Publications by authors named "Dimitri Van der Linden"

70 Publications

Minimum acceptable diet among children aged 6-23 months in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: a community-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 05 19;21(1):239. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Suboptimal child nutrition remains the main factor underlying child undernutrition in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months old.

Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study including 742 mothers with children aged 6-23 months old was conducted in 2 Health Zones of South Kivu, Eastern DRC. WHO indicators of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) regarding complementary feeding practices were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the association between sociodemographic indicators and adequate minimum acceptable diet for both univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: Overall, 33% of infants had minimum acceptable diet. After controlling for a wide range of covariates, residence urban area (AOR 2.39; 95% CI 1.43, 3.85), attendance postnatal care (AOR 1.68; 95% CI 1.12, 2.97), education status of mother (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.20, 2.77) and household socioeconomic status (AOR 1.72; 95% CI 1.14, 2.59) were factors positively associated with minimum acceptable diet.

Conclusion: Actions targeting these factors are expected to improve infant feeding practices in South Kivu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02713-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132412PMC
May 2021

The Neuroscience of the Flow State: Involvement of the Locus Coeruleus Norepinephrine System.

Front Psychol 2021 14;12:645498. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Flow is a state of full task engagement that is accompanied with low-levels of self-referential thinking. Flow is considered highly relevant for human performance and well-being and has, therefore, been studied extensively. Yet, the neurocognitive processes of flow remain largely unclear. In the present mini-review we focus on how the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system may be involved in a range of behavioral and subjective manifestations of flow. The LC-NE system regulates decisions regarding task engagement vs. disengagement. This is done different modes of baseline and stimulus-evoked norepinephrine release. We emphasize the theoretical and empirical overlap between the LC-NE system and flow. For both, a match between a person's skill and task challenge is important in order to induce high levels task-related attention. Moreover, psychophysiological indicators of LC-NE system activity, such as eye pupil diameter and arousal are also sensitive to flow states. Flow is related to arousal in an inverted U-shape. Similarly, in theories on the LC-NE system, task engagement is highest with intermediate levels of arousal. We argue that knowledge about the role of the LC-NE system in establishing the flow experience may help to gain fundamental knowledge of flow and can contribute to unifying various empirical findings on this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.645498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079660PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 and pediatric solid organ transplantation: Current knowns and unknowns.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Aug 10;25(5):e13986. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases and Host Defense, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has proven to be a challenge in regard to the clinical presentation, prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children who are candidates for and recipients of SOT. By providing scenarios and frequently asked questions encountered in routine clinical practice, this document provides expert opinion and summarizes the available data regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients and highlights ongoing knowledge gaps requiring further study. Currently available data are still lacking in the pediatric SOT population, but data have emerged in both the adult SOT and general pediatric population regarding the approach to COVID-19. The document provides expert opinion regarding prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237081PMC
August 2021

Enhanced cardiac vagal tone in mental fatigue: Analysis of heart rate variability in Time-on-Task, recovery, and reactivity.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(3):e0238670. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Behavioural Sciences, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been suggested as a useful tool to assess fatigue-sensitive psychological operations. The present study uses a between and within-subject design with a cognitively demanding task and a documentary viewing condition, to examine the temporal profile of HRV during reactivity, Time-on-Task (ToT), and recovery. In the cognitive task group, participants worked on a bimodal 2-back task with a game-like character (the Gatekeeper task) for about 1.5 hours, followed by a 12-minute break, and a post-break block of performance (about 18 min). In the other group, participants watched documentaries. We hypothesized an increasing vagal-mediated HRV as a function of Time spent on the Gatekeeper task and no HRV change in the documentary viewing group. We also analyzed the trial-based post-response cardiac activity as a physiological associate of task-related motivation. Relative to the documentary-viewing, ToT was associated with an elevated level of subjective fatigue, decreased heart rate, and increased HRV, particularly in the vagal-mediated components. Based on fatigued participants' post-error cardiac slowing, and post-error reaction time analyses, we found no evidence for motivation deficits. The present findings suggest that the parasympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system functioning as a relaxation system tends to be activated under increasing mental fatigue. In addition, the study shows that many HRV indices also seem to change when individuals are engaged in a prolonged, less fatiguing activity (e.g. documentary viewing). This finding emphasizes the relevance of comparisons/control conditions in ToT experiments.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238670PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928498PMC
March 2021

Is there a Meaningful General Factor of Personality?

