Publications by authors named "Dinesh Kumar"

1,194 Publications

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Revelation of candidate genes and molecular mechanism of reproductive seasonality in female rohu (Labeo rohita Ham.) by RNA sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2021 Sep 22;22(1):685. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Background: Carp fish, rohu (Labeo rohita Ham.) is important freshwater aquaculture species of South-East Asia having seasonal reproductive rhythm. There is no holistic study at transcriptome level revealing key candidate genes involved in such circannual rhythm regulated by biological clock genes (BCGs). Seasonality manifestation has two contrasting phases of reproduction, i.e., post-spawning resting and initiation of gonadal activity appropriate for revealing the associated candidate genes. It can be deciphered by RNA sequencing of tissues involved in BPGL (Brain-Pituitary-Gonad-Liver) axis controlling seasonality. How far such BCGs of this fish are evolutionarily conserved across different phyla is unknown. Such study can be of further use to enhance fish productivity as seasonality restricts seed production beyond monsoon season.

Result: A total of ~ 150 Gb of transcriptomic data of four tissues viz., BPGL were generated using Illumina TruSeq. De-novo assembled BPGL tissues revealed 75,554 differentially expressed transcripts, 115,534 SSRs, 65,584 SNPs, 514 pathways, 5379 transcription factors, 187 mature miRNA which regulates candidate genes represented by 1576 differentially expressed transcripts are available in the form of web-genomic resources. Findings were validated by qPCR. This is the first report in carp fish having 32 BCGs, found widely conserved in fish, amphibian, reptile, birds, prototheria, marsupials and placental mammals. This is due to universal mechanism of rhythmicity in response to environment and earth rotation having adaptive and reproductive significance.

Conclusion: This study elucidates evolutionary conserved mechanism of photo-periodism sensing, neuroendocrine secretion, metabolism and yolk synthesis in liver, gonadal maturation, muscular growth with sensory and auditory perception in this fish. Study reveals fish as a good model for research on biological clock besides its relevance in reproductive efficiency enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-08001-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Influence of surfactants on biomolecular conjugation of magnetic nanoparticles.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Sep 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Mumbai, India.

Here, we report the physicochemical interaction among iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) and essential biomolecules, namely, serum albumin (BSA, HSA), collagen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the presence of various cationic, anionic and non-ionic surfactants. Iron oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by the wet chemical process and are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping studies . The conjugation of MNPs protein was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism technique and gel electrophoresis. The spectroscopic investigation illustrates the surfactant-dependent binding between MNPs and protein. Gel electrophoresis in the absence and presence of MNPs-surfactant systems has been used to study the impact on DNA structure. It was found that Tween 80 imparts better stability as well as biocompatibility to the synthesized MNPs. The findings offer extensive information on the influence of various surfactant coatings on MNP surfaces and their influence on vital biomolecules, making it useful for designing MNPs for biological applications.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1977701DOI Listing
September 2021

Parasite effectors target helper NLRs in plants to suppress immunity-related cell death.

PLoS Biol 2021 Sep 17;19(9):e3001395. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Plant Biology and The Genome Center, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

Parasites target the plant immune system for successful colonization. A new study in PLOS Biology reveals that unrelated parasites have evolved effectors that specifically suppress the function of helper nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats (NLRs), explaining the complex plant-parasite coevolutionary dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448318PMC
September 2021

Establishment of Repertoire of Placentome-Associated MicroRNAs and Their Appearance in Blood Plasma Could Identify Early Establishment of Pregnancy in Buffalo ().

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:673765. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Animal Genomics Laboratory, Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India.

Precise early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy animals is of utmost importance for an efficient dairy production system. Not detecting a dairy animal pregnant sufficiently early after the breeding results to extending the unproductive time of their milk production cycle and causes substantial economic loss for a dairy producer. At present, the most conventional and authentic pregnancy confirmation practice in cows and buffaloes is rectal palpation of the reproductive organs at Days 35-40 after insemination, which sometime leads to considering an animal as false pregnant. Other alternative methods available for early pregnancy diagnosis lack either accuracy or reproducibility or require elaborate instrumentation and laboratory setup not feasible to practice at farmers' doorstep. The present study was aimed at establishment of the microRNA (miRNA) repertoire of the placentome in buffaloes, which could capture the event of the cross talk between a growing embryo and a dam, through fetal cotyledons and maternal caruncles, and thus could hint at the early pregnancy establishment event in ruminants. Total RNA was isolated from buffalo placentome tissues during early stages of pregnancy (at Day < 25 and Days 30-35), and global small RNA analysis was performed by using Illumina single-end read chemistry and genome. A total of 2,199 miRNAs comprising 1,620 conserved and 579 non-conserved miRNAs were identified. Stringent functional miRNA selection criteria could predict 20 miRNAs worth evaluating for their abundance in the plasma of pregnant, non-pregnant, cyclic non-bred, and non-cyclic prepubertal animals. Eight of them (viz., miR-195-5p, miR-708-3p, miR-379-5p, miR-XX1, miR-XX2, miR-130a-3p, miR-200a-3p, and miR-27) displayed typical abundance patterns in the plasma samples of the animals on Day 19 as well as Day 25 post-insemination, thus making them ambiguous candidates for early pregnancy detection. Similarly, higher abundance of miR-200a-3p and miR130a-3p in non-pregnant animals was indicative of their utility for detecting the animals as not pregnant. Most interestingly, miR-XX1 and miR-XX2 were very characteristically abundant only in pregnant animals. target prediction analysis confirmed that these two miRNAs are important regulators of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell adhesion molecule-2 (CADM-2), both of which play a significant role in the implantation process during feto-maternal cross talk. We interpret that circulatory miR-XX1 and miR-XX2 in blood plasma could be the potential biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in buffaloes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.673765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427669PMC
August 2021

