Publications by authors named "Ding Yuan"

424 Publications

Plasmon-Driven Catalytic Chemotherapy Augments Cancer Immunotherapy through Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death and Blockage of IDO Pathway.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 18:e2102188. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009, China.

Clinical trials confirm the combination of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) blockade and immunogenic chemotherapy represents a brilliant future in cancer therapy. However, it remains challenging to precisely activate chemo-immunotherapy in situ to avoid side effects from the systemic administrations and reverse the poor immunogenicity and immunosuppressive microenvironment in tumor sites. Herein, a hybrid nanomedicine ("RPMANB NPs") to co-deliver an IDO inhibitor (NLG919) and a chemotherapeutic prodrug to amplify the therapeutic benefits are designed. Attributed to the delicate surface engineering, the RPMANB NPs possess excellent pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation. The loaded NLG919 are released inside cancer tissues/cells due to the collapse of the metal-organic framework platform triggered by the highly concentrated phosphate, reversing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by suppressing IDO activity. The potent chemotherapeutic drug is precisely activated through a highly efficient plasmon-driven catalysis in the presence of near-infrared light, eliciting antitumor immunity by triggering immunogenic cell death and avoiding side effects through in situ activation of chemotherapy. In vivo studies demonstrate that the chemo-immunotherapy greatly suppresses the tumor growth by promoting intratumoral accumulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and downregulating regulatory T cells. This work establishes a robust delivery platform to overcome the current obstacles of tumor treatments by combining precisely activatable chemotherapy with immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102188DOI Listing
July 2021

Overexpression of Long Noncoding RNA H19 Downregulates miR-140-5p and Activates PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway to Promote Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:6619730. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

ICU Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Objective: The abnormal expression of LncRNA H19 and miR-140-5p has been linked to ovarian cancer (OC). Whether H19 directly regulates miR-140-5p in ovarian cancer cells has been unclear. In this study, we deeply explored the relationship between H19 and miR-140-5p in ovarian cancer and the mechanism of action in regulating OC progression.

Methods: A total of 66 patients with OC admitted to the hospital from June 2017 to June 2019 were selected as the research group (RG), and meanwhile, 60 cases of healthy subjects were selected as the control group (CG). In addition, OC cells and normal ovarian epithelial cells were used to detect H19 and miR-140-5p expression levels and to analyze the effect of H19 on OC cells. The activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and downstream proteins were analyzed by western blot.

Results: H19 was highly expressed while miR-140-5p was lowly expressed in OC patients and cell lines ( < 0.050). The proliferation, invasion, migration ability, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OC cells were reduced after inhibiting H19 expression, and the apoptosis rate was increased. Transfection of cells with miR-140-5p mimics brought opposite effects. Online prediction and dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) confirmed that H19 directly binds miR-140-5p. Western blot assay indicated overexpression activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in OC cells. Moreover, overexpression promoted tumor growth in nude mice and was suppressed by PI3K inhibitor.

Conclusion: LncRNA H19 downregulation of miR-140-5p to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and promote the proliferation, invasion, migration and EMT of OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6619730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238588PMC
June 2021

Fracture of a covered stent-graft due to heterotopic ossification of residual hematoma after endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(27):e26612

Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Rationale: Endovascular treatment (EVT) is considered a preferred procedure of superficial femoral artery (SFA) pseudoaneurysm in recent years. However, heterotopic ossification (HO) after SFA pseudoaneurysm is a rare occurrence, that may cause late stent-graft fracture.

Patient Concerns: A 58-year-old male who underwent EVT for SFA pseudoaneurysm 8 years ago presented with a progressive mass at the right thigh and claudication. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed fracture and occlusion of stent-graft, which was compressed by the deep femoral artery (DFA) pseudoaneurysm and a bone-like body.

Diagnosis: According to the CTA images, the stent-graft was fractured and occluded, accompanied by DFA pseudoaneurysm.

Interventions And Outcomes: Debridement and arterial reconstruction were performed. Pathological analysis showed that the bone-like body was derived from HO. CTA at one-year follow-up showed that the prosthetic vessel was patent and previous hematoma disappeared.

Conclusions: This report demonstrates that residual hematoma can induce HO, which may result in late stent fracture, and it should thus be removed timely. Patients with SFA pseudoaneurysm who have undergone EVT should be followed up regularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270586PMC
July 2021

Singlet oxygen-dominated activation of peroxymonosulfate by passion fruit shell derived biochar for catalytic degradation of tetracycline through a non-radical oxidation pathway.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 25;419:126495. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Heavy Metal Pollutant Control and Resource utilization, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China.

