Publications by authors named "Dinesh Sinha"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by cytogenetic risk.

Am J Hematol 2021 09 5;96(9):1120-1130. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457116PMC
September 2021

Effect of prior treatments on selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 04 13;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Therapeutic regimens for previously treated multiple myeloma (MM) may not provide prolonged disease control and are often complicated by significant adverse events, including peripheral neuropathy. In patients with previously treated MM in the Phase 3 BOSTON study, once weekly selinexor, once weekly bortezomib, and 40 mg dexamethasone (XVd) demonstrated a significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS), higher response rates, deeper responses, a trend to improved survival, and reduced incidence and severity of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared with standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg dexamethasone (Vd). The pre-specified analyses described here evaluated the influence of the number of prior lines of therapy, prior treatment with lenalidomide, prior proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy, prior immunomodulatory drug therapy, and prior autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) on the efficacy and safety of XVd compared with Vd. In this 1:1 randomized study, enrolled patients were assigned to receive once weekly oral selinexor (100 mg) with once weekly subcutaneous bortezomib (1.3 mg/m) and 40 mg per week dexamethasone (XVd) versus standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg per week dexamethasone (Vd). XVd significantly improved PFS, overall response rate, time-to-next-treatment, and showed reduced all grade and grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy compared with Vd regardless of prior treatments, but the benefits of XVd over Vd were more pronounced in patients treated earlier in their disease course who had either received only one prior therapy, had never been treated with a PI, or had prior ASCT. Treatment with XVd improved outcomes as compared to Vd regardless of prior therapies as well as manageable and generally reversible adverse events. XVd was associated with clinical benefit and reduced peripheral neuropathy compared to standard Vd in previously treated MM. These results suggest that the once weekly XVd regimen may be optimally administered to patients earlier in their course of disease, as their first bortezomib-containing regimen, and in those relapsing after ASCT.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03110562). Registered 12 April 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03110562 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01071-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045319PMC
April 2021

Effect of age and frailty on the efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2021 06 3;96(6):708-718. Epub 2021 May 3.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

Elderly and frail patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are more vulnerable to the toxicity of combination therapies, often resulting in treatment modifications and suboptimal outcomes. The phase 3 BOSTON study showed that once-weekly selinexor and bortezomib with low-dose dexamethasone (XVd) improved PFS and ORR compared with standard twice-weekly bortezomib and moderate-dose dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized BOSTON trial. Post hoc analyses were performed to compare XVd versus Vd safety and efficacy according to age and frailty status (<65 and ≥65 years, nonfrail and frail). Patients ≥65 years with XVd had higher ORR (OR 1.77, p = .024), ≥VGPR (OR, 1.68, p = .027), PFS (HR 0.55, p = .002), and improved OS (HR 0.63, p = .030), compared with Vd. In frail patients, XVd was associated with a trend towards better PFS (HR 0.69, p = .08) and OS (HR 0.62, p = .062). Significant improvements were also observed in patients <65 (ORR and TTNT) and nonfrail patients (PFS, ORR, ≥VGPR, and TTNT). Patients treated with XVd had a lower incidence of grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy in ≥65 year-old (22% vs. 37%; p = .0060) and frail patients (15% vs. 44%; p = .0002). Grade ≥3 TEAEs were not observed more often in older compared to younger patients, nor in frail compared to nonfrail patients. XVd is safe and effective in patients <65 and ≥65 and in nonfrail and frail patients with previously treated MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26172DOI Listing
June 2021

Once-per-week selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus twice-per-week bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (BOSTON): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2020 11;396(10262):1563-1573

University Hospital "Sv Georgi" EAD, Clinic of Clinical Hematology, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Background: Selinexor combined with dexamethasone has shown activity in patients with heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma. In a phase 1b/2 study, the combination of oral selinexor with bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) and dexamethasone induced high response rates with low rates of peripheral neuropathy, the main dose-limiting toxicity of bortezomib. We aimed to evaluate the clinical benefit of weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus standard bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

Methods: This phase 3, randomised, open-label trial was done at 123 sites in 21 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, who had multiple myeloma, and who had previously been treated with one to three lines of therapy, including proteasome inhibitors, were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive selinexor (100 mg once per week), bortezomib (1·3 mg/m once per week), and dexamethasone (20 mg twice per week), or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m twice per week for the first 24 weeks and once per week thereafter) and dexamethasone (20 mg four times per week for the first 24 weeks and twice per week thereafter). Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified by previous proteasome inhibitor therapy, lines of treatment, and multiple myeloma stage. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one dose of study treatment were included in the safety population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110562. The trial is ongoing, with 55 patients remaining on randomised therapy as of Feb 20, 2020.

Findings: Of 457 patients screened for eligibility, 402 were randomly allocated-195 (49%) to the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 207 (51%) to the bortezomib and dexamethasone group-and the first dose of study medication was given between June 6, 2017, and Feb 5, 2019. Median follow-up durations were 13·2 months [IQR 6·2-19·8] for the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 16·5 months [9·4-19·8] for the bortezomib and dexamethasone group. Median progression-free survival was 13·93 months (95% CI 11·73-not evaluable) with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 9·46 months (8·11-10·78) with bortezomib and dexamethasone (hazard ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·53-0·93], p=0·0075). The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (77 [39%] of 195 patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group vs 35 [17%] of 204 in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group), fatigue (26 [13%] vs two [1%]), anaemia (31 [16%] vs 20 [10%]), and pneumonia (22 [11%] vs 22 [11%]). Peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or above was less frequent with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (41 [21%] patients) than with bortezomib and dexamethasone (70 [34%] patients; odds ratio 0·50 [95% CI 0·32-0·79], p=0·0013). 47 (24%) patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 62 (30%) in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group died.

