Publications by authors named "Dimitri Parra"

49 Publications

Image-guided chest tube drainage in the management of chylothorax post cardiac surgery in children: a single-center case series.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: In children, chylothorax post cardiac surgery can be difficult to treat, may run a protracted course, and remains a source of morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To analyze the experience with percutaneous image-guided chest-tube drainage in the management of post-cardiac-surgery chylothoraces in children.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective case series of 37 post-cardiac-surgery chylothoraces in 34 children (20 boys; 59%), requiring 48 drainage procedures with placement of 53 image-guided chest tubes over the time period 2004 to 2015. We analyzed clinical and procedural details, adverse events and outcomes. Median age was 0.6 years, median weight 7.2 kg.

Results: Attempted treatments of chylothoraces prior to image-guided chest tubes included dietary restrictions (32/37, 86%), octreotide (12/37, 32%), steroids (7/37, 19%) and thoracic duct ligation (5/37, 14%). Image-guided chest tubes (n=43/53, 81%) were single unilateral in 29 children, bilateral in 4 (n=8/53, 15%), and there were two ipsilateral tubes in one (2/53, 4%). Effusions were isolated, walled-off, in 33/53 (62%). In 20/48 procedures (42%) effusions were septated/complex. The mean drainage through image-guided chest tubes was 17.3 mL/kg in the first 24 h, and 13.4 mL/kg/day from diagnosis to chest tube removal; total mean drainage from all chest tubes was 19.6 mL/kg/day. Nine major and 27 minor maintenance procedures were required during 1,207 tube-days (rate: 30 maintenance/1,000 tube-days). Median tube dwell time was 21 days (range 4-57 days). There were eight mild adverse events, three moderate adverse events and no severe adverse events related to image-guided chest tubes. Radiologic resolution was achieved in 26/37 (70%). Twenty-three children (68%) survived to discharge; 11 children (32%) died from underlying cardiac disease.

Conclusion: Management of chylothorax post-cardiac-surgery in children is multidisciplinary, requiring concomitant multipronged approaches, often through a protracted course. Multiple image-guided chest tube drainages can help achieve resolution with few complications. Interventional radiology involvement in tube care and maintenance is required. Overall, mortality remains high.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04928-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Findings encountered in percutaneous cholangiography in a case of post-transplant recurrence of hepatic Langerhans cell histiocytosis with biliary involvement.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 Sep 28:e13838. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This case report describes a four-year-old boy who presented with the diagnosis of LCH with liver involvement. This required a living-related liver transplant one year later. The primary disease recurred in the transplanted liver 6 months post-transplant and led to progressive biliary dilatation. A percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiogram was performed five years after transplant, showing a pattern of multifocal biliary duct strictures mimicking the pattern of primary sclerosing cholangitis and a stenosis of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Despite management with an internal-external biliary drain, the stenosis of the biliary-enteric anastomosis evolved to an occlusion one year after drain removal. This was associated with progression of the changes in the biliary tree, this time associated with significant saccular dilatations secondary to the multiple areas of stenosis. Due to these findings and progressive deterioration of the function of the graft, the patient required re-transplantation. This report illustrates the findings in imaging of the biliary tree secondary to the recurrence of LCH after liver transplantation, which may help to recognize this complication to physicians facing a similar clinical scenario.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13838DOI Listing
September 2020

Use of drug-coated balloons in the management of a recalcitrant postsurgical hepatic vein stenosis in a pediatric patient.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Oct 11;15(10):1864-1869. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are a treatment alternative to conventional angioplasty in arterial, hemodialysis fistulas, and venous stenoses. This case report describes a child with the diagnosis of hepatoblastoma treated with chemotherapy and a right extended hepatectomy with venous reconstruction. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of portal hypertension due to a hepatic venous outflow obstruction secondary to stenosis of the surgical anastomosis. The response to conventional angioplasty was limited with frequent recurrence of symptoms. DCBs were used as an alternative prior to stent consideration aiming to assess if these devices could provide improvement of the symptoms and as a long-term therapy. The use of DCBs increased the time interval of reinterventions in comparison with conventional angioplasty. The patient eventually required stents due to recurrence of the primary disease. While this report does not provide an in-depth evaluation in terms of the efficacy and safety of DCB, this case illustrates a potential novel treatment modality to be considered for children, when stenotic venous lesions not amenable for stenting are present.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.07.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426328PMC
October 2020

