluation of neurological deficit, animals were euthanized for morphological and biochemical characterization.

Methods: Rats of control, p-tyrosol-treated, and pentoxifylline-treated groups were exposed to three-vessel model of GCI. Neurological deficit, numeric density of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region, and percentage of neurons with focal and total chromatolysis were studied. Biochemical study assessed contents of conjugated dienes and fluorescent products in brain homogenate.

Results: In control group, only 50.0% of rats survived by day 5 after the GCI; 38.1% of survived animals had severe neurologic deficit. In brain tissue of PTX-treated rats, the levels of diene conjugates and fluorescent products were 79% and 73%, respectivley, at day 5 compared with control. Differences in diene conjugates were statistically significant compared with control. The survival rate of animals treated with 20mg/kg p-tyrosol was 82.3% at day 5 after GCI. In p-tyrosol-treated GCI rats, the numeric density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region was higher by 31% compared with control. The percentage of neurons with focal and total chromatolysis decreased by 27% and 43%, respectively. At day 5 after GCI, the levels of conjugated dienes and fluorescent products were significantly lower (by 37% and 45%, respectively) in group of animals treated with 20mg/kg p-tyrosol compared with control. Moderate neuroprotective effects of 5mg/kg p-tyrosol administration were documented only at day 5 after GCI. In case of 10mg/kg p-tyrosol administration, neuroprotection was documented sooner: at day 1 or 3 after GCI. However, administration of 5 and 10mg/kg p-tyrosol did not affect animal survival.

Conclusion: Course administration of intravenous p-tyrosol in a dose of 20mg/kg increased survival, reduced neurological deficit after GCI, attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated lipid peroxidation in brain tissue in animals subject to GCI with reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2016.03.015DOI Listing
June 2016

A novel dual NO-donating oxime and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

Neurosci Lett 2016 Apr 26;618:45-49. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 East 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to be an important regulator of neuronal cell death. Previously, we synthesized the sodium salt of 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one (IQ-1S) and demonstrated that it was a high-affinity inhibitor of the JNK family. In the present work, we found that IQ-1S could release nitric oxide (NO) during its enzymatic metabolism by liver microsomes. Moreover, serum nitrite/nitrate concentration in mice increased after intraperitoneal injection of IQ-1S. Because of these dual actions as JNK inhibitor and NO-donor, the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S was evaluated in an animal stroke model. We subjected wild-type C57BL6 mice to focal ischemia (30min) with subsequent reperfusion (48h). Mice were treated with IQ-1S (25mg/kg) suspended in 10% solutol or with vehicle alone 30min before and 24h after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO). Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) above the MCA during 30min of MCAO provoked by a filament and during the first 30min of subsequent reperfusion. In mice treated with IQ-1S, ischemic and reperfusion values of CBF were not different from vehicle-treated mice. However, IQ-1S treated mice demonstrated markedly reduced neurological deficit and infarct volumes as compared with vehicle-treated mice after 48h of reperfusion. Our results indicate that the novel JNK inhibitor releases NO during its oxidoreductive bioconversion and improves stroke outcome in a mouse model of cerebral reperfusion. We conclude that IQ-1S is a promising dual functional agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.02.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491393PMC
April 2016

Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome.

Front Physiol 2015 17;6:20. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Immunology and Cellular Biotechnologies, Innovation Park of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University Kaliningrad, Russia.

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330700PMC
March 2015

Through-skull fluorescence imaging of the brain in a new near-infrared window.

Nat Photonics 2014 Sep 3;8(9):723-730. Epub 2014 Aug 3.

Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

To date, brain imaging has largely relied on X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography with limited spatial resolution and long scanning times. Fluorescence-based brain imaging in the visible and traditional near-infrared regions (400-900 nm) is an alternative but currently requires craniotomy, cranial windows and skull thinning techniques, and the penetration depth is limited to 1-2 mm due to light scattering. Here, we report through-scalp and through-skull fluorescence imaging of mouse cerebral vasculature without craniotomy utilizing the intrinsic photoluminescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the 1.3-1.4 micrometre near-infrared window. Reduced photon scattering in this spectral region allows fluorescence imaging reaching a depth of >2 mm in mouse brain with sub-10 micrometre resolution. An imaging rate of ~5.3 frames/s allows for dynamic recording of blood perfusion in the cerebral vessels with sufficient temporal resolution, providing real-time assessment of blood flow anomaly in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5026222PMC
September 2014

Phosphomimetic modulation of eNOS improves myocardial reperfusion and mimics cardiac postconditioning in mice.