Interpretation: A once-per-week regimen of selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is a novel, effective, and convenient treatment option for patients with multiple myeloma who have received one to three previous lines of therapy.

Funding: Karyopharm Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32292-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Discovery of liver-targeted inhibitors of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1).

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2013 Feb 5;23(3):791-6. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Merck Research Laboratories, 320 Bent Street, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA.

Inhibitors based on a benzo-fused spirocyclic oxazepine scaffold were discovered for stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1) and subsequently optimized to potent compounds with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and in vivo efficacy in reducing the desaturation index in a mouse model. Initial optimization revealed potency preferences for the oxazepine core and benzylic positions, while substituents on the piperidine portions were more tolerant and allowed for tuning of potency and PK properties. After preparation and testing of a range of functional groups on the piperidine nitrogen, three classes of analogs were identified with single digit nanomolar potency: glycine amides, heterocycle-linked amides, and thiazoles. Responding to concerns about target localization and potential mechanism-based side effects, an initial effort was also made to improve liver concentration in an available rat PK model. An advanced compound 17m with a 5-carboxy-2-thiazole substructure appended to the spirocyclic piperidine scaffold was developed which satisfied the in vitro and in vivo requirements for more detailed studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.11.075DOI Listing
February 2013

SCH 412499: biodistribution and safety of an adenovirus containing P21(WAF-1/CIP-1) following subconjunctival injection in Cynomolgus monkeys.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2007 ;26(2):83-105

Drug Safety, Schering-Plough Research Institute. Lafayette, New Jersey 07848-0032, USA.

Monkey studies were conducted for the preclinical safety assessment of SCH 412499, an adenovirus encoding p21, administered by subconjunctival injection prior to trabeculectomy for postoperative maintenance of the surgical opening. Biodistribution of SCH 412499 was minimal and there was no systemic toxicity. Findings included swollen, partially closed or shut eye(s) and transient congestion in the conjunctiva. A mononuclear cell infiltrate was present in the conjunctiva, choroid and other ocular tissues, but completely or partially resolved over time. Electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials revealed no adverse findings. Thus, the findings are not expected to preclude the clinical investigation of SCH 412499.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15569520701212167DOI Listing
August 2007

Incidental mononuclear cell infiltrate in the uvea of cynomolgus monkeys.

Toxicol Pathol 2006 ;34(2):148-51

Department of Drug Safety and Metabolism, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Lafayette, New Jersey 07848, USA.

Mononuclear cell infiltrate (MCI) in the uvea was observed in naïve, untreated (control group) cynomolgus monkeys in approximately 25% of drug safety evaluation studies. The total incidence of MCI in the choroid and the ciliary body was 29% of 342 males and 25% of 306 female monkeys. In the studies in which MCI was present in the ciliary body or choroid, the incidence was as high as 75%. There were no other ocular histopathologic findings in these monkeys. All monkeys were clinically healthy and the eyes were not remarkable when examined ophthalmoscopically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926230500531779DOI Listing
August 2006

Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy using human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 to prevent wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery.

Arch Ophthalmol 2002 Jul;120(7):941-9

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1300 University Ave, Room 6640 MSC, Madison, WI 53706-1532, USA.

Objective: To determine if adenovirus-mediated p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) (p21) gene therapy can prevent fibroproliferation and wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery.

Methods: In vitro studies were performed using rabbit Tenon fibroblasts harvested from fresh tissue. In vivo studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits. A full-thickness sclerotomy was performed under a limbal-based conjunctival flap. Reagents tested included a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus containing the human p21 gene (rAd.p21); the nonspecific marker gene for green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase; mitomycin, 0.5 mg/mL; and balanced saline solution. Each treatment was applied episclerally for 5 minutes before the sclerotomy using a soaked cellulose sponge placed under the surgically created conjunctival flap. Independent experiments were conducted to (1) monitor changes in intraocular pressure during a 30-day period after treatment and examine surgical site histological features, (2) examine changes in bleb morphologic features over 30 days, (3) determine outflow facility 14 days after treatment, and (4) examine the localization and persistence of rAd.p21 expression between 3 and 60 days after treatment.

Results: Treatment of Tenon fibroblasts with rAd.p21 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell growth in vitro. In vivo, rAd.p21 inhibited wound healing and fibroproliferation after filtration surgery, comparably to mitomycin. Mitomycin caused notable thinning of the bleb wall. In addition, 2 of the 5 mitomycin-treated eyes exhibited an abscess with hypopyon and hyalitis 30 days after surgery, which was not observed in any of the rAd.p21-treated eyes. None of the treatments resulted in a significantly sustained decrease in intraocular pressure during the 30-day period, although mitomycin treatment resulted in a significant (P =.02) increase in outflow facility 2 weeks after surgery in separate animals. Mitomycin- and rAd.p21-treated eyes had functioning blebs at the end of the experiment based on slitlamp examination.

Conclusions: Mitomycin and rAd.p21 were effective in preventing fibroproliferation and wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma surgery. Mitomycin treatment increased outflow facility in normal-pressure eyes.

Clinical Relevance: Gene therapy with rAd.p21 may provide an effective antiproliferative for glaucoma filtration surgery, without the complications associated with mitomycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archopht.120.7.941DOI Listing
July 2002
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