Publications by authors named "Diriba Ayala"

3 Publications

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Survival from a Triple Co-Infection of COVID-19, HIV, and Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 2;14:611-615. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The triple burden of COVID-19, human immune virus (HIV), and TB co-infection is one of the contemporary challenges to this globe. People living with chronic medical diseases such as HIV and TB are more likely to experience poor outcomes from COVID-19. This study aimed to report survival from triple co-infection with PTB, HIV, and COVID-19 in Wollega University referral hospital (WURH), western Ethiopia.

Case Presentation: A 55-year-old male known HIV patient on HAART for the last 3 years presented to WURH on May 26, 2021, with chief complaints of shortness of breath of 5 days' duration associated with productive cough, history of high-grade fever, and severe headache. He had produced a lot of bloody sputum one month prior to the current complaints. On 1st day of his presentation, a Gene Expert test was done from sputum, and he was positive for pulmonary TB. On the same day, a nasopharyngeal sample for COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. On his 2nd day of admission, he was transferred to the COVID-19 treatment center with the diagnosis of severe COVID-19, PTB, and WHO stage-3 RVI. During his stay in the hospital, he was provided with oxygen via a nasal cannula. Intensive phase anti-TB treatment was initiated on the 3rd day of admission. HAART was continued with the same regimen he was taking prior to his presentation. On June 6, 2021, the patient was recovered and discharged from the hospital after 10 days of hospital stay.

Conclusion: This case report suggests, after 10 days of admission with triple infections, there is a good clinical prognosis and survival from COVID-19. On admission, further diagnosis and investigations of TB co-infection should be performed for all patients admitted with COVID-19 due to their similar and non-specific clinical manifestations.
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September 2021

Time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among patients admitted to treatment center of Wollega University Referral Hospital (WURH), Western Ethiopia: Survival analysis of retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252389. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Despite its alarming spread throughout the world, no effective drug and vaccine is discovered for COVID-19 so far. According to WHO, the recovery time from COVID-19 was estimated to be 2 weeks for patients with mild infection, and 3 to 6 weeks for those with serious illnesses. A studies regarding the median recovery time and its predictors are limited globally and specifically in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the median time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among COVID-19 cases admitted to WURH, Western Ethiopian.

Methods: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study conducted among 263 adult patients admitted with COVID-19 in WURH treatment center from March 29, 2020 through September 30, 2020. Epidata version 3.2 was used for data entry, and STATA version 14 for analysis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to determine factors associated with recovery time. A variable with P-value ≤ 0.25 at bivariable Cox regression analysis were selected for multivariable Cox proportional model. Multivariable Cox regression model with 95% CI and Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) was used to identify a significant predictor of time to recovery from COVID-19 at P-value < 0.05.

Results: The mean age of patient was 36.8 (SD± 10.68) years. At the end of follow up, two hundred twenty seven observations were developed an event (recovered) with median time to recovery of 18 days with IQR of 10-27 days. The overall incidence rate of recovery was of 4.38 per 100 (95% CI: 3.84, 4.99) person-days observations. Being older age (AHR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), presence of fever on admission (AHR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.62), and comorbidity (AHR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.34, 0.90) were found to have statistically significant association with recovery time.

Conclusion And Recommendations: In general, the median recovery time of patients with COVID-19 cases was long, and factors such as older age group, presence of fever, and comorbidity was an independent predictors of delayed recovery from COVID-19. Intervention to further reduce recovery time at treatment center has to focus on patients those shows symptoms and with comorbidities.
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June 2021

Magnitude and factors associated with surgical site infection among mothers underwent cesarean delivery in Nekemte town public hospitals, western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(4):e0250736. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Public Health, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a serious public health problem due to its impacts on maternal morbidity and mortality and it can have a significant effect on quality of life for the patient. However, little has been studied regarding the magnitude and factors associated with SSI among women underwent cesarean delivery (CD) in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude and factors associated with SSI among women underwent cesarean delivery in Nekemte Town Public Hospitals 2020.

Methods: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1/2018 to January 1/2020. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select 401 patient cards from all records women underwent CD from January 1/2018 to January 1/2020. Epidata version 3.2 was used for data entry, and STATA version 14 was used for analysis. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association of independent variables with the outcome variable and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence interval was used to estimate the strength of the association.

Results: Three hundred eight two (382) cards of women were selected for analysis making a response rate of 95.2%. The mean (±SD) age of the mothers was 25.9 (±4.8) years. The prevalence of SSIs was 8.9% (95% CI: 6.03, 11.76). Age > 35 years (AOR = 5.03, 95% CI:1.69, 14.95), pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI:1.88, 16.79), prolonged labor (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI:1.01, 32.19), receiving general anesthesia (AOR = 3.96 95% CI:1.02, 15.29), and post-operative hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl (AOR = 4.51 95% CI:1.84, 11.07) were significantly associated with the occurrence of SSI after cesarean delivery.

Conclusions And Recommendations: The magnitude of post CD SSI in this study was comparable with the sphere standards of CDC guidelines for SSI after CD. Concerned bodies should give due attention the proper utilization of partograph to prevent prolonged labor, and provision of iron folate to increase the hemoglobin level of pregnant mothers in all health institution. In addition, we would recommend the use of spinal anesthesia over general anesthesia.
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October 2021