Learning Gains of Liver Resection and Transplantation Workshop on Genelyn® Embalmed Human Cadavers: Surgical Gastroenterologists' Perceptions.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2021 Sep-Oct;11(5):550-556. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

Background: In the light of increased requirement for liver transplantation procedures, it is pertinent to develop bankable human expertise in the areas of liver resection and anastomoses. The alternative simulator sources available for learning surgical skills might not always provide the realistic learning gains as provided by human cadavers, especially in terms of haptic and tactile fidelity. For the first time, we have used Genelyn® embalmed cadavers (GEC) for training the surgical gastroenterologists in liver resection and transplantation procedures and we wish to document our experience of using them to facilitate the learning of liver resection procedures.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional satisfaction survey fitting to the first level of the Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation was performed among participating surgical gastroenterologists of liver resection and transplantation training workshop using GEC. Visual, haptic and tactile characteristics of the liver and related structures were assessed along with overall satisfaction of the workshop.

Results: Eleven surgical gastroenterologists had participated in the workshop conducted using three GEC. Nine participants agreed that the transection of liver parenchyma was similar to reality. However, two opined that the liver parenchyma was a bit harder to resect. Identification of portal pedicle, dissection of the peri-portal area and securing vascular anastomoses also had an acceptable level of similarity to real life. The two parameters that received a unanimous degree of the agreement are mobilization of liver and cannulation of key vessels for perfusion.

Conclusion: Participants of the cadaveric surgical skills training workshop opined that the soft-embalmed cadaver using Genelyn® is an excellent realistic model for practicing liver resection and transplantation surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414311PMC
January 2021

Metabolomics insights and bioprospection of Polygonatum verticillatum: An important dietary medicinal herb of alpine Himalaya.

Food Res Int 2021 Oct 21;148:110619. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, HP, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Polygonatum verticillatum is one of the least explored plant of genus Polygonatum, having immense utility in food and medicine. The current study was designed to investigate and compare the metabolite diversity, including the nutritional potential of rhizomatous and aerial parts (leaves and fruits) of Polygonatum verticillatum. Comprehensive metabolites through UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS were tentatively identified 38, 31, and 16 compounds while 342, 414, and 314 were identified through METLIN database in leaves, fruits, and rhizomes, respectively. Total phenolic, flavonoid, protein, carbohydrate, and fat content were compared and found in the range of 24.50-27.64 and 101.40-109.50, 99-100, 58-200, 5-56 µg/mg, respectively, while antioxidant activity was highest in fruits (IC 456.30 µg/ml). Polyphenols, essential amino acids, and macro & micronutrients were estimated in all the parts of P. verticillatum. Leaves contained the highest number of targeted polyphenols and amino acids, followed by fruits and rhizomes. Statistical analysis (Venn-diagram, Heatmap, stacked charts, PCA, PCoA) has visualized that all parts have similar nutritional potential and chemical diversity. The current finding unleashed the possibilities of utilizing aerial parts instead of rhizomes that would save this plant from overexploitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110619DOI Listing
October 2021

Ca kickstarts antiviral RNAi.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 09;29(9):1339-1341

Department of Plant Biology and The Genome Center, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

RNAi is a major plant antiviral strategy. However, the mechanisms triggering RNAi are unknown. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wang et al. (2021) demonstrate that wound-induced calcium signaling induces RNAi activation. As a counter-defense, a viral suppressor of RNAi (VSR) interferes with players in calcium signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Muscle activation strategies of people with early-stage Parkinson's during walking.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 09 8;18(1):133. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Biosignals Lab, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Introduction: Some people with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently have an unsteady gait with shuffling, reduced strength, and increased rigidity. This study has investigated the difference in the neuromuscular strategies of people with early-stage PD, healthy older adults (HOA) and healthy young adult (HYA) during short-distance walking.

Method: Surface electromyogram (sEMG) was recorded from tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles along with the acceleration data from the lower leg from 72 subjects-24 people with early-stage PD, 24 HOA and 24 HYA during short-distance walking on a level surface using wearable sensors.

Results: There was a significant increase in the co-activation, a reduction in the TA modulation and an increase in the TA-MG lateral asymmetry among the people with PD during a level, straight-line walking. For people with PD, the gait impairment scale was low with an average postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) score = 5.29 out of a maximum score of 20. Investigating the single and double support phases of the gait revealed that while the muscle activity and co-activation index (CI) of controls modulated over the gait cycle, this was highly diminished for people with PD. The biggest difference between CI of controls and people with PD was during the double support phase of gait.