Waste-derived biochar has been emerged as promising catalysts to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic contaminants. Herein, passion fruit shell derived biochar (PFSC) was prepared by a one-pot pyrolysis method and used as a metal-free catalyst to activate PMS for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The batch experiments indicated that the pyrolysis temperature could influence the efficiency of PFSC for the activation of PMS. In the PFSC-900 (prepared at 900 °C)/PMS system, the degradation rate of TC can reach 90.91%. The quenching test and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra revealed that the high catalytic performance of PFSC-900/PMS system was mainly attributed to the non-free radical reaction pathway containing a carbon bridge, and the TC degradation was controlled primarily by singlet oxygen-mediated oxidation. Moreover, the carboxyl group of ketones and the graphite-N atoms on PFSC-900 are the possible active sites of the non-free radical pathway including direct electron transfer or the formation of O/O. This study not only shows a new type of biochar as an efficient catalyst for PMS activation but also provides a way of value-added reuse of passion fruit shell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126495DOI Listing
June 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engineered by Nonviral Vectors: A Powerful Tool in Cancer Gene Therapy.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 21;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China.

Due to their "tumor homing" and "immune privilege" characteristics, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed as a novel tool against cancer. MSCs are genetically engineered in vitro and then utilized to deliver tumoricidal agents, including prodrugs and bioactive molecules, to tumors. The genetic modification of MSCs can be achieved by various vectors, and in most cases viral vectors are used; however, viruses may be associated with carcinogenesis and immunogenicity, restricting their clinical translational potential. As such, nonviral vectors have emerged as a potential solution to address these limitations and have gradually attracted increasing attention. In this review, we briefly revisit the current knowledge about MSC-based cancer gene therapy. Then, we summarize the advantages and challenges of nonviral vectors for MSC transfection. Finally, we discuss recent advances in the development of new nonviral vectors, which have provided promising strategies to overcome obstacles in the gene modulation of MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13060913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235299PMC
June 2021

A simple strategy for the detection of Pb(II) and Cu(II) by an electrochemical sensor based on Zn/Ni-ZIF-8/XC-72/Nafion hybrid materials.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 29;202:111605. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, 453003, China.

In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of Pb(II) and Cu(II) was constructed by using Zn/Ni-ZIF-8/XC-72/Nafion hybrid material as electrode surface modifier. XRD, FT-IR, XPS and SEM were used to study the crystal structure, functional groups, element types and morphologies of the prepared materials. The electrochemical performance of the Zn/Ni-ZIF-8/XC-72/Nafion/GCE sensor were investigated by CV, EIS and DPV. In addition, the effects of various conditions including pH, the type of buffer and the ratio of Zn/Ni-ZIF-8 to XC-72 were also explored for the determination of Pb(II) and Cu(II). Under the optimum conditions, the constructed sensor exhibited outstanding linear response of Pb(II) (0.794-39.6 ppm) and Cu(II) (0.397-19.9 ppm) with detection limits of 0.0150 and 0.0096 ppm, respectively. Finally, the fabricated sensor was further used to detect Pb(II) and Cu(II) in real samples, and the satisfactory recovery was obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111605DOI Listing
June 2021

Multiwavelength Control of Mixtures Using Visible Light-Absorbing Photocages.

J Org Chem 2021 Jul 1;86(14):9781-9787. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, 1605 Gilman Hall, Ames, Iowa 50010, United States.

Selective deprotection of functional groups using different wavelengths of light is attractive for materials synthesis as well as for achieving independent photocontrol over substrates in biological systems. Here, we show that mixtures of recently developed visible light-absorbing BODIPY-derived photoremovable protecting groups (PRPGs) and a coumarin-derived PRPG can undergo wavelength-selective activation, giving independent optical control over a mixture of photocaged substrates using biologically benign long-wavelength light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00658DOI Listing
July 2021

Downregulation of snoRNA SNORA52 and Its Clinical Significance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 3;2021:7020637. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in the world while the accuracy of the present tests for detecting HCC is poor. A novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for HCC is urgently needed. Overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) in carcinogenesis. This study is aimed at analyzing the expression of a snoRNA, SNORA52, in HCC and exploring the correlation between its expression and various clinical characteristics of HCC patients. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we found that SNORA52 was downregulated in HCC cell lines ( < 0.05) and HCC tissues ( < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed that the expression of SNORA52 was obviously associated with tumor size ( = 0.011), lesion number ( = 0.007), capsular invasion ( = 0.011), tumor differentiation degree ( = 0.046), and TNM stage ( = 0.004). The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) analysis showed that patients with lower SNORA52 expression had a worse prognosis ( < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SNORA52 expression was a completely independent prognostic factor to predict DFS ( = 0.009) and OS ( = 0.012) of HCC patients. Overall, our findings showed SNORA52 expression levels were downregulated in HCC tissues and correlated with multiple clinical variables, and SNORA52 was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients, which suggested that SNORA52 could function as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7020637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203349PMC
June 2021