Acute Budd-Chiari syndrome during hepatic vein catheterization.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Oct 11;15(10):1853-1857. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This case report describes a 4-year-old male with a history of hepatoblastoma, treated with chemotherapy followed by a right extended hepatectomy. Secondary to this, the patient experienced recurrent hepatic vein stenosis. He was treated initially with conventional angioplasty, followed by paclitaxel-coated balloon dilatations in an attempt to prevent episodes of re-stenosis. During the catheterization of the hepatic vein in one of the treatments, hemodynamic instability due to an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome occurred. The hemodynamic compromise became unresponsive to intravascular resuscitation and inotropic support. The patient was then treated with an emergency conventional angioplasty of the hepatic vein, which resulted in a rapid response and eventually in a full recovery. The etiology of this complication remains unclear; however, it may have been secondary to endothelial damage leading to acute thrombosis and/or venous spasm. Conventional angioplasty was successful in managing this complication. Awareness of iatrogenic acute Budd-Chiari syndrome as a potentially fatal complication during hepatic catheterization/dilatation, especially in the posthepatectomy setting, successful management of this complication, and the importance of a multidisciplinary and rapid response, is emphasized.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.07.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426323PMC
October 2020

The utility of post-biopsy ultrasonography in detecting complications after percutaneous liver biopsy in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 11 13;50(12):1717-1723. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Surveillance post image-guided percutaneous liver biopsy in children is variable.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the value of 4-6-h post-procedure ultrasonography (US) in detecting post-liver-biopsy hemorrhage.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study included pediatric patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous liver biopsies. All children had a US study obtained pre-procedure and one obtained 4-6 h post-procedure; US examinations were deemed positive if abnormalities were present. We also reviewed any subsequent imaging that was performed within 7 days (late imaging) at the discretion of the referring team. Changes in US findings (ΔUS) were graded by two radiologists using a descriptive non-validated scale (none, minimal, marked). Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were assessed pre-procedure and 4 h post-procedure. The diagnostic accuracy of US changes for detecting post-procedural hemorrhage was calculated based on a drop in Hb >1.5 g/dL or Hb >15% from baseline (ΔHb). We used a Kruskal-Wallis test to correlate the ΔHb with ΔUS. Association between late-imaging and post-procedure US findings was tested using a chi-square test. We included 224 biopsies.

Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of post-procedure US in detecting post-procedure hemorrhage ranged 26.3-42.1%, 72.4-93.3%, 0.22-0.42, and 0.87-0.88, respectively. No significant association was seen between the ΔHb and sonographic findings (P=0.068). No significant difference was seen in the need for late imaging between children who did and those who did not have positive US findings (P=0.814).

Conclusion: The sensitivity and PPV of post-procedure US in detecting post-procedural hemorrhage are low. Our findings do not support routine post-procedure surveillance US.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04783-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Image guided sacroiliac joint corticosteroid injections in children: an 18-year single-center retrospective study.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2020 Jun 17;18(1):52. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Sacroiliitis is commonly seen in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Sacroiliitis is characterized by the inflammation of the sacroiliac (SI) joints (+/- adjacent tissues). The treatment options include systemic therapy with or without corticosteroid SI joint injections. Image guided SI joint injections are frequently requested in pediatric patients with sacroiliitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of SI joint injections in children with sacroiliitis.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients referred to Interventional Radiology (IR) for SI joint corticosteroid injections (2000-2018). Clinical information was collected from Electronic Patient Charts and procedural details from PACS. Efficacy was determined clinically, by MRI, or both when available.

Results: 50 patients (13.8 years; M:F = 35:15) underwent image-guided SI joint corticosteroid injections. Most common indications were JIA (84%) and inflammatory bowel disease (14%). 80% had bilateral injections. 80% were performed under general anesthesia and 20% under sedation. The corticosteroid of choice was triamcinolone hexacetonide in 98% of patients. Needle guidance and confirmation was performed using CT and fluoroscopy (54%), Cone Beam CT (CBCT, 46%), with initial ultrasound assistance in 34%. All procedures were technically successful without any complications. 32/50 patients had long-term follow-up (2 years); 21/32 (66%) had clinical improvement within 3-months. Of 15 patients who had both pre- and post-procedure MRIs, 93% showed short-term improvement. At 2 years, 6% of patients were in remission, 44% continued the same treatment and 47% escalated treatment.