Span J Psychol 2021 Feb 19;24:e9. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (The Netherlands).

Numerous studies and meta-analyses have now confirmed that personality traits tend to correlate such that a general factor of personality (GFP) emerges. Nevertheless, there is an ongoing debate about what these correlations, and therefore the GFP, represents. One interpretation is that the GFP reflects a substantive factor that indicates general social effectiveness or emotional intelligence. Another interpretation is that the GFP merely is an artifact based on measurement or response bias. In the present paper, we elaborate on a selection of topics that are central to the debate about this construct. Specifically, we discuss (a) the GFP in relation to more specific personality dimensions (e.g., Big Five, facets), (b) the validity of the GFP and under what circumstances it seems to 'disappear', and (c) the theoretical and practical relevance of the general factor. Overall, the review should provide insight into the nature of the GFP and whether or not it represents a meaningful factor that can contribute to a better understanding of personality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/SJP.2021.2DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of probiotics and synbiotics on diarrhea in undernourished children: Systematic review with meta-analysis.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 25;40(5):3158-3169. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, General Pediatrics, Pediatric Department, Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Undernutrition predisposes children to a greater incidence and duration of diarrhea. No review and meta-analysis have yet been conducted to assess effectiveness of probiotics and synbiotics in undernourished children.

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of probiotics and synbiotics on diarrhea in undernourished children.

Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on diarrhea in undernourished children were searched from 1990 to May 2020. Recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement were followed.

Results: The systematic review identified 15 trials with 6986 patients. The meta-analysis revealed that treatment with probiotic or synbiotic reduced significantly both the duration of diarrhea [Weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.05 day, 95% CI (-1.98, -0.11)] and the hospital stay duration [Standard mean difference (SMD) = -2.87 days, 95% CI (-5.33, -0.42)], especially in specific patient subsets. In both groups, similar rates of vomiting and nutritional recovery were observed. No probiotics or synbiotics-related adverse effects were reported. Subgroup analyses showed that probiotic and synbiotic treatment were more effective in reducing risk of diarrhea in outpatients [Risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95%CI (0.75-0.98)].

Conclusion: This meta-analysis supports the potential beneficial roles of probiotics and synbiotics on diarrhea in undernourished children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.12.026DOI Listing
May 2021

Urgent need to develop evidence-based COVID-19 recommendations for primary schools.

Arch Dis Child 2020 Nov 29. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, General Pediatrics, Pediatric Department, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Bruxelles, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-321017DOI Listing
November 2020

Go with the flow: A neuroscientific view on being fully engaged.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 02 9;53(4):947-963. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Flow is a state of full task absorption, accompanied with a strong drive and low levels of self-referential thinking. Flow is likely when there is a match between a person's skills and the task challenge. Despite its relevance for human performance and the vast body of research on flow, there is currently still relatively little insight in its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss a set of large brain networks that may be involved in establishing the core dimensions of flow. We propose that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems mediate the intrinsic motivation and activate mood states that are typical for flow. The interaction between three large-scale attentional networks, namely the Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and the Salience Network is proposed to play a role in the strong task engagement, low self-referential thinking, feedback and feelings of control in flow. The proposed relationships between flow and the brain networks may support the generation of new hypotheses and can guide future research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983950PMC
February 2021

Management and prevention of varicella and measles infections in pediatric solid organ transplant candidates and recipients: An IPTA survey of current practice.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 12 23;24(8):e13830. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Women, Children and Adolescents, Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Varicella and measles infections can be life-threatening after solid organ transplantation (SOT) but may be preventable with live-attenuated vaccines (LAV).

Methods: This survey conducted in January 2019 among subscribers of the International Pediatric Transplantation Association listserv aimed to explore the current strategies to prevent and manage both infections in the pediatric SOT population, including recommending LAV after SOT.