PLoS One 2014 21;9(1):e85946. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America ; School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America ; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences & Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Objective: Myocardial infarction resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury can be reduced by cardiac postconditioning, in which blood flow is restored intermittently prior to full reperfusion. Although key molecular mechanisms and prosurvival pathways involved in postconditioning have been identified, a direct role for eNOS-derived NO in improving regional myocardial perfusion has not been shown. The objective of this study is to measure, with high temporal and spatial resolution, regional myocardial perfusion during ischemia-reperfusion and postconditioning, in order to determine the contribution of regional blood flow effects of NO to infarct size and protection.

Methods And Results: We used myocardial contrast echocardiography to measure regional myocardial blood flow in mice over time. Reperfusion after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is improved by postconditioning, as well as by phosphomimetic eNOS modulation. Knock-in mice expressing a phosphomimetic S1176D form of eNOS showed improved myocardial reperfusion and significantly reduced infarct size. eNOS knock-out mice failed to show cardioprotection from postconditioning. The size of the no-reflow zone following ischemia-reperfusion is substantially reduced by postconditioning and by the phosphomimetic eNOS mutation.

Conclusions And Significance: Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, we show that temporal dynamics of regional myocardial perfusion restoration contribute to reduced infarct size after postconditioning. eNOS has direct effects on myocardial blood flow following ischemia-reperfusion, with reduction in the size of the no-reflow zone. These results have important implications for ongoing clinical trials on cardioprotection, because the degree of protective benefit may be significantly influenced by the regional hemodynamic effects of eNOS-derived NO.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085946PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897570PMC
October 2014

Anti-inflammatory effect of targeted delivery of SOD to endothelium: mechanism, synergism with NO donors and protective effects in vitro and in vivo.

PLoS One 2013 11;8(10):e77002. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Center for Translational Targeted Therapeutics and Nanomedicine of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Pro-inflammatory activation of vascular endothelium is implicated in pathogenesis of severe conditions including stroke, infarction and sepsis. We have recently reported that superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies (Ab/SOD) that provide targeted delivery into endothelial endosomes mitigates inflammatory endothelial activation by cytokines and agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLR). The goal of this study was to appraise potential utility and define the mechanism of this effect. Ab/SOD, but not non-targeted SOD injected in mice alleviated endotoxin-induced leukocyte adhesion in the cerebral vasculature and protected brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transfection of endothelial cells with SOD, but not catalase inhibited NFκB signaling and expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 induced by both cytokines and TLR agonists. These results affirmed that Ab/SOD-quenched superoxide anion produced by endothelial cells in response to proinflammatory agents mediates NFκB activation. Furthermore, Ab/SOD potentiates anti-inflammatory effect of NO donors in endothelial cells in vitro, as well as in the endotoxin-challenged mice. These results demonstrate the central role of intracellular superoxide as a mediator of pro-inflammatory activation of endothelium and support the notion of utility of targeted interception of this signaling pathway for management of acute vascular inflammation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077002PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3795626PMC
August 2014

Hyperlipidemia disrupts cerebrovascular reflexes and worsens ischemic perfusion defect.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 Jun 13;33(6):954-62. Epub 2013 Mar 13.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown 02129, Massachusetts, USA.

Hyperlipidemia is a highly prevalent risk factor for coronary and cervical atherosclerosis and stroke. However, even in the absence of overt atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia disrupts endothelial and smooth muscle function. We investigated the impact of hyperlipidemia on resting-brain perfusion, fundamental cerebrovascular reflexes, and dynamic perfusion defect during acute focal ischemia in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice before the development of flow-limiting atherosclerotic stenoses. Despite elevated blood pressures, absolute resting cerebral blood flow was reduced by 20% in apolipoprotein E knockout compared with wild type when measured by [(14)C]-iodoamphetamine technique. Noninvasive, high spatiotemporal resolution laser speckle flow imaging revealed that the lower autoregulatory limit was elevated in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (60 vs. 40 mm Hg), and cortical hyperemic responses to hypercapnia and functional activation were attenuated by 30% and 64%, respectively. Distal middle cerebral artery occlusion caused significantly larger perfusion defects and infarct volumes in apolipoprotein E knockout compared with wild type. Cerebrovascular dysfunction showed a direct relationship to the duration of high-fat diet. These data suggest that hyperlipidemia disrupts cerebral blood flow regulation and diminishes collateral perfusion in acute stroke in the absence of hemodynamically significant atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3677117PMC
June 2013