The dynamic changes of Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress, DNA damage and base excision repair in testis of rats during aging.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jun 24;152:111460. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, PR China; Third-Grade Pharmacological Laboratory on Chinese Medicine Approved by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, PR China. Electronic address:

Accumulation of oxidative stress, DNA damage and impaired DNA repair appear to play critical roles in the decline of testicular function with aging. However, when those factors begin to lose control in testis during aging has not yet been well understood. This study was designed to assess the changes of oxidative stress and DNA damage status, and DNA repair capacity in testis during aging. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 3, 9, 15 and 24 months of age were used to delineate the dynamic changes in testicular weight and index, testosterone concentration, testicular histology, Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress, DNA damage, DNA repair and apoptosis. Results showed that testicular weight and index, testosterone concentration and spermatid number progressively declined from 9 to 24 months of age. Similarly, seminiferous tubule diameters and seminiferous epithelium heights gradually diminished with aging. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense ability was significantly impaired in testis with increasing age including decreased the activity of SOD and the expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO-1, and increased the contents of MDA. In addition, DNA damage including DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) also progressively increased accompanied by increased levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and γ-H2AX, and activated ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 pathway. Consistent with the results of Nrf2 pathway, the expression levels of APE1, OGG1 and XRCC1 involved in base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway increased from 3 to 9 months of age, and then gradually decreased after 9 months of age. Finally, TUNEL and Western blot results further confirmed germ cell apoptosis progressively increased from 3 to 24 months of age as evidenced by decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and levels of Bcl-2 expression, and increased Bax expression levels. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of antioxidant ability mediated by Nrf2 pathway and impairment of BER capacity might correlate with increased DNA damage, and then induce declining testicular function during aging after adult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111460DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes of different acute mesenteric ischemia therapies in the last 20 years: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Vascular 2021 Jun 21:17085381211024503. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital, 12530Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a disease with high morbidity and mortality, and it is traditionally treated with open surgery. Endovascular therapy and hybrid techniques are alternative treatments that are also currently available. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the outcomes of the different treatment approaches in the last 20 years.

Methods: Studies on acute mesenteric ischemia that were indexed in PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases (from January 1, 2000, to April 1, 2021) were reviewed. All related retrospective observational studies and case series were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates, and the results were reported as proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: In our study, a total of 2369 patients (in 39 studies) underwent endovascular, open surgery, or retrograde open mesenteric stenting. The pooled mortality estimates for open surgery, endovascular therapy, and retrograde open mesenteric stenting were 40% (95% CI, 0.33-0.47; I = 84%), 26% (95% CI, 0.19-0.33; I = 33%), and 32% (95% CI, 0.21-0.44; I = 26%), respectively.

Conclusions: The mortality associated with open surgical treatment, endovascular therapy, and retrograde open mesenteric stenting tend to be similar in the last 20 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211024503DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of risk factors for recurrence of patients with ischemic stroke and construction of risk prediction model.

Minerva Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Economics and Management, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07620-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Robust Pseudocapacitive Sodium Cation Intercalation Induced by Cobalt Vacancies at Atomically Thin Co Se /Graphene Heterostructure for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222, Australia.

Electronic structure engineering on electrode materials could bring in a new mechanism to achieve high energy and high power densities in sodium ion batteries. Herein, we design and create Co vacancies at the interface of atomically thin CoSe /graphene heterostructure and obtain Co Se /graphene heterostructure electrode materials that facilitate significant Na intercalation pseudocapacitance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation suggests that the Na adsorption energy is dramatically increased, and the Na diffusion barrier is remarkably reduced due to the introduction of Co vacancy. The optimized electrode delivers a superior capacity of 673.6 mAh g at 0.1 C, excellent rate capability of 576.5 mAh g at 2.0 C and ultra-long life up to 2000 cycles. Kinetics analysis indicates that the enhanced Na storage is mainly attributed to the intercalation pseudocapacitance induced by Co vacancies. This work suggests that the creation of cation vacancy could bestow heterostructured electrode materials with pseudocapacitive Na intercalation for high-capacity and high-rate energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106857DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Interface Engineering of CoS/[email protected]‑Doped Graphene Nanocomposite for High‑Performance Rechargeable Zn-Air Batteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Mar 23;13(1):97. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute for Energy Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Zhenjiang, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00608-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988021PMC
March 2021

Interface Engineering of CoS/[email protected] Graphene Nanocomposite for High-Performance Rechargeable Zn-Air Batteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Oct 27;13(1). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Institute for Energy Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Zhenjiang, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, People's Republic of China.