Results: The answers given by 95 pediatric SOT healthcare workers show that these strategies are not yet optimal and call for further education. In particular, 59% of respondents are unnecessarily waiting for a SOT candidate to be >1 year of age to start administrating LAV before SOT. Interestingly, most respondents are willing to administer LAV after SOT (57%), and a fifth (21%) are already doing so, off-label. The survey queried the precautions taken to improve safety evaluations after LAV, and identified knowledge gaps and practitioners' concerns.

Conclusion: The results of this survey could be used as a starting point for education and promotion of the safe administration of LAV in carefully selected SOT recipients; in turn, this would increase available data that would contribute to the development of evidence-based guidelines by the transplant societies and ultimately prevent these infections after SOT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13830DOI Listing
December 2020

Drug resistance in HIV-infected children living in rural South Africa: Implications of an antiretroviral therapy initiated during the first year of life.

J Clin Virol 2020 08 8;129:104547. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Brussels, Belgium; Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, General Pediatrics, Pediatric Department, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Introduction: Management of antiretroviral-drug resistance in HIV-infected children is a global health concern. We compared the long-term virological outcomes of two cohorts of children living in a rural setting of South Africa. The first cohort initiated treatment before one year and the second after two years of age. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term consequences of early treatment initiation in terms of viral load and drug-resistance.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Edendale Hospital located in a peri-urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Children were included during their planned appointment. Drug resistance was assessed genotypically on proviral DNA.

Results: From the 161 children included in this study, 93 samples were successfully genotyped. Both cohorts had comparable viral loads, but children treated early more often presented NRTI or NNRTI mutations, while there was no difference for PI mutations rates.

Conclusions: Treatment was highly effective when comparing virological outcomes in both early- and late-treated cohorts. The persistence of NNRTI mutations could lead to treatment failures in children older than 3 years initiating their therapy with a NNRTI, or for those switching from a PI to NNRTI based regimen. The accumulation of NRTI mutations may lead to a functional PI monotherapy and consequently to viral escape. To promote access to HIV genotyping in resource-limited settings is challenging but essential to avoid inappropriate therapy switches in case of virological failure, and to adapt national treatment guidelines in line with the epidemiology of resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104547DOI Listing
August 2020

Severe acute malnutrition in children admitted in an Intensive Therapeutic and Feeding Centre of South Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Why do our patients die?

PLoS One 2020 17;15(7):e0236022. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a serious public health concern in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about treatment outcomes of child inpatients in Intensive Therapeutic and Feeding Units. This study aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated with mortality among children treated at Saint Joseph Nutritional Center, South Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

Methods: A retrospective hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records of 633 severely malnourished children followed as inpatients at Saint Joseph Nutritional Center from July 2017 to December 2018. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned and analyzed in SPSS version 25. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression model were fitted to identify factors associated with mortality.

Results: Among 633 patients admitted with SAM, 13.1% were lost to follow-up and 9.2% died while in hospital. Children with late referral to the health facility (> 14 days) after the onset of main external malnutrition signs had 2.03 times higher odds of death than those referred less than 14 days [AOR = 2.03 at 95%CI (1.12, 3.68)]. The odds of death was 1.91 times higher for children with MUAC < 115 mm than for those with MUAC ≥ 115 mm [AOR = 1.91 at 95% CI (1.05, 3.50)]. Children infected with HIV were 3.90 times more likely to die compared to their counterparts [AOR = 3.90 at 95% CI (2.80, 9.41)].

Conclusion: Particular emphasis should be placed on partnering with communities to improve information on malnutrition signs and on critical importance of early referral to the health system. While HIV incidence in DRC is still low (0.21%), its impact on mortality among severely malnourished children is increased due to the limited access to HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236022PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367457PMC
September 2020

HIV-Infected Mothers Who Decide to Breastfeed Their Infants Under Close Supervision in Belgium: About Two Cases.

Front Pediatr 2020 27;8:248. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, UCLouvain, Brussels, Belgium.