Cerebral blood volume affects blood-brain barrier integrity in an acute transient stroke model.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 Jun 6;33(6):898-905. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Insufficient vascular reserve after an ischemic stroke may induce biochemical cascades that subsequently deteriorate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. However, the direct relationship between poor cerebral blood volume (CBV) restoration and BBB disruption has not been examined in acute stroke. To quantify BBB integrity at acute stages of transient stroke, in particular for cases in which extravasation of the standard contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) is not observed, we adopted the water exchange index (WEI), a novel magnetic resonance image-derived parameter to estimate the water permeability across the BBB. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2 relaxation rate constant were also measured for outlining the tissue abnormality, while fractional CBV and WEI were quantified for assessing vascular alterations. The significantly decreased ADC and R2 in the ischemic cortices did not correlate with the changes in CBV or WEI. In contrast, a strong negative correlation between the ipsilesional WEI and CBV was found, in which stroke mice were clustered into two groups: (1) high WEI and low CBV and (2) normal WEI and CBV. The low CBV observed for mice with a disrupted BBB, characterized by a high WEI, indicates the importance of CBV restoration for maintaining BBB stability in acute stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3677109PMC
June 2013

eNOS phosphorylation on serine 1176 affects insulin sensitivity and adiposity.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Feb 3;431(2):284-90. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of its enzymatic activity. We generated knockin mice expressing phosphomimetic (SD) and unphosphorylatable (SA) eNOS mutations at S1176 to study the role of eNOS phosphorylation. The single amino acid SA mutation is associated with hypertension and decreased vascular reactivity, while the SD mutation results in increased basal and stimulated endothelial NO production. In addition to these vascular effects, modulation of the S1176 phosphorylation site resulted in unanticipated effects on metabolism. The eNOS SA mutation results in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, adiposity, and increased weight gain on high fat. In contrast, the eNOS SD mutation is associated with decreased insulin levels and resistance to high fat-induced weight gain. These results demonstrate the importance of eNOS in regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and bodyweight regulation, and suggest eNOS phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.12.110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3576142PMC
February 2013

C-reactive protein causes insulin resistance in mice through Fcγ receptor IIB-mediated inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose delivery.

Diabetes 2013 Mar 15;62(3):721-31. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Vascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance. Whether CRP plays a causal role is unknown. Here we show that CRP transgenic mice and wild-type mice administered recombinant CRP are insulin resistant. Mice lacking the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) are protected from CRP-induced insulin resistance, and immunohistochemistry reveals that FcγRIIB is expressed in skeletal muscle microvascular endothelium and is absent in skeletal muscle myocytes, adipocytes, and hepatocytes. The primary mechanism in glucose homeostasis disrupted by CRP is skeletal muscle glucose delivery, and CRP attenuates insulin-induced skeletal muscle blood flow. CRP does not impair skeletal muscle glucose delivery in FcγRIIB(-/-) mice or in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-in mice with phosphomimetic modification of Ser1176, which is normally phosphorylated by insulin signaling to stimulate nitric oxide-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose delivery and is dephosphorylated by CRP/FcγRIIB. Thus, CRP causes insulin resistance in mice through FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db12-0133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3581204PMC
March 2013

A novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist prevents ischemic neuronal death.