Low cost and green fabrication of high-performance electrocatalysts with earth-abundant resources for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are crucial for the large-scale application of rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZABs). In this work, our density functional theory calculations on the electrocatalyst suggest that the rational construction of interfacial structure can induce local charge redistribution, improve the electronic conductivity and enhance the catalyst stability. In order to realize such a structure, we spatially immobilize heterogeneous CoS/CoO nanocrystals onto N-doped graphene to synthesize a bifunctional electrocatalyst (CoS/[email protected]). The optimization of the composition, interfacial structure and conductivity of the electrocatalyst is conducted to achieve bifunctional catalytic activity and deliver outstanding efficiency and stability for both ORR and OER. The aqueous ZAB with the as-prepared CoS/[email protected] cathode displays a high maximum power density of 137.8 mW cm, a specific capacity of 723.9 mAh g and excellent cycling stability (continuous operating for 100 h) with a high round-trip efficiency. In addition, the assembled quasi-solid-state ZAB also exhibits outstanding mechanical flexibility besides high battery performances, showing great potential for applications in flexible and wearable electronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00526-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988027PMC
October 2020

Saponins from Panax japonicus alleviate HFD-induced impaired behaviors through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome to upregulate AMPA receptors.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 12;148:105098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; New Medicine Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is characterized by a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation that facilitates development of numerous comorbidities and dysregulation of brain homeostasis. It is reported that obesity can lead to behavioral alterations such as cognitive decline and depression-like behaviors both in humans and rodents. Saponins from panax japonicus (SPJ) have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory action in mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We evaluated the neuroprotection of SPJ on high fat diet (HFD) induced impaired behaviors such as memory deficit and depressive-like behaviors, and explored the underlying mechanisms. 6-week male Balb/c mice were divided into normal control group (NC, 17% total calories from fat), HFD group (60% total calories from fat), and HFD treated with SPJ groups (orally gavaged with dosages of 15 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg), respectively. After treatment for 16 weeks, behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the cognition and depression-like behaviors of the mice. The underling mechanisms of SPJ on HFD-induced impaired behaviors were investigated through histopathological observation, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that HFD-fed mice caused behavioral disorders, neuronal degeneration as well as elevated neuroinflammation, which was partly involved in NLRP3 inflammasome that finally resulted in decreased protein levels of AMPA receptors and down-regulated phosphorylated levels of CaMKII and CREB in cortex and hippocampus. All the above changes in cortex and hippocampus induced by HFD were mitigated by SPJ treatment. SPJ treatment alleviated HFD-induced recognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors of mice, which could be partly due to the capacity of SPJ to mitigate neuroinflammation through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and upregulation of AMPA receptors signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105098DOI Listing
September 2021

The characteristics of distal tears affect false lumen thrombosis rate after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for acute type B dissection.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: A low false lumen thrombosis rate (FLTR) is common in patients with type B aortic dissection after they have undergone thoracic endovascular aortic repair, which indicates a poor long-term prognosis. This study aimed to establish a quantitative linear regression model to predict false lumen (FL) thrombosis accurately using morphological parameters.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we included 59 patients diagnosed with acute type B aortic dissection between 2014 and 2017. Morphological parameters were measured. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, and a linear regression model relating FLTR with the number of re-entry tears was proposed. Ten patients were further chosen to validate the linear relationship, and idealized aortic dissection models were adopted for haemodynamic analysis.

Results: Only the total area and number of re-entry tears were negatively correlated with FL thrombosis (P < 0.001). Moreover, based on the univariable regression, the number of re-entry tears played a more crucial role in FLTR (R2 = 0.509 vs R2 = 0.298), and the linear relationship model was created as follows: thrombosis rate (%) = -11.25 × distal tear number + 105.24. This model was perfectly matched in 10 patients (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.880, P = 0.947). Moreover, when the total area of re-entry tears was constant, the net blood flow increased rapidly with an increase in the tear count.

Conclusions: The number of re-entry tears could be a crucial related factor of FL thrombosis; the larger the number of re-entry tears is, the lower the possibility of thrombosis is.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivab166DOI Listing
June 2021

Caloric restriction ameliorates high-fat diet induced cognitive deficits through attenuating neuroinflammation via the TREM2-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 2;12(14):6464-6478. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Medical Science, Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China.