In most industrialized countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a formal contraindication to breastfeeding. However, for the past 9 years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended, for developing countries, that mothers infected with HIV and treated by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) should breastfeed their infants. HIV-infected women coming from developing countries and living in industrialized settings are increasingly expressing their natural desire to breastfeed. To avoid uncontrolled breastfeeding practices and reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the virus, there is an urgent need to consider the wishes of these women. We report two cases in which specific guidelines were implemented in order to support the mothers' choice to breastfeed in Belgium. As a result of different prophylactic measures including antiretrovirals in mothers and infants and close follow-up, none of the infants were infected. National or international recommendations for HIV-infected mothers who choose to breastfeed in industrialized countries remain unclear and discordant. There is an unmet need for experts to address this emerging issue and to develop an international consensus for the monitoring and prophylactic management of exposed-infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266974PMC
May 2020

COVID-19 in a 26-week preterm neonate.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020 06 7;4(6):476-478. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30140-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252066PMC
June 2020

Long-term outcome of surgical excision for treatment of cervicofacial granulomatous lymphadenitis in children.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jun 6;277(6):1785-1792. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: Granulomatous inflammation is a common cause of subacute cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections and cat-scratch disease (CSD) are the most frequent causes. Optimal treatment, which may include surgery, antibiotic treatment or wait-and-see approach, is debatable. The goal of this study was to compare the short- and long-term outcome of various surgical procedures.

Methods: Case series with a chart review of all children treated by surgical excision of granulomatous lymph nodes in the cervicofacial area from 2000 to 2016 at two tertiary care centers.

Results: Forty patients were included in this study. The median age at first symptoms was 3.7 years (13 months-14 years). Mean follow-up was 5.8 years (6 months-15.3 years). 25 patients fit with diagnosis of NTM infection, 6 with CSD while diagnosis remained uncertain in 9 patients. The primary surgical procedure consisted of total excision (n = 27), incision/drainage (n = 9) or incomplete excision (n = 4). None of the patients treated by primary complete excision needed further intervention contrary to the group of patients with incomplete surgical procedures where additional surgical management was required in 54%. At follow-up, all patients were healthy without evidence of recurrence.

Conclusion: We advocate early surgical intervention with complete excision to reach quick resolution and reduce the need for additional surgery. The long-term outcome was favorable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05880-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222061PMC
June 2020

The Interplay Between Cognitive Intelligence, Ability Emotional Intelligence, and Religiosity.

J Relig Health 2020 Oct;59(5):2556-2576

Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The negative association between cognitive intelligence (CI) and religiosity has been widely studied and is now well documented. In contrast, the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in this context has been poorly investigated thus far. Some available data indicate that EI, unlike CI, correlates positively with religiosity. To date, however, no study has explored the relationship between religiosity and both intelligences simultaneously. In current studies (Ns = 301 and 200), we examined the interplay between all three constructs. The results showed that CI was positively correlated with ability EI and negatively with some measures of religiosity. EI, on the other hand, revealed no direct, significant relationship with religiosity. However, when combined into a single regression model with CI, EI became a significant positive predictor of religiosity. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the link between EI and religiosity was mediated by empathy. Interestingly, we also found a reciprocal suppression between CI and EI, since both predictors increased their influence on religiosity when analyzed together. Although the suppression was present in both studies, it was observed for different religiosity measures in each case, indicating that this effect is probably dependent on various factors, such as sample structure or type of religiosity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00953-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Cross-Modal Conflict Increases With Time-on-Task in a Temporal Discrimination Task.

Front Psychol 2019 31;10:2429. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Medical School, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

The modality appropriateness hypothesis argues that the auditory modality is preferred over the visual modality in tasks demanding temporal operations; hence, we predicted that responses to visual stimuli would be more sensitive to the detrimental effect of Time-on-Task. We used a bimodal temporal discrimination task. The factors were durational congruency between the modalities and the direction of modality-transmission. Participants needed to decide the duration of the cued stimulus (visual or auditory). The first five blocks of the task lasted about 1.5 h without rest [Time-on-Task (ToT) period]. The participants then had a 12-min break followed by an additional block of trials. Subjective fatigue, reaction time, error rates, and electrocardiographic data were recorded. In the visual modality, we found an enhanced congruency effect as a function of ToT. The cost of attentional shifting was higher in the auditory modality, but remained constant, suggesting that processing of auditory stimuli is robust against the effects of fatigue. Performance did not improve after the break, indicating that the effects of fatigue could not be overcome by taking a brief break. The heart rate variability (HRV) data showed that vagal inhibition increased with ToT, but this increase was not associated with the changes in performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836750PMC
October 2019

A 7-Year-Old Child With Headaches and Prolonged Fever Associated With Oral and Nail Lesions.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Nov 3;6(11):ofz229. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, General Pediatrics, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, UCLouvain, Brussels, Belgium.