Discussion: The study has shown that people with early-stage PD have high asymmetry, reduced modulation, and higher co-activation. They have reduced muscle activity, ability to inhibit antagonist, and modulate their muscle activities. This has the potential for diagnosis and regular assessment of people with PD to detect gait impairments using wearable sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12984-021-00932-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425033PMC
September 2021

Gibberellic acids promote growth and exopolysaccharide production in Tetraselmis suecica under reciprocal nitrogen concentration: an assessment on antioxidant properties and nutrient removal efficacy of immobilized iron-magnetic nanoparticles.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Askoscen Probionics, Uyyankondan Thirumalai, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620 017, India.

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of gibberellic acids to enhance the growth, biomass, pigment, and exopolysaccharides production in Tetraselmis suecica under reciprocal nitrogen concentrations. For this study, the seven types of experimental media (N-P, NL-P/2GA3, N0-P/2GA3, NL-P/4GA3, N0-P/4GA3, NL-P/6GA3, and N0-P/6GA3) were prepared with the addition of gibberellic acids under various nitrogen concentrations. The experiment lasted for 15 days and the cell density, biomass, chlorophyll 'a', and exopolysaccharides (EPS) concentration of T. suecica were estimated for every 3 days. Then the EPS was subjected to the analyses of chemical (carbohydrate, protein, sulfate, and uronic acid), and antioxidant activity. In addition, nutrient removal efficiency was evaluated using different concentration of EPS. The highest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (86.7 ± 0.95%) and hydroxyl radical activity (85.7 ± 2.48%) were observed at the EPS concentrations 2.5 and 1.2 mg/mL, respectively. The immobilized magnetic FeO-EPS (ferric oxide-exopolysaccharides) nanoparticles (5.0 and 10.0 g/L) have efficiently removed the excessive phosphate (89.5 ± 1.65%) and nitrate (73.5 ± 1.72%) from the Litopenaeus vannamei cultured wastewater. Thus, the application of gibberellic acids combined with limited nitrogen concentration could produce higher EPS that could exhibit excellent antioxidant activity, and nutrient removal efficacy in the form of FeO-EPS magnetic nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02545-7DOI Listing
August 2021

An innovative method of nonclinical efficacy and toxicological evaluation of recombinant Ty21a expressing HPV16 and 18 L1 proteins.

MethodsX 2021 6;8:101219. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Advanced Centre for Preclinical Toxicology Studies, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai-Osmania, Hyderabad - 500007.

Advancement in technology led to development of live attenuated Ty21a as enteric vector for expression of foreign proteins. Such vector platform is inevitable for development of vaccine candidate against human papilloma virus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer with high prevalence in developing nations. The high risk HPVs like type 16 and 18 contributes to 70% of cervical cancer, hence Indian Immunologicals Limited (IIL), Hyderabad, India developed a recombinant HPV vaccine by introducing HPV 16 and 18 L1 protein coding genes into attenuated Ty21a vector. Being a genetically engineered enteric vector vaccine, it would be less expensive, with an ease of oral administration, instead of injectable that needs trained personale, is an added advantage for low socioeconomic setup compared to existing HPV vaccines. Establishing the nonclinical efficacy and safety/toxicity as per the national/international regulatory guidelines has become major constrain for such recombinant HPV (rSt.HPV) vaccine. Since, the intended clinical mode of rSt.HPV is through oral route, whereas the live attenuated Ty21a doesn't colonize in gut of laboratory animals to be used for nonclinical experiments. Hence, an alternate and unconventional method of 'intranasal drug testing', was followed for nonclinical efficacy and toxicity evaluations. An array of parameters specified by regulatory agencies were investigated in mice, rat and rabbits administered with rSt.HPV through, intra-peritoneal, intranasal and oral routes, the intended clinical route.•Current unconventional and innovative nonclinical testing procedures helps in exploring the alternate methods by pharmacologist/toxicologist.•Ultimately, such new drugs developed through technology must serve the humankind justifying the guidelines of regulatory agencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2021.101219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374194PMC
January 2021

Comparison of DECAF (dysponea, eosinopenia, consolidation, acidaemia, and atrial fibrillation) and APACHE II (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation ii) scoring system to predict mortality among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Aug;71(8):1935-1939

Department of Pulmonology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems in predicting mortality among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to June 2018 in the Department of Chest Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Dyspnoea-eosinopenia-consolidation-acidaemia-atrial fibrillation system was compared with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scoring system after mortality scores were calculated for each patient. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.

Results: Of the 210 patients, 147(70%) were males and 63(30%) were females. Overall, 59(28.1%) patients died during hospital stay. The mean dyspnoea-eosinopenia-consolidation-acidaemia-atrial fibrillation score was 2.31±0.93 while the mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 15.8±7.2. A decision threshold of dyspnoea-eosinopenia-consolidation-acidaemia-atrial fibrillation score >2 had a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 82.3% while acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score had sensitivity of 53.9% and specificity of 76.5%.

Conclusions: Both scoring systems were found to be good predictors of mortality, but dyspnoea-eosinopenia-consolidationacidaemia-atrial fibrillation score was a simpler and effective clinical tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.618DOI Listing
August 2021

Acute low back pain: diagnosis and management.