Prolonged high-fat diet (HFD) feeding impairs cognitive function in rodents. However, the mechanism of caloric restriction (CR) for remedying HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CR on HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and its possible mechanism. BALB/c mice were fed with HFD for 16 weeks and subsequently subjected to CR for 12 weeks. After cognitive function was evaluated by behavioral tests such as Morris water maze and three-chamber paradigm tests, the mice were sacrificed. The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were rapidly harvested and deposited at -80 °C. The neuroprotective mechanisms of CR on HFD-induced cognitive deficits were evaluated by histopathological and electron microscopy observations, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal control group, HFD mice exhibited obvious cognitive deficits, glucose tolerance impairment, neuronal degeneration and abnormalities of synaptic ultrastructure in the cortex and hippocampus. CR treatment improved cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes as well as increased the cognition-related protein levels of PSD-95, synaptophysin and BDNF. Meanwhile, HFD increased the protein levels of pro-inflammatory factors including iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1β but decreased the protein levels of anti-inflammatory factors such as CD206, TGF-β, Ym-1 and Arg 1 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, downregulated the protein levels of TREM2 and PI3K and decreased the phosphorylation level of AKT, which can be reversed by CR treatment. Therefore, our results indicated that CR ameliorated cognitive deficits of mice induced by a high-fat diet. The underlying mechanism is associated with the attenuation of the neuroinflammatory response mediated by the TREM2-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02946gDOI Listing
July 2021

[Effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating autophagy].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(9):2260-2266

Medical College, China Three Gorges University Yichang 443002, China.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) was induced by high-sugar and high-fat diet in mice to investigate the intervention effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus(TSPJ) and explore its possible mechanism. Mice were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish NASH model, and intervened with different doses of TSPJ(15, 45 mg·kg~(-1)). The animals were fed for 26 weeks. The histomorphology and pathological changes of liver tissues were observed by HE staining. The transcriptional expression levels of miR-199 a-5 p, autophagy related gene 5(ATG5) and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in mouse liver were measured by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins ATG5, P62/SQSTM1(P62), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-I/Ⅱ proteins in mouse liver. The expression of P62 protein was detected by immunofluorescence staining. In order to verify the targeting regulation relationship between miR-199 a-5 p and ATG5, miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor were transfected into Hepa 1-6 cells, and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein was detected. pMIR-reportor ATG5-3'UTR luciferase reporter gene plasmid was constructed and co-transfected with miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor into Hepa 1-6 cells to detect luciferase activity. In vivo, HE staining in the model group showed typical fatty degeneration and inflammatory infiltration, with increased expression of miR-199 a-5 p and decreased expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein. The expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 increased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ decreased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly. After the intervention by TSPJ, the pathological performance of liver tissue was significantly improved, the expression of miR-199 a-5 p decreased and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein increased, the expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 decreased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ increased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased significantly. In vitro, it was found that the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity decreased significantly in miR-199 a-5 p overexpression cells, while after inhibition of miR-199 a-5 p expression, the expression level of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity increased. The results showed that TSPJ can improve NASH in mice fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-199 a-5 p/ATG5 signal pathway, the regulation of autophagy activity and the improvement of inflammatory response of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210201.401DOI Listing
May 2021

Diagnostic value of serum human epididymis protein 4 and cancer antigen 125 in the patients with ovarian carcinoma: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e25981

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hanchuan People's Hospital, Hanchuan, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is considered among the most prevalent triggers of cancer-related deaths in women. Many studies have demonstrated that human epididymis protein 4 (HE-4) as well as cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are over-expressed in various malignant tumors, such as lung, liver, endometrial, gastric, breast, as well as ovarian cancers. Nonetheless, the overall diagnostic value of serum HE-4, in addition to CA-125 n patients experiencing OC, is still largely undetermined. Therefore, the current study intends to investigate the general diagnostic significance of HE-4 along with CA-125 in patients with OC.

Methods: We aim to systematically search retrospective or prospective study for potential eligible studies from electronic databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, as well as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. We will relevant articles evaluating the general diagnostic significance of HE-4 and CA-125 in patients with OC from these databases. We will define our search in English and Chinese. Likewise, we will use 2 independent authors to extract the required data, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool to evaluate he procedural quality of all included literature. We will use the appropriate statistical method to complete data analyses.

Results: The present study aims to investigate the general diagnostic significance of HE-4 and CA-125 in patients suffering from OC.

Conclusion: The present study will systematically summarise current evidence of HE-4 in combination with CA-125 in relation to diagnosing OC.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval will not be required.

Protocol Registration Number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/YQPC7 (https://osf.io/yqpc7/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154486PMC
May 2021

Saponins from ameliorate age-related renal fibrosis by inhibition of inflammation mediated by NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling and suppression of oxidative stress via activation of Nrf2-ARE signaling.