J Biol Chem 2012 Sep 19;287(38):32124-35. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research of the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

Physiological levels of H(2)S exert neuroprotective effects, whereas high concentrations of H(2)S may cause neurotoxicity in part via activation of NMDAR. To characterize the neuroprotective effects of combination of exogenous H(2)S and NMDAR antagonism, we synthesized a novel H(2)S-releasing NMDAR antagonist N-((1r,3R,5S,7r)-3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-yl)-4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-4-yl)-benzamide (S-memantine) and examined its effects in vitro and in vivo. S-memantine was synthesized by chemically combining a slow releasing H(2)S donor 4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-4-yl)-benzoic acid (ACS48) with a NMDAR antagonist memantine. S-memantine increased intracellular sulfide levels in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) 10-fold as high as that was achieved by ACS48. Incubation with S-memantine after reoxygenation following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) protected SH-SY5Y cells and murine primary cortical neurons more markedly than did ACS48 or memantine. Glutamate-induced intracellular calcium accumulation in primary cortical neurons were aggravated by sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) or ACS48, but suppressed by memantine and S-memantine. S-memantine prevented glutamate-induced glutathione depletion in SH-SY5Y cells more markedly than did Na(2)S or ACS48. Administration of S-memantine after global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion more robustly decreased cerebral infarct volume and improved survival and neurological function of mice than did ACS48 or memantine. These results suggest that an H(2)S-releasing NMDAR antagonist derivative S-memantine prevents ischemic neuronal death, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.374124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3442543PMC
September 2012

Nitric oxide synthase 3 deficiency limits adverse ventricular remodeling after pressure overload in insulin resistance.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011 Nov 19;301(5):H2093-101. Epub 2011 Aug 19.

Cardiac Ultrasound Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Insulin resistance (IR) and systemic hypertension are independently associated with heart failure. We reported previously that nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) has a beneficial effect on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function after pressure-overload in mice. The aim of our study was to investigate the interaction of IR and NOS3 in pressure-overload-induced LV remodeling and dysfunction. Wild-type (WT) and NOS3-deficient (NOS3(-/-)) mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce IR. After 9 days of diet, mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC). LV structure and function were assessed serially using echocardiography. Cardiomyocytes were isolated, and levels of oxidative stress were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Cardiac mitochondria were isolated, and mitochondrial respiration and ATP production were measured. TAC induced LV remodeling and dysfunction in all mice. The TAC-induced decrease in LV function was greater in SD-fed NOS3(-/-) mice than in SD-fed WT mice. In contrast, HFD-fed NOS3(-/-) developed less LV remodeling and dysfunction and had better survival than did HFD-fed WT mice. Seven days after TAC, oxidative stress levels were lower in cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed NOS3(-/-) than in those from HFD-fed WT. N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone) decreased oxidative stress levels in cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed WT mice. Mitochondrial respiration was altered in NOS3(-/-) mice but did not worsen after HFD and TAC. In contrast with its protective role in SD, NOS3 increases LV adverse remodeling after pressure overload in HFD-fed, insulin resistant mice. Interactions between NOS3 and mitochondria may be responsible for increased oxidative stress levels in HFD-fed WT mice hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00744.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3213954PMC
November 2011

Delayed paraplegia after spinal cord ischemic injury requires caspase-3 activation in mice.

Stroke 2011 Aug 23;42(8):2302-7. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

Background And Purpose: Delayed paraplegia remains a devastating complication after ischemic spinal cord injury associated with aortic surgery and trauma. Although apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of delayed neurodegeneration, mechanisms responsible for the delayed paraplegia remain incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of apoptosis in delayed motor neuron degeneration after spinal cord ischemia.

Methods: Mice were subjected to spinal cord ischemia induced by occlusion of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery for 5 or 9 minutes. Motor function in the hind limb was evaluated up to 72 hours after spinal cord ischemia. Histological studies were performed to detect caspase-3 activation, glial activation, and motor neuron survival in the serial spinal cord sections. To investigate the impact of caspase-3 activation on spinal cord ischemia, outcome of the spinal cord ischemia was examined in mice deficient for caspase-3.

Results: In wild-type mice, 9 minutes of spinal cord ischemia caused immediate paraplegia, whereas 5 minutes of ischemia caused delayed paraplegia. Delayed paraplegia after 5 minutes of spinal cord ischemia was associated with histological evidence of caspase-3 activation, reactive astrogliosis, microglial activation, and motor neuron loss starting at approximately 24 to 48 hours after spinal cord ischemia. Caspase-3 deficiency prevented delayed paraplegia and motor neuron loss after 5 minutes of spinal cord ischemia, but not immediate paraplegia after 9 minutes of ischemia.

Conclusions: The present results suggest that caspase-3 activation is required for delayed paraplegia and motor neuron degeneration after spinal cord ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.600429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199137PMC
August 2011