Singapore Med J 2021 Jun;62(6):271-275

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changi General Hospital, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2021086DOI Listing
June 2021

Combined amino acid PET-MRI for identifying recurrence in post-treatment gliomas: together we grow.

Eur J Hybrid Imaging 2021 Aug 18;5(1):15. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 560029, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of amino acid PET, MR perfusion and diffusion as stand-alone modalities and in combination in identifying recurrence in post-treatment gliomas and to qualitatively assess spatial concordance between the three modalities using simultaneous PET-MR acquisition.

Methods: A retrospective review of 48 cases of post-treatment gliomas who underwent simultaneous PET-MRI using C11 methionine as radiotracer was performed. MR perfusion and diffusion sequences were acquired during the PET study. The following parameters were obtained: TBR, TBR, SUV, and SUV from the PET images; rCBV from perfusion; and ADC and ADC from the diffusion images. The final diagnosis was based on clinical/imaging follow-up and histopathology when available. ROC curve analysis in combination with logistic regression analysis was used to compare the diagnostic performance. Spatial concordance between modalities was graded as 0, 1, and 2 representing discordance, < 50% and > 50% concordance respectively.

Results: There were 35 cases of recurrence and 13 cases of post-treatment changes without recurrence. The highest area under curve (AUC) was obtained for TBR followed by rCBV and ADC. The AUC increased significantly with a combination of rCBV and TBR. Amino acid PET showed the highest diagnostic accuracy and maximum agreement with the final diagnosis. There was discordance between ADC and PET in 22.9%, between rCBV and PET in 16.7% and between PET and contrast enhancement in 14.6% cases.

Conclusion: Amino acid PET had the highest diagnostic accuracy in identifying recurrence in post-treatment gliomas. Combination of PET with MRI further increased the AUC thus improving the diagnostic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41824-021-00109-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371055PMC
August 2021

Assessing Adequacy of Iodine Intake among Children from 6 Months to 15 Years of Age from Hilly Terrains of North India.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan-Feb;25(1):43-47. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Health Research, Model Rural Health Research Unit, Una, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Routine outcome-based monitoring is required to assess the status of consumption of iodized salt as USI strategy.

Objective: To assess the extent of recent iodine intake among children from 6 to 15 years of age in the hilly terrain of northern states of India.

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional observational study among 227 children attending school was done for assessment of socio-demographic, dietary, salt consumption and urinary iodine concentration (UIC).

Results: Mean age of children was about 6 years and 87.7% were consuming salt of >30 and none with <15 ppm iodine content. Median UIC was 138.0 μg/L. Among those assessed, 37.9% had adequate level of UIC, whereas about 20% and 40% participants had less (<99.0 μg/L) and more than adequate to excessive (≥200 μg/L) levels of UIC. Insignificant difference ( = 0.07) was observed for mean log UIC between cabbage eaters (2.3) and non-eaters (1.9) consuming salt >5 grams/day.

Conclusion: Recent iodine intake among children observed to be inadequate and effect of cruciferous food items on UIC needs to be studied despite high coverage of iodized salt among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijem.IJEM_38_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323626PMC
July 2021

Time-series eco-metabolomics reveals extensive reshuffling in metabolome during transition from cold acclimation to de-acclimation in an alpine shrub.

Physiol Plant 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur, India.

Recording environmentally induced variations in the metabolome in plants can be a promising approach for understanding the complex patterns of metabolic regulation and their eco-physiological consequences. Here, we studied metabolome-wide changes and eco-physiological adjustments occurring across the year at high elevation environments in the leaf tissue of Rhododendron anthopogon, an alpine evergreen shrub of the Himalaya. New leaves of R. anthopogon appear after the snow-melt and remain intact even when the plants get covered under snow (November-June). During this whole period, they may undergo several physiological and biochemical adjustments in response to fluctuating temperatures and light conditions. To understand these changes, we analyzed eco-physiological traits, that is, freezing resistance, dry matter content and % of nitrogen and the overall metabolome across 10 different time-points, from August until the snowfall in November 2017, and then from June to August 2018. As anticipated, the freezing resistance increased toward the onset of winters. The leaf tissues exhibited a complete reshuffling of the metabolome during the growth cycle and time-points segregated into four clusters directly correlating with distinct phases of acclimation: non-acclimation (August 22, 2017; August 14, 2018), early cold acclimation (September 12, September 29, October 11, 2017), late cold acclimation (October 23, November 4, 2017), and de-acclimation (June 15, June 28, July 14, 2018). Cold acclimation involved metabolic progression (101 metabolites) with an increase of up to 19.4-fold (gentiobiose), whereas de-acclimation showed regression (120 metabolites) with a decrease of up to 30-fold (sucrose). The changes in the metabolome during de-acclimation were maximum and were not just a reversal of cold acclimation. Our results provided insights into the direction and magnitude of physiological changes in Rhododendron anthopogon that occurred across the year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13524DOI Listing
August 2021

A Comprehensive Search of the Primary and Secondary Metabolites and Radical Scavenging Potential of Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Aug 10:e2100300. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176061, India.