J Ginseng Res 2021 May 9;45(3):408-419. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Background: The decreased renal function is known to be associated with biological aging, of which the main pathological features are chronic inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis. In previous studies, we reported that total saponins from (SPJs) can availably protect acute myocardial ischemia. We proposed that SPJs might have similar protective effects for aging-associated renal interstitial fibrosis. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the overall effect of SPJs on renal fibrosis.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) aging rats were given SPJs by gavage beginning from 18 months old, at 10 mg/kg/d and 60 mg/kg/d, up to 24 months old. After the experiment, changes in morphology, function and fibrosis of their kidneys were detected. The levels of serum uric acid (UA), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and cystatin C (Cys C) were assayed with ELISA kits. The levels of extracellular matrix (ECM), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), inflammatory factors and changes of oxidative stress parameters were examined.

Results: After SPJs treatment, SD rats showed significantly histopathological changes in kidneys accompanied by decreased renal fibrosis and increased renal function; As compared with those in 3-month group, the levels of serum UA, Cys C and β2-MG in 24-month group were significantly increased ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the 24-month group, the levels of serum UA, Cys C and β2-MG in the SPJ-H group were significantly decreased. While ECM was reduced and the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased, the levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling were decreased; the expression level of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was down-regulated with reduced inflammatory factors; meanwhile, the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling was aggrandized.

Conclusion: These results suggest that SPJs treatment can improve age-associated renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad, NFκB signaling pathways and activating Nrf2-ARE signaling pathways and that SPJs can be a potentially valuable anti-renal fibrosis drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134850PMC
May 2021

Competitive and noncompetitive fluorescence polarization immunoassays for the detection of benzothiostrobin using FITC-labeled dendrimer-like peptides.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 6;360:130020. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Peptides obtained from phage display libraries are valuable reagents for small-molecule immunoassays. However, their application in fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIAs) is limited by phage particles. Here, monomer, dendrimer-like dimer, tetramer peptidomimetic and anti-immunocomplex tracers were designed and synthesized using lysine as special scaffolds and spacers to develop competitive and noncompetitive FPIAs for benzothiostrobin. The affinity between tracers and monoclonal antibodies or immunocomplexes increased with the tracer valence. A higher signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity could be generated in the FPIAs based on tetramer tracers. The sensitivities of competitive (50% inhibitory concentration) and noncompetitive (50% saturation concentration) FPIAs were 19.71 ± 4.65 and 40.43 ± 2.73 ng mL, respectively. The spiked recoveries were 78.3%-105.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.7%-15.4% for the competitive FPIA, while 78.7%-115.3% with RSDs of 0.7%-12.5% for the noncompetitive FPIA. The amounts of benzothiostrobin in rice detected by the FPIAs were consistent with those detected by high performance liquid chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130020DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of Pancreatic Damage in Rats for Two Methods of Paraquat Administration.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:611433. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

It is noted that elevated serum amylase levels suggesting pancreatic damage has an association with prognosis in PQ patients. This study aimed to determine whether PQ can cause pancreatic damage. The two conventional models (intragastric infusion (iG) and intraperitoneal injection (iP)) may exhibit different effects on the pancreas depending on whether or not they pass through the digestive tract. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups: the intragastric infusion group (PQ-iG, = 45), intraperitoneal injection group (PQ-iP, = 53), normal control group 1 (NC-iG, = 6) and normal control group 2 (NC-iP, = 6). Pancreatic damage was compared between groups using serum amylase activity assay, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, TUNEL assay, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Serum amylase levels in group PQ-iG were significantly higher than in group PQ-iP ( < 0.05). Examination of the H&E sections showed damage to the pancreas. Both experimental groups were displayed inflammatory infiltration within 9 h of PQ treatment. After 9 h, patchy necrosis was observed in group PQ-iP, when inflammatory infiltration was still the dominant pathology. Necrosis appeared and gradually worsened in group PQ-iG, in which necrosis was the dominant pathology. The TUNEL assay showed significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells in the pancreas of PQ-groups than in the control NC- groups ( < 0.05). TEM showed expansive endoplasmic reticulum lumens and mitochondria swelling in the pancreas of the PQ-groups. It is concluded that both methods of modeling could cause pancreatic damage and the type and degree of damage would change over time. Note that pancreatic damage in group PQ-iG was more severe than that in group PQ-iP. Therefore, clinical practitioners should pay close attention to pancreatic damage caused by PQ, especially when the route of PQ administration was oral.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.611433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099104PMC
April 2021

Common markers of testicular Sertoli cells.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2021 Jun 16;21(6):613-626. Epub 2021 May 16.