A 7-year-old child of Turkish origin presented with headache and vomiting in the context of prolonged fever of unknown source. At examination, oral candidiasis and chronic onychomycosis were noted. A meningoencephalitis was diagnosed and intravenous Amphotericin B liposomal was given during 6 months relayed by oral Fluconazole after regression of CNS lesions was observed on MRI. A complete immune evaluation was performed, and genetic analysis detected homozygous CARD9 mutation. CARD9 deficiency have been associated with invasive candidiasis in otherwise healthy patients. Culture of the cerebrospinal fluid grew for multisensitive . Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) showed the presence of focal lesions in the left caudate nucleus and in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Medullar MRI showed diffuse meningeal nodular lesions. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin B liposomal was given during 6 months relayed by oral fluconazole after regression of CNS lesions was observed on MRI. A complete immune evaluation was performed and genetic analysis detected a homozygous CARD9 mutation. CARD9 deficiency have been associated with invasive candidiasis in otherwise healthy patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825800PMC
November 2019

The Motivation and Opportunity for Socially Desirable Responding Does Not Alter the General Factor of Personality.

Assessment 2021 Jul 16;28(5):1376-1396. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Socially desirable responding may affect the factor structure of personality questionnaires and may be one of the reasons for the common variance among personality traits. In this study, we test this hypothesis by investigating the influence of the motivational test-taking context (development vs. selection) and the opportunity to distort responses (forced-choice vs. Likert response format) on personality questionnaire scores. Data from real selection and assessment candidates (total = 3,980) matched on gender, age, and educational level were used. Mean score differences were found between the selection and development groups, with smaller differences for the FC version. Yet, exploratory structural equation models showed that the overall factor structures as well as the general factor were highly similar across the four groups. Thus, although socially desirable responding may affect mean scores on personality traits, it does not appear to affect factor structures. This study further suggests that the common variance in personality questionnaires is consistent and appears to be little influenced by motivational pressures for response distortion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191119880960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167912PMC
July 2021

The Myth of the Stupid Believer: The Negative Religiousness-IQ Nexus is Not on General Intelligence (g) and is Likely a Product of the Relations Between IQ and Autism Spectrum Traits.

J Relig Health 2020 Jun;59(3):1567-1579

Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Numerous studies have found a negative relationship between religiousness and IQ. It is in the region of - 0.2, according to meta-analyses. The reasons for this relationship are, however, unknown. It has been suggested that higher intelligence leads to greater attraction to science, or that it helps to override evolved cognitive dispositions such as for religiousness. Either way, such explanations assume that the religion-IQ nexus is on general intelligence (g), rather than some subset of specialized cognitive abilities. In other words, they assume it is a Jensen effect. Two large datasets comparing groups with different levels of religiousness show that their IQ differences are not on g and must, therefore, be attributed to specialized abilities. An analysis of the specialized abilities on which the religious and non-religious groups differ reveals no clear pattern. We cautiously suggest that this may be explicable in terms of autism spectrum disorder traits among people with high IQ scores, because such traits are negatively associated with religiousness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00926-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239797PMC
June 2020

Diagnosing enterovirus meningitis via blood transcriptomics: an alternative for lumbar puncture?

J Transl Med 2019 08 23;17(1):282. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

AUDACIS, Antwerp Unit for Data Analysis and Computation in Immunology and Sequencing, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Meningitis can be caused by several viruses and bacteria. Identifying the causative pathogen as quickly as possible is crucial to initiate the most optimal therapy, as acute bacterial meningitis is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Bacterial meningitis requires antibiotics, as opposed to enteroviral meningitis, which only requires supportive therapy. Clinical presentation is usually not sufficient to differentiate between viral and bacterial meningitis, thereby necessitating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis by PCR and/or time-consuming bacterial cultures. However, collecting CSF in children is not always feasible and a rather invasive procedure.