Trillium govanianum rhizomes are traditionally consumed as a raw powder and decoction for the treatment of health complications. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate whether aqueous and alcoholic extracts of T. govanianum rhizomes under hot and cold extraction conditions have similar or dissimilar chemical, nutrient, and antioxidant profiles. The total phenolics, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and energy values were estimated in all the conditionally prepared samples. The total phenolics (21.23±1.4 mg GAE/g extract), flavonoids (70.57±3.24 mg RE/g extract) were found higher in hot ethanolic extract (TGHEt), while cold water extract (TGGC) showed higher nutrients including amino acids (10.545±0.219 mg/g) and nucleosides (1.803±0.018 mg/g). The nutrient energy value (2.60 and 2.49 Kcal/g extract) was higher in cold and hot ethanolic extracts. Further, TGHEt scavenged the DPPH (IC ; 870±22 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC ; 80±1.49 μg/mL) effectively and proved its highest antioxidant activity compared to other samples. In LC/MS/MS-based metabolite profiling, twenty-six metabolites (fatty acids, steroidal saponins, triterpene saponins, ecdysteroid hormones) were confirmed with mass fragmentation and literature, while one hundred nine metabolites were identified using the METLIN database. The principal component analysis showed clustering of hot condition extracts while cold extracts were differentially located in quadrants. The heatmaps exhibited the associations and differences between metabolite composition, solvents, and extraction conditions. The identified metabolites speculatively predicted the biosynthesis pathway of T. govanianum. Findings also illustrated that T. govanianum is a source of bioactive nutritional components and saponins. The current metabolite profiling of T. govanianum will help in its agricultural and biotechnological interventions for higher quality produce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100300DOI Listing
August 2021

Resveratrol and Pterostilbene Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Replication in Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Human Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

Viruses 2021 07 10;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has an enormous impact on human health and economy. In search for therapeutic options, researchers have proposed resveratrol, a food supplement with known antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties as an advantageous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we provide evidence that both resveratrol and its metabolically more stable structural analog, pterostilbene, exhibit potent antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. First, we show that resveratrol and pterostilbene antiviral activity in African green monkey kidney cells. Both compounds actively inhibit virus replication within infected cells as reduced virus progeny production was observed when the compound was added at post-inoculation conditions. Without replenishment of the compound, antiviral activity was observed up to roughly five rounds of replication, demonstrating the long-lasting effect of these compounds. Second, as the upper respiratory tract represents the initial site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, we also assessed antiviral activity in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultured human primary bronchial epithelial cells, isolated from healthy volunteers. Resveratrol and pterostilbene showed a strong antiviral effect in these cells up to 48 h post-infection. Collectively, our data indicate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are promising antiviral compounds to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because these results represent laboratory findings in cells, we advocate evaluation of these compounds in clinical trials before statements are made whether these drugs are advantageous for COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13071335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309965PMC
July 2021

Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in commercially important bottom dwelling finfishes and shellfish of the Vembanad Lake, India.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Aug 6;172:112803. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

CSIR- National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Kochi 682018, Kerala, India.

This paper characterize microplastics (MPs) in the heavily urbanized, brackish water Vembanad Lake (India), focussing on some commercially important bottom-feeding fishes and shellfish (Arius maculatus, Etroplus suratensis, E. maculatus and Villorita sp.). The average abundance of MPs was higher in the water column (872 ± 573 nos./m) than in finfishes (15 ± 13 particles per fish) and shellfish (23 ± 20 nos./ind.). Fibre was the most abundant MP type in the water and the organisms examined. The size of MPs obtained from finfishes ranged between 0.04 and 4.73 mm (4 ± 3 mm), with a majority of particles being <4 mm. No correlation was found between biological features (e.g. gut length, mouth size) of fishes and the size of MPs in their gut. In Villorita sp., the abundance of MPs was positively correlated with the size of the individuals. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polyester in the samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112803DOI Listing
August 2021

Serum Metabolic Disturbances Associated with Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure in Patients with Underlying Alcoholic Liver Diseases: An Elaborative NMR-based Metabolomics Study.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;13(2):276-282. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR), Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which develops in patients with underlying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), is characterized by acute deterioration of liver function and organ failures are secondary to that. The clear understanding of metabolic pathways perturbed in ALD-ACLF patients can greatly decrease the mortality and morbidity of patients through predicting outcome, guiding treatment, and monitoring response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic disturbances associated with ACLF using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based serum metabolomics approach and further to assess if the serum metabolic alterations are affected by the severity of hepatic impairment.

Materials And Methods: The serum-metabolic profiles of 40 ALD-ACLF patients were compared to those of 49 age and sex-matched normal-control (NC) subjects making composite use of both multivariate and univariate statistical tests.

Results: Compared to NC, the sera of ACLF patients were characterized by significantly decreased serum levels of several amino acids (except methionine and tyrosine), lipid, and membrane metabolites suggesting a kind of nutritional deficiency and disturbed metabolic homeostasis in ACLF. Twelve serum metabolic entities (including BCAA, histidine, alanine, threonine, and glutamine) were found with AUROC (i.e., area under ROC curve) value >0.9 suggesting their potential in clinical diagnosis and surveillance.