College of Medicine, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Introduction: Sertoli cells play central roles in the development of testis formation in fetuses and the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis in puberty and adulthood, and disorders of Sertoli cell proliferation and/or functional maturation can cause male reproductive disorders at various life stages. It's well documented that various genes are either overexpressed or absent in Sertoli cells during the conversion of an immature, proliferating Sertoli cell to a mature, non-proliferating Sertoli cell, which are considered as Sertoli cell stage-specific markers. Thus, it is paramount to choose an appropriate Sertoli cell marker that will be used not only to identify the developmental, proliferative, and maturation of Sertoli cell status in the testis during the fetal period, prepuberty, puberty, or in the adult, but also to diagnose the mechanisms underlying spermatogenic dysfunction.

Areas Covered: In this review, we principally enumerated 5 categories of testicular Sertoli cell markers - including immature Sertoli cell markers, mature Sertoli cell markers, immature/mature Sertoli cell markers, Sertoli cell functional markers, and others.

Expert Opinion: By delineating the characteristics and applications of more than 20 Sertoli cell markers, this review provided novel Sertoli cell markers for the more accurate diagnosis and mechanistic evaluation of male reproductive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737159.2021.1924060DOI Listing
June 2021

Prostate cancer in young men represents a distinct clinical phenotype: gene expression signature to predict early metastases.

J Transl Genet Genom 2021 9;5:50-61. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, CA 91010, USA.

Aim: Several genomic signatures are available to predict Prostate Cancer (CaP) outcomes based on gene expression in prostate tissue. However, no signature was tailored to predict aggressive CaP in younger men. We attempted to develop a gene signature to predict the development of metastatic CaP in young men.

Methods: We measured genome-wide gene expression for 119 tumor and matched benign tissues from prostatectomies of men diagnosed at ≤ 50 years and > 70 years and identified age-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for tissue type and Gleason score. Age-related DEGs were selected using the improved Prediction Analysis of Microarray method (iPAM) to construct and validate a classifier to predict metastasis using gene expression data from 1,232 prostatectomies. Accuracy in predicting early metastasis was quantified by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and abundance of immune cells in the tissue microenvironment was estimated using gene expression data.

Results: Thirty-six age-related DEGs were selected for the iPAM classifier. The AUC of five-year survival ROC for the iPAM classifier was 0.87 (95%CI: 0.78-0.94) in young (≤ 55 years), 0.82 (95%CI: 0.76-0.88) in middle-aged (56-70 years), and 0.69 (95%CI: 0.55-0.69) in old (> 70 years) patients. Metastasis-associated immune responses in the tumor microenvironment were more pronounced in young and middle-aged patients than in old ones, potentially explaining the difference in accuracy of prediction among the groups.

Conclusion: We developed a genomic classifier with high precision to predict early metastasis for younger CaP patients and identified age-related differences in immune response to metastasis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/jtgg.2021.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081383PMC
March 2021

Effect of limb oversizing on the risk of type Ib endoleak in patients after endovascular aortic repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We assessed the association between the degree of limb oversizing and the risk of type Ib endoleak (TIBEL) in different types of iliac landing zones after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with bifurcated and limb endografts in an academic center. The main exposure was the degree of limb oversizing. The primary outcome was the occurrence of TIBELs. The secondary outcomes included limb occlusion, reintervention, and overall survival. Subgroup analyses stratified by ectatic and normal iliac landing zones were performed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and sensitivity analyses using marginal structure model were conducted to adjust for potential confounders.

Results: A total of 750 patients with 1500 iliac limb endografts were included in our study (817 limbs with oversizing of ≤10% and 683 with oversizing >10%). The median 1-year freedom from TIBEL was 98.9% (interquartile range [IQR], 98.0%-99.8%) for limbs with oversizing of ≤10% and 99.6% (IQR, 99.0%-100%) for limbs with oversizing >10%. The median 3-year freedom from TIBEL was 95.6% (IQR, 93.1%-98.1%) and 98.2% (IQR, 96.5%-99.9%) for oversizing ≤10% and >10%, respectively. We found that limb oversizing >10% was associated with a significantly decreased risk of TIBEL (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.76) in the overall population. After stratification by ectatic iliac landing zone, we found that limb oversizing >10% was associated with a significantly decreased risk of TIBEL in the ectatic iliac landing zones (adjusted HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.88). However, no significant difference was found in the limb endografts landing in normal iliac arteries (adjusted HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.13-1.45). In the subgroup of normal iliac arteries, we observed a significantly increased risk of limb occlusion in the limbs with distal oversizing >15% compared with the limbs with distal oversizing of ≤15% (adjusted HR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.68-12.91).