Methods: In 12 Belgian hospitals, we obtained acute blood samples from children with signs of meningitis (49 viral and 7 bacterial cases) (aged between 3 months and 16 years). After pathogen confirmation on CSF, the patient was asked to give a convalescent sample after recovery. 3' mRNA sequencing was performed to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to create a host transcriptomic profile.

Results: Enteroviral meningitis cases displayed the largest upregulated fold change enrichment in type I interferon production, response and signaling pathways. Patients with bacterial meningitis showed a significant upregulation of genes related to macrophage and neutrophil activation. We found several significantly DEGs between enteroviral and bacterial meningitis. Random forest classification showed that we were able to differentiate enteroviral from bacterial meningitis with an AUC of 0.982 on held-out samples.

Conclusions: Enteroviral meningitis has an innate immunity signature with type 1 interferons as key players. Our classifier, based on blood host transcriptomic profiles of different meningitis cases, is a possible strong alternative for diagnosing enteroviral meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-2037-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708255PMC
August 2019

Infections among pediatric transplant candidates: An approach to decision-making.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 05 5;23(3):e13375. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: The presence of infections in the immediate pretransplant period poses challenges in decision-making. Delaying transplantation because of these infections may be required, but is associated with a risk to the potential recipient. The aim of this project was to develop a structured framework based on expert opinion to guide decision-making regarding the safety of transplantation for candidates with infection immediately before transplant, and to show how this framework can be applied to clinical scenarios.

Methods: Categories were created as follows: Category A: no delay; Category B: brief delay (≤1 week); Category C: intermediate delay (>1 week); and Category D: more prolonged or indefinite delay. A survey containing 59 clinical scenarios was sent to members of the IPTA ID CARE committee. Answers were reviewed, and the level of agreement was characterized as follows: Level 1: ≥75% agreement; Level 2:51%-74% agreement; and Level 3: ≤50% agreement. 95% CIs were calculated for the mean overall agreement across 59 scenarios.

Results: Among the panel, the agreement level ranged from 33% to 92% with the mean overall agreement across the 59 scenarios being 61%. For 7/59 scenarios, the lower bound of 95% CI was greater than 50%, indicating a difference at the 5% level of significance between the observed proportion and the chance level of 0.5.

Summary: The document provides expert opinion regarding the need to delay transplantation in the setting of different infections. The most important points in the decision to proceed to SOT included the urgency of transplantation and the severity of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13375DOI Listing
May 2019

The consequences of self- and other-focused emotional intelligence: Not all sunshine and roses.

J Occup Health Psychol 2019 Aug 4;24(4):450-466. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Center of Excellence for Positive Organizational Psychology.

Emotional intelligence (EI) contributes to good performance and well-being in jobs that involve frequent interpersonal contact. However, as EI is composed of self- and other-focused dimensions, it remains unclear which dimensions are responsible for better performance and well-being. We hypothesized that other-focused EI dimensions in particular relate to task performance, whereas self-focused EI dimensions relate to employees' subjective stress and physiological responses to emotional job demands. We asked Dutch secretaries ( = 110) to professionally respond to five emotionally demanding work-related phone calls. The secretaries' skin conductance levels were recorded during the calls, and the secretaries had to indicate their stress levels after each call. Two independent raters coded the secretaries' effectiveness and the number of emotion regulation attempts during the phone calls. The results showed that other-focused emotion regulation was positively related to only one of the task performance indicators during three phone calls. In line with the hypotheses, self-focused emotion appraisal was negatively related to the secretaries' subjective stress levels after all the phone calls. Self-focused emotion regulation was positively related to the secretaries' skin conductance levels during all but one of the phone calls. This outcome suggests that self-focused EI dimensions decrease the subjective experience of stress but are accompanied by physiological costs, whereas other-focused emotion regulation may be positively but weakly related to task performance in emotionally demanding contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000134DOI Listing
August 2019

How Universal Is the General Factor of Personality? An Analysis of the Big Five in Forager Farmers of the Bolivian Amazon.