Conclusion: Overall, the study revealed important metabolic changes underlying the pathophysiology of ACLF and those related to disease progression would add value to standard clinical scores of severity to predict outcome and may serve as surrogate endpoints for evaluating treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_333_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291109PMC
December 2020

An epidemiological study on quality of life among elderly in an urban area of Thirumazhisai, Tamilnadu.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jun 2;10(6):2293-2298. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Stanley, Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: One of the most important indicators of health and well being of the elderly is the quality of life they live in. Owing to the rise in elderly population due to the demographic transition, there is growing need to address the health concerns of this population.

Aims: The study was undertaken to find out the Quality of Life among the elderly and the associated factors.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross sectional study done in urban area of Thiruvallur district Tamil Nadu. To arrive at the required sample of 199, elderly people above 60 years were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection regarding sociodemographic details and related factors. Katz scale was used to assess activities of daily living and Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using WHO quality of life BREF (WHOQOL BREF) questionnaire.

Results: Moderate score in QOL was obtained in all the 4 domains with highest in Psychological and environmental domains. Nearly 99% of had full activity in Katz scale. All the three QOL domains were found to have statistical significant association with age and education. Gender and marital status were found to be associated with psychological domain, and employment/pensioner status with physical domain.

Conclusion: Measures like Health education have to be targeted for the elderly in ways to improve their physical and psychological wellbeing which can imporove the quality of life they live in. Primary care and family physicians have to be made aware and empowered to identify the various domains of QOL in elderly and to identify in which domain the person needs to take care the most.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1636_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284205PMC
June 2021

Is Telemedicine a Feasible Tool? - Experiences and Challenges Faced by the Team during COVID-19 Home Care Program.

Indian J Community Med 2021 Apr-Jun;46(2):348-349. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_705_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281840PMC
May 2021

Quantification of Flavonoids, Phenols and Antioxidant Potential from Dropped Blanco Fruits Influenced by Drying Techniques.

Molecules 2021 Jul 8;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur 440 033, Maharashtra, India.

Physiologically dropped immature Blanco fruits are regarded as waste and discarded in the citrus orchard but are a good source of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, antioxidants and total phenols. A study was undertaken to identify and quantify these bioactive compounds and to investigate the influence of different drying techniques, namely freeze drying and hot air oven drying, on flavonoids namely flavanone glycosides, antioxidant potential and total phenol content in immature dropped fruits of Blanco. Flavonoids were quantified in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity were investigated with three assays azino- [3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and total phenol content was determined. Freeze dried samples of 12 and 14 mm size retained maximum hesperidin flavonoid content (27.03% and 27.20%) as compared to the hot air dried samples (17.99%) and retained higher phenolic content ranged from 50.54-54.19 mg GAEL. The antioxidant activity in freeze dried fruits was from 12.21-13.55 mM L Trolox and 15.27-16.72 mM L Trolox with ABTS, DPPH assay and FRAP values ranging from 7.31-9.07 mM L Trolox. Significant positive correlation was found between the flavonoid hesperidin with antioxidant assays and total phenolic content (TPC). The results showed that waste citrus fruits can act as potential source of bioflavonoids, especially hesperidin, and antioxidants for pharmaceutical as well as nutraceutical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306461PMC
July 2021

Identification of potential plant bioactive as SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and human ACE2 fusion inhibitors.

Comput Biol Med 2021 09 8;136:104631. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Structural Bioinformatics Lab, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, HP, 176061, India; Biotechnology Division, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur, HP, 176061, India; Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

The Spike receptor binding domain (S-RBD) from SARS-CoV-2, a crucial protein for the entrance of the virus into target cells is known to cause infection by binding to a cell surface protein. Hence, reckoning therapeutics for the S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 may address a significant way to target viral entry into the host cells. Herein, through in-silico approaches (Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and end-state thermodynamics), we aimed to screen natural molecules from different plants for their ability to inhibit S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2. We prioritized the best interacting molecules (Diacetylcurcumin and Dicaffeoylquinic acid) by analysis of protein-ligand interactions and subjected them for long-term MD simulations. We found that Dicaffeoylquinic acid interacted prominently with essential residues (Lys417, Gln493, Tyr489, Phe456, Tyr473, and Glu484) of S-RBD. These residues are involved in interactions between S-RBD and ACE2 and could inhibit the viral entry into the host cells. The in-silico analyses indicated that Dicaffeoylquinic acid and Diacetylcurcumin might have the potential to act as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD. The present study warrants further in-vitro and in-vivo studies of Dicaffeoylquinic acid and Diacetylcurcumin for validation and acceptance of their inhibitory potential against S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264305PMC
September 2021

Genome Wide Prediction, Mapping and Development of Genomic Resources of Mastitis Associated Genes in Water Buffalo.

