Publications by authors named "Dinesh C Pathak"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 circulating in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh of India.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Aug 10:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Recombinant DNA Laboratory, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India.

PCV2 is the primary etiological agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVADs) which affect pigs worldwide. Currently, there is a worldwide genotype prevalence switch from PCV2b to PCV2d, which has led to increased virulence of the circulating virus strains leading to vaccine failures and selection pressure. In the present study, the PCV2 genotypes circulating in north eastern region (NER) of India particularly the states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh was characterized by isolation, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of gene. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PCV2 isolates circulating in pigs of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh were mostly of PCV2d genotype. Hence, it can be concluded that PCV2d genotype is the most dominating genotype in NER and priority should be given to this genotype for development of future vaccine candidate against PCV2 in India.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1955700DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of the oncolytic property of recombinant Newcastle disease virus strain R2B in 4T1 and B16-F10 cells in-vitro.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Oct 25;139:159-165. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India. Electronic address:

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectors have gained a lot of interest for its oncolytic virus therapy and cancer immune therapeutic properties due to its selective replication to high titers in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to find out the oncolytic effects of mesogenic recombinant NDV strain R2B-GFP on murine mammary tumor cell line 4T1 and murine melanoma cell line B16-F10. The anti-tumor effects of R2B-GFP virus were studied via expression of virus transgene GFP in cancer cells, evaluating its cytotoxicity and cell migration efficacies by MTT and wound healing assays respectively. In addition, the underlying apoptotic mechanism of R2B-GFP virus was estimated by TUNEL assay, colorimetric estimation of Caspase-3, 8 and 9 and the estimation of Bax to Bcl-2 ratio. The results showed a significant decrease in viability of both 4T1 and B16-F10 cells infected with R2B-GFP virus at 0.1 and 1 MOI. R2B-GFP virus could significantly induce apoptosis in the 4T1 and B16-F10 cells as compared to the uninfected control. Further, a flow cytometry analysis on apoptotic cells percentage and mitochondria membrane permeability test was also studied in R2B-GFP virus treated 4T1 and B16-F10 cell lines. The R2B-GFP virus caused an increase in loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability in both 4T1 and B16-F10 cells indicating the involvement of mitochondrial regulated cell death. Thus, the recombinant virus R2B-GFP virus proved to be a valid candidate for oncolytic viral therapy in 4T1 and B16-F10 cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.07.028DOI Listing
October 2021

Newcastle disease virus vectored rabies vaccine induces strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Dec 12;251:108890. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243 122, India. Electronic address:

Rabies is a devastating disease affecting almost all mammalian animal species including humans. Vaccines are available to combat the disease. Protection against the disease is rendered by assessing the humoral immune response. Recent reports suggest the role of cell mediated immune response (CMI) in assessing vaccine efficacy. In the present study, two live vectored vaccine candidates containing glycoprotein G of rabies virus were generated using the mesogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain R2B and another with NDV with an altered fusion protein cleavage site as backbones. The efficacy of these vaccine candidates on testing in experimental mouse model indicated generation of robust humoral and CMI responses. The recombinant NDV containing the altered fusion protein cleavage site with glycoprotein G showed the highest CMI response in mice indicating its usage as a potential live vectored vaccine candidate against the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108890DOI Listing
December 2020

Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Expressing Sigma C Protein of Avian Reovirus (ARV) Protects against Both ARV and NDV in Chickens.

Pathogens 2019 Sep 10;8(3). Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India.

Newcastle disease (ND) and avian reovirus (ARV) infections are a serious threat to the poultry industry, which causes heavy economic losses. The mesogenic NDV strain R2B is commonly used as a booster vaccine in many Asian countries to control the disease. In this seminal work, a recombinant NDV strain R2B expressing the sigma C (σC) gene of ARV (rNDV-R2B-σC) was generated by reverse genetics, characterized in vitro and tested as a bivalent vaccine candidate in chickens. The recombinant rNDV-R2B-σC virus was attenuated as compared to the parent rNDV-R2B virus as revealed by standard pathogenicity assays. The generated vaccine candidate, rNDV-R2B-σC, could induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses in birds and gave complete protection against virulent NDV and ARV challenges. Post-challenge virus shedding analysis revealed a drastic reduction in NDV shed, as compared to unvaccinated birds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789743PMC
September 2019

Infectious bursal disease virus in chickens: prevalence, impact, and management strategies.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2019 5;10:85-97. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India.

Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro disease, is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease of young chickens. Although first observed about 60 years ago, to date, the disease is responsible for major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. IBD virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus, exists as two serotypes with only serotype 1 causing the disease in young chickens. The virus infects the bursa of Fabricius of particularly the actively dividing and differentiating lymphocytes of the B-cells lineage of immature chickens, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression enhances the susceptibility of chickens to other infections and interferes with vaccination against other diseases. Immunization is the most important measure to control IBD; however, rampant usage of live vaccines has resulted in the evolution of new strains. Although the immunosuppression caused by IBDV is more directed toward the B lymphocytes, the protective immunity in birds depends on inducement of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The interference with the inactivated vaccine induced maternally derived antibodies in young chicks has become a hurdle in controlling the disease, thus necessitating the development of newer vaccines with improved efficacy. The present review illustrates the overall dynamics of the virus and the disease, and the recent developments in the field of virus diagnosis and vaccine research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S185159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6689097PMC
August 2019

Serological profiling of rabies antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its comparative analysis with rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test in mouse model.

Vet World 2019 Jan 23;12(1):126-130. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Recombinant DNA Laboratory, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Aim: In this study, we have used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an alternative test to replace the cumbersome rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) to ascertain the immune status of immunized mice against rabies virus.

Materials And Methods: Rabies is a devastating disease worldwide caused by rabies virus. Proper usage of pre- or post-exposure rabies vaccine can prevent the disease transmission. In this study, mice were immunized with Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine. RFFIT was used as a test to determine the serum neutralizing titers in infected/vaccinated mice. Seroprofiling of mice sera was done by ELISA.

Results: Twenty-one days post-immunization, both ELISA and RFFIT assays indicated similar antibody levels in mice sera that were immunized with Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine. Both the tests were correlated, and the linearity was verified by the regression line (R²=0.979).

Conclusion: In this study, we profiled the serological status of Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine through ELISA in mice model that correlated well with the OIE gold standard test RFFIT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.126-130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431817PMC
January 2019

Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus strain R2B with an altered fusion protein cleavage site as a vaccine candidate.

Microb Pathog 2018 May 22;118:230-237. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Recombinant DNA Laboratory, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122 (UP), India. Electronic address:

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain R2B is an Indian mesogenic strain used for secondary vaccination in chickens. Mesogenic strains have increased virulence and immunogenicity but may cause disease in vaccinated birds, thus rendering them ineffective for use. In this study, we generated a recombinant NDV by changing the fusion protein cleavage site of mesogenic rNDV-R2B from a polybasic amino acid motif RRQKRF to a dibasic amino acid motif GRQGRL leading to generation of an attenuated virus, rNDV-R2B-FPCS. The modified recombinant virus had similar growth characteristics as rNDV-R2B, but was less virulent in susceptible chickens. Immunization of the recombinant attenuated virus to one week of age SPF chickens generated a protective immune response with a substantial reduction in virus shed after challenge with virulent NDV. The results of the study indicate that the modified rNDV-R2B-FPCS virus can be used for primary immunization in birds without any adverse reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.03.038DOI Listing
May 2018

Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Bivalent Vaccine against Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease of Chickens.

Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Sep 26;5(4). Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); namely rNDV-F and rNDV-F/VP2, respectively, were generated using the NDV F strain. The rNDV-F/VP2 virus was slightly attenuated, as compared to the rNDV-F virus, as evidenced from the mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index analysis. This result indicates that rNDV-F/VP2 behaves as a lentogenic virus and it is stable even after 10 serial passages in embryonated chicken eggs. When chickens were vaccinated with the rNDV F/VP2, it induced both humoral and cell mediated immunity, and was able to confer complete protection against very virulent IBDV challenge and 80% protection against virulent NDV challenge. These results suggest that rNDV-F could be an effective and inherently safe vaccine vector. Here, we demonstrate that a bivalent NDV-IBDV vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics method is safe, efficacious and cost-effective, which will greatly aid the poultry industry in developing countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5040031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748598PMC
September 2017

Rescue of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus strain R2B expressing green fluorescent protein.

Virus Genes 2017 Jun 9;53(3):410-417. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain R2B is a mesogenic vaccine strain used for booster vaccination in chickens against Newcastle disease in India and many south East Asian countries. A full-length cDNA clone of the virus was generated by ligating eight overlapping fragments generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction having unique restriction enzyme sites within them. This full-length cDNA clone was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences. Defined genetic markers were introduced into the NDV genome to differentiate the rescued virus from the parent virus. A gene cassette containing the reporter gene, green fluorescent protein flanked by NDV gene-start and gene-end signals was generated by PCR and introduced into the full-length clone of NDV between the P and M genes. Recombinant NDV encoding the GFP gene was rescued having precise termini when transfected into permissive Vero cells along with support plasmids harbouring the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and polymerase genes. The recombinant virus had similar growth kinetics as that of the parent virus with a moderate reduction in the virulence. The generation of reverse genetics system for NDV strain R2B will help in the development of multivalent vaccines against viral diseases of livestock and poultry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-017-1433-3DOI Listing
June 2017

Protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine construct encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease and a truncated HSP70 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chickens.

Vaccine 2015 Feb 14;33(8):1033-9. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 701, East Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.006DOI Listing
February 2015
-->