J Cross Cult Psychol 2018 Aug 4;49(7):1081-1097. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Unz Foundation, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

In various personality models, such as the Big Five, a consistent higher order general factor of personality (GFP) can be identified. One view in the literature is that the GFP reflects general social effectiveness. Most GFP studies, however, have been conducted in Western, educated, industrialized, and rich democracies (WEIRD). Therefore, to address the question of the universality of the GFP, we test whether the GFP can also be identified in a preliterate indigenous sample of Tsimane by using self-reports, spouse reports, and interviewer ratings. In the Tsimane, a viable GFP could be identified and the intercorrelations between personality traits were significantly stronger than in samples from industrial countries. The GFP correlated with the ratings of social engagement. In addition, self and spouse ratings of the GFP overlapped. Overall, the findings are in line with the notion that the GFP is a human universal and a substantive personality factor reflecting social effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022118774925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047301PMC
August 2018

Tuberculosis contact-tracing among Syrian refugee populations: lessons from Jordan.

Confl Health 2018 16;12:25. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

1Paediatric Infectious Diseases, General Pediatrics, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: In response to the influx of displaced Syrians since 2011, the Jordanian National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) implemented a specific Tuberculosis (TB) reduction strategy, including contact-tracing (CT). Contacts of all refugees diagnosed with pulmonary TB (PTB) were registered by the International Organization for Migration and screened for active & latent TB infection (LTBI) in 6 NTP centres.The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of active TB and LTBI, risk factors for LTBI as well as program performance.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study among contacts ( = 481) of all PTB cases diagnosed between March 2011 and May 2014 ( = 76). CT was performed using verbal screening of TB-related symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray.

Results: LTBI was diagnosed in 24.1% of contacts tested with TST while active TB was diagnosed in 2.1% of contacts. Main risk factors for positive TST included smear-positive index case (IC) (OR: 6.33) and previous TB infection in the family (OR: 4.94). Among children, the risk of LTBI was higher when their IC was a care-giving female (OR: 2.83). Prevalence of active TB was two times higher in children under five (U5 s) (5.3%) compared to adults (2.5%).

Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of active TB and LTBI among contacts of PTB cases in the Syrian refugee population, emphasizing the urgent need for host countries to implement CT strategies for refugees. Our results underscore the vulnerability of U5s and contacts of smear-positive IC highlighting the need for specific actions focusing on those groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13031-018-0164-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047119PMC
July 2018

Quantifying the Motivational Effects of Cognitive Fatigue Through Effort-Based Decision Making.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:843. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988875PMC
May 2018

Reply.

Pain 2018 Jun;159(6):1179-1180

Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001195DOI Listing
June 2018

Aggression, predictability of the environment, and self-regulation: Reconciliation with animal research.

Behav Brain Sci 2017 01;40:e97

Department of Psychology,Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam,3000 DR Rotterdam,The

Apparently inconsistent with the CLASH model, animal research relates predictable environments to rigid routine behaviors and aggression. However, our work on evolutionary and neural adaptations to (un)predictable environments may be able to reconcile the CLASH model with the animal research, but also suggests complexities beyond the dichotomous approach of CLASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X16001229DOI Listing
January 2017

Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Trait Emotional Intelligence: A Genetic Correlation Study.

Behav Genet 2018 03 20;48(2):147-154. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

London Psychometric Laboratory, University College London, London, UK.

A previous meta-analysis (Van der Linden et al., Psychol Bull 143:36-52, 2017) showed that the General Factor of Personality (GFP) overlaps with ability as well as trait emotional intelligence (EI). The correlation between trait EI and the GFP was so high (ρ = 0.88) in that meta-analysis that these two may be considered virtually identical constructs. The present study builds on these findings by examining whether the strong phenotypic correlation between the GFP and trait EI has a genetic component. In a sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability estimates for the GFP and trait EI were 53 and 45%, respectively. Moreover, there was a strong genetic correlation of r = .90 between the GFP and trait EI. Additional analyses suggested that a substantial proportion of the genetic correlations reflects non-additive genetic effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis). These findings are discussed in light of evolutionary accounts of the GFP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-017-9885-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846839PMC
March 2018

The General Factor of Personality and Character: A Reanalysis.

J Genet Psychol 2017 Nov-Dec;178(6):334-338. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

b Erasmus University , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.

Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality. The results lend some support to this contention and are discussed in relation to the growing interest in covariation among multiple personality traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2017.1381070DOI Listing
July 2018
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