Front Vet Sci 2021 18;8:593871. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Water buffalo () are an important animal resource that contributes milk, meat, leather, dairy products, and power for plowing and transport. However, mastitis, a bacterial disease affecting milk production and reproduction efficiency, is most prevalent in populations having intensive selection for higher milk yield, especially where the inbreeding level is also high. Climate change and poor hygiene management practices further complicate the issue. The management of this disease faces major challenges, like antibiotic resistance, maximum residue level, horizontal gene transfer, and limited success in resistance breeding. Bovine mastitis genome wide association studies have had limited success due to breed differences, sample sizes, and minor allele frequency, lowering the power to detect the diseases associated with SNPs. In this work, we focused on the application of targeted gene panels (TGPs) in screening for candidate gene association analysis, and how this approach overcomes the limitation of genome wide association studies. This work will facilitate the targeted sequencing of buffalo genomic regions with high depth coverage required to mine the extremely rare variants potentially associated with buffalo mastitis. Although the whole genome assembly of water buffalo is available, neither mastitis genes are predicted nor TGP in the form of web-genomic resources are available for future variant mining and association studies. Out of the 129 mastitis associated genes of cattle, 101 were completely mapped on the buffalo genome to make TGP. This further helped in identifying rare variants in water buffalo. Eighty-five genes were validated in the buffalo gene expression atlas, with the RNA-Seq data of 50 tissues. The functions of 97 genes were predicted, revealing 225 pathways. The mastitis proteins were used for protein-protein interaction network analysis to obtain additional cross-talking proteins. A total of 1,306 SNPs and 152 indels were identified from 101 genes. Water Buffalo-MSTdb was developed with to retrieve mastitis associated genes having genomic coordinates with chromosomal details for TGP sequencing for mining of minor alleles for further association studies. Lastly, a web-genomic resource was made available to mine variants of targeted gene panels in buffalo for mastitis resistance breeding in an endeavor to ensure improved productivity and the reproductive efficiency of water buffalo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.593871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253262PMC
June 2021

Foraging behaviour of Ayyar against cotton mealybug Tinsley.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 27;28(7):3799-3805. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Biocontrol Laboratory, Division of Entomology, ICAR-IARI, Pusa, New Delhi 110012, India.

Predation is one of the significant biotic mortality factors reducing the insect pest population as functional response and the numerical response of the predator are the key factor regulating the population dynamics of predator prey species. This study is aimed to evaluate the functional response of all the developmental stages of Ayyar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against the different densities of cotton mealybug, (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the numerical response of female predator. Experiments were carried out in controlled environment laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 °C temperature, 60 ± 5% relative humidity and photoperiod of 16 h. Number of eggs consumed, number of eggs laid and the Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI) were recorded daily. Results from the study revealed that all the developmental stages of exhibited a Type II response. Different parameters such as attack rate (), handling time (T) and the maximum rate of predation were estimated using Roger's random attack equation and Holling Disc equation in which Rogers random attack equation was found best fit. Female has shown the highest attack rate () followed by IV instar grub, male, III, II and I instar grub. With low handling time, IV instar grub has shown maximum predation rate of 76.40 per day followed by female (75.86), male (58.79), III (22.84), II (19.65) and I instar grub (15.39). The numerical response increase was curvilinearly related to different prey densities with the highest number of eggs (11.8 ± 3.44) produced at highest prey density (160). The Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI) was highest (64.49 ± 8.03) at prey density of 10. Understanding the factors that lead to variation in functional response of predator in natural population will advance our understanding of the effects of predation on individual and the effectiveness of coccinellid predators as biocontrol agent against cotton mealybug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241695PMC
July 2021

Clinicopathological profile and outcome of adult infection-related glomerulonephritis: A prospective follow-up study.

Natl Med J India 2020 Sep-Oct;33(5):260-264

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology, Madras Medical College, Park Town, Chennai 600009, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: . Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) in adults is witnessing a dramatic shift in its epidemiology and outcome. Adult IRGN studies are all retrospective in nature, and Indian studies are scarce.

Methods: . We did this prospective study (September 2016-April 2018) on all patients with biopsy-proven IRGN and age ≥18 years satisfying three of five diagnostic criteria. Patients with persistent hypocomplementaemia (>3 months) were excluded. We did electron microscopy in those without a minimum of three diagnostic criteria and did an extensive search for any occult infection in every patient.

Results: . Forty-five patients were studied with a mean (SD) follow-up of 45.7 (20) weeks. Their mean age was 41.5 years (18-70 years), with a female preponderance (1:1.25). At presentation, the majority had oedema (100%), oliguria (84.4%), hypertension (80%) and haematuria (77.8%). Of them, 86.7% had renal insufficiency and 35.6% required dialysis. Only 53.3% of them had evidence of antecedent/ current infection, with skin/subcutaneous focus being the most common site. Hypocomplementaemia was present in 82.2% of patients. Salient pathological features were endocapillary proliferation (93.3%), neutrophilic infiltration (88.9%), presence of crescents (17.8%), interstitial infiltration (24.4%), moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis with tubular atrophy (IFTA; 15.5%) and underlying diabetic glomerulosclerosis (8.9%). Only 66.7% of patients made complete renal recovery. By logistic regression analysis, the predictors of poor outcome were a requirement for dialysis at presentation (p=0.04) and presence of IFTA (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: . A proportion of adult IRGN patients progress to chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-258X.317465DOI Listing
July 2021

Applications of Fruit Polyphenols and Their Functionalized Nanoparticles Against Foodborne Bacteria: A Mini Review.