Conclusions: Adequate limb oversizing >10% was associated with a significantly decreased risk of TIBEL in limbs with ectatic iliac landing zones. However, no additional benefit was observed for oversizing >10% in limb grafts landing in normal iliac arteries. Furthermore, excessive limb oversizing (>15%) in normal iliac landing zones can be associated with an increased risk of limb occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.03.020DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of Distal Re-entry Tears on False Lumen Thrombosis After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Type B Aortic Dissection Patients: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Purpose: Distal re-entry tears play a significant role in false lumen (FL) thrombosis, which will strongly affect the postoperative long-term survival of patients with type B aortic dissection (TBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This study aimed to investigate the influence of a peculiar morphological parameter of the residual re-entry tears in TBAD patients after TEVAR on long-term FL thrombosis using the computational fluid dynamics.

Methods: Ideal population-based three-dimensional models of post-operative TBAD were established. Numerical simulation was performed to investigate the hemodynamic differences caused by different tear features, including the tear count, the maximum distance between tears, and the tear area.

Results: Although the low relative residence time (RRT) area did not change significantly when the tear distance was fixed, the area of oscillatory shear index (OSI) > 0.45 and endothelial cell activation potential (ECAP) > 1.5 decreased significantly with the tear count and area increased and a dramatic increase in blood flow into the FL was also observed. When tear count and total area were fixed, for each 10-mm increase in the maximum distance between tears, the area of low RRT in the FL increased significantly, while the average pressure difference increased by 10.85%.

Conclusion: The different morphology of the re-entry tears had different effects on the thrombosis-related hemodynamic parameters in FL following TEVAR. and the number of re-entry tears was most crucial to the potential thrombosis in the post-TEVAR FL of TBAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-021-00532-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Aberrant Splenic Artery Aneurysm Presenting With Painless Progressive Jaundice: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Mar 24:15385744211005296. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Splenic artery (SA) originating from the superior mesenteric artery is a rare condition, and aneurysms in relation to this aberrant SA are even rarer. We reported the case of a 67-year-old female who presented with painless progressive jaundice for 2 months accompanied by thrombocytopenia and liver dysfunction. The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aberrant SAA located behind the pancreatic head along with the dilation of common bile duct. Stent-graft deployment in SMA and coil embolization of the aneurysm were performed. Her liver dysfunction and thrombocytopenia improved postoperatively. CTA at 2-year follow-up showed patency of stent-graft and SMA and the shrinkage of the excluded aneurysm sac. Considering the particular location of the aneurysm, painless progressive jaundice can be the initial symptom for the aberrant SAAs. This combined endovascular technique completely excluded the aneurysm and was beneficial for treating secondary liver dysfunction and thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15385744211005296DOI Listing
March 2021

A DM1-doped porous gold nanoshell system for NIR accelerated redox-responsive release and triple modal imaging guided photothermal synergistic chemotherapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Mar 19;19(1):77. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Although many treatments for breast cancer are available, poor tumour targeting limits the effectiveness of most approaches. Consequently, it is difficult to achieve satisfactory results with monotherapies. The lack of accurate diagnostic and monitoring methods also limit the benefits of cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to design a nanocarrier comprising porous gold nanoshells (PGNSs) co-decorated with methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®, HER), a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to human epidermal receptor-2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Furthermore, a derivative of the microtubule-targeting drug maytansine (DM1) was incorporated in the PGNSs.

Methods: Prepared PGNSs were coated with mPEG, DM1 and HER via electrostatic interactions and Au-S bonds to yield DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs. SK-BR-3 (high HER2 expression) and MCF-7 (low HER2) breast cancer cells were treated with DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs, and cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. The selective uptake of the coated PGNSs by cancer cells and subsequent intracellular accumulation were studied in vitro and in vivo using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence imaging. The multimodal imaging feasibility and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficacy of the DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs were investigated in breast cancer tumour-bearing mice. The molecular mechanisms associated with the anti-tumour therapeutic use of the nanoparticles were also elucidated.

Result: The prepared DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs had a size of 78.6 nm and displayed excellent colloidal stability, photothermal conversion ability and redox-sensitive drug release. These DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs were taken up selectively by cancer cells in vitro and accumulated at tumour sites in vivo. Moreover, the DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs enhanced the performance of multimodal computed tomography (CT), photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) imaging and enabled chemo-thermal combination therapy. The therapeutic mechanism involved the induction of tumour cell apoptosis via the activation of tubulin, caspase-3 and the heat shock protein 70 pathway. M2 macrophage suppression and anti-metastatic functions were also observed.

Conclusion: The prepared DM1-mPEG/HER-PGNSs enabled nanodart-like tumour targeting, visibility by CT, PA and PT imaging in vivo and powerful tumour inhibition mediated by chemo-thermal combination therapy in vivo. In summary, these unique gold nanocarriers appear to have good potential as theranostic nanoagents that can serve both as a probe for enhanced multimodal imaging and as a novel targeted anti-tumour drug delivery system to achieve precision nanomedicine for cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00824-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976706PMC
March 2021