Molecules 2021 Jun 6;26(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

The ingestion of contaminated water and food is known to cause food illness. Moreover, on assessing the patients suffering from foodborne disease has revealed the role of microbes in such diseases. Concerning which different methods have been developed for protecting food from microbes, the treatment of food with chemicals has been reported to exhibit an unwanted organoleptic effect while also affecting the nutritional value of food. Owing to these challenges, the demand for natural food preservatives has substantially increased. Therefore, the interest of researchers and food industries has shifted towards fruit polyphenols as potent inhibitors of foodborne bacteria. Recently, numerous fruit polyphenols have been acclaimed for their ability to avert toxin production and biofilm formation. Furthermore, various studies have recommended using fruit polyphenols solely or in combination with chemical disinfectants and food preservatives. Currently, different nanoparticles have been synthesized using fruit polyphenols to curb the growth of pathogenic microbes. Hence, this review intends to summarize the current knowledge about fruit polyphenols as antibacterial agents against foodborne pathogens. Additionally, the application of different fruit extracts in synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles has also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201231PMC
June 2021

Rerouting the Dissection of the Infratemporal and Submandibular Regions.

Cureus 2021 May 25;13(5):e15227. Epub 2021 May 25.

Anatomy, Saint James School of Medicine, Kingstown, VCT.

Introduction Teaching and learning in anatomy are necessarily dependent on cadaveric dissection. Skillful dissection is the tool which helps in proper visualization of structures in a cadaver. Proper understanding about the course of lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve, nerve to mylohyoid, and relations between structures present in infratemporal and submandibular regions is important for medical students. The aim of this study is to describe a modified technique of dissection and evaluate medical students' and teachers' response to this approach. Methods The comparative observational study was conducted bilaterally on six adult cadavers. We compared the method of dissection given in standard textbooks with the modified method introduced. The validity and reliability of the newer method of dissection for teaching purpose was assessed by first-year undergraduate medical students using a questionnaire-based tool and feedback from postgraduate students and senior residents. Results The modified method was described as less time consuming, easy to perform, and allowed extensive exploration of the structures in the infratemporal and submandibular regions. Conclusions Proper understanding of the course and relations between structures present in infratemporal and submandibular regions is important for medical students.The modified approach to infratemporal and submandibular regions will facilitate better understanding of the human anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223519PMC
May 2021

Nuclear magnetic resonance-based chemical signature and nutritional discrimination of Macrotyloma uniflorum accessions from the alpine Himalayas.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, India.

Background: Macrotyloma uniflorum (horsegram) is cultivated in the alpine Himalayas for its nutritional benefits. The chemical diversity of M. uniflorum has been explored by several research groups, but none has reported the chemical signature to monitor the identity and quality. To overcome quality control problems and provide more accurate chemotype information, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( H-NMR)-based chemical signature and tentative metabotype discrimination was studied.

Results: Metabolites were identified by characteristic chemical shifts and their correlations in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The identifications were confirmed by reference standards, with in-house databases, and with public databases. From the analysis of seed samples from eight locations, NMR detected 46 diversified metabolites, including 18 amino acids, nine carbohydrates, three vitamins, seven flavonoids, and nine miscellaneous molecules (fatty acids/choline/phenolics/organic acids/sterols). These metabolites generated a single snapshot chemical signature for M. uniflorum. Greater content of identified metabolites was found at high elevations of 1829 m (55.78 g kg ) followed by 1000-1150 m (19.30-17.23 g kg ) and 1150-1450 m (7.33-13.41 g kg ). Principal component analysis of samples revealed that chemotypes grouped into three distinct clusters. 'Cluster-3' was positively correlated with metabolites and found the best nutritionally enriched chemotype.

Conclusions: A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based M. uniflorum chemical signature was generated for the first time. The environmental conditions of 1829 m were most suitable for obtaining nutritionally enriched M. uniflorum crops. Overall, this information could help in the conservation, quality control, product development, and agriculture inventions of M. uniflorum. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11401DOI Listing
June 2021

Thermal imaging potential and limitations to predict healing of venous leg ulcers.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 24;11(1):13239. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Biosignals for Affordable Healthcare, RMIT University, 124 Latrobe Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.

Area analysis of thermal images can detect delayed healing in diabetes foot ulcers, but not venous leg ulcers (VLU) assessed in the home environment. This study proposes using textural analysis of thermal images to predict the healing trajectory of venous leg ulcers assessed in home settings. Participants with VLU were followed over twelve weeks. Digital images, thermal images and planimetry of wound tracings of the ulcers of 60 older participants was recorded in their homes by nurses. Participants were labelled as healed or unhealed based on status of the wound at the 12th week follow up. The weekly change in textural features was computed and the first two principal components were obtained. 60 participants (aged 80.53 ± 11.94 years) with 72 wounds (mean area 21.32 ± 51.28cm) were included in the study. The first PCA of the change in textural features in week 2 with respect to week 0 were statistically significant for differentiating between healed and unhealed cases. Textural analysis of thermal images is an effective method to predict in week 2 which venous leg ulcers will not heal by week 12 among older people whose wounds are being managed in their homes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92828-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225806PMC
June 2021
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