Conclusion: Image-guided SI joint injections are safe and technically feasible in children. Imaging modalities for guidance have evolved, with CBCT being the current first choice. Most patients showed short-term clinical and imaging improvement, requiring long-term maintenance or escalation of medical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-020-00435-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301971PMC
June 2020

Embolization of congenital portosystemic shunt presenting after pediatric liver transplantation: Case report and literature review.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 08 14;24(5):e13713. Epub 2020 May 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This case report describes a 13-year 10-month-old girl who underwent a deceased-donor split LT for primary diagnosis of biliary atresia at the age of 12 months, who presented with a lower GI bleed. Ultrasound and CT revealed a venous vascular anomaly involving the cecum and ascending colon, with communication of the SMV and pelvic veins consistent with a CEPS. Associated varices were noted in the pelvis along the uterus and urinary bladder. These findings were confirmed by trans-hepatic porto-venography, which was diagnostic and therapeutic as a successful embolization of the CEPS was performed using micro-coils. There were no complications following the procedure and no further GI bleeding occurred, illustrating the efficacy of this treatment option for CEPS. We discuss the literature regarding the presenting complaint of GI bleeding post-LT, CEPS as a rare cause of GI bleeding and its association with PV, and the classification and treatment of CEPS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13713DOI Listing
August 2020

Percutaneous removal of biliary stones post-liver transplant in a pediatric patient: Case report and review of the literature.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 06 23;24(4):e13715. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This case report describes an 8-year-old girl who underwent a segmental LT for a primary diagnosis of citrullinemia at the age of 12 months. She presented with cholangitis secondary to stenosis of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. MRI revealed dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with multiple stones. An endoscopic approach failed to decompress the bile ducts and remove the stones. A percutaneous approach was then undertaken. After placement of a temporary external biliary drain for 12 days, a 26 French sheath was placed to access the bile ducts. Using a 14Fr flexible cystoscope, 80%-90% of the biliary stones were removed. This was followed by antegrade balloon dilatation of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Two months later, the procedure was repeated, resulting in complete clearance of the biliary stones. An internal-external biliary drain was maintained in placed for 10 months. The patient has been asymptomatic, with no evidence of stone recurrence for 13 months after drain removal. Percutaneous biliary stone removal is commonly performed in adults with non-transplanted livers, especially in complex cases, and has also been shown to be successful in the pediatric population. However, it is rarely reported in transplanted livers in adults, and to the best of our knowledge, no pediatric cases have been reported. This case illustrates that this technique can be successfully utilized in pediatric LT patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13715DOI Listing
June 2020

Hemodialysis Catheters in Infants: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 05 15;31(5):778-786. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Image Guided Therapy, Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.

Purpose: Evaluate technical aspects and outcomes of insertion/maintenance of hemodialysis (HD) central venous catheter (CVC) during infancy.

Materials And Methods: Single-center retrospective study of 29 infants who underwent 49 HD-CVC insertions between 2002 and 2016. Demographics, procedural, and post-procedural details, interventional radiology (IR) maintenance procedures, technical modifications, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Technical adjustments during HD-CVC placement to adapt catheter length to patient size were labeled "modifications." CVCs requiring return visit to IR were called IR-maintenance procedures. Mean age and weight at HD-CVC insertion were 117 days and 4.9 kg.

Results: Of the 29 patients, 13 (45%) required renal-replacement-therapy (RRT) as neonates, 10 (34%) commenced RRT with peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 19 (66%) with HD. Fifteen nontunneled and 34 tunneled HD-CVCs were inserted while patients were ≤1 year. Technical modifications were required placing 25/49 (51%) HD-CVCs: 5/15 (33%) nontunneled and 20/34 (59%) tunneled catheters (P = .08). Patients underwent ≤6 dialysis-cycles/patient during infancy (mean 2.3), and a mean of 4.1 and 49 HD-sessions/catheter for nontunneled and tunneled HD-CVCs, respectively. Mean primary and secondary device service, and total access site intervals for tunneled HD-CVCs were 75, 115, and 201 days, respectively. A total of 26 of 49 (53%) patients required IR-maintenance procedures. Nontunneled lines had greater catheter-related bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter-days than tunneled HD-CVCs (9.25 vs. 0.85/1,000 catheter days; P = .02). Nineteen patients (65%) survived over 1 year. At final evaluation (December 2017): 8/19 survived transplantation, 5/19 remained on RRT, 2/19 completely recovered, 1/19 lost to follow-up, and 3 died at 1.3, 2, and 10 years.

Conclusions: Placement/maintenance of HD-CVCs in infants pose specific challenges, requiring insertion modifications, and IR-maintenance procedures to maintain function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2020.01.020DOI Listing
May 2020

Use of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Abdominal Abscesses in Children-A Single-Center Randomized Control Trial.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2020 Apr 13:846537120914263. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To establish the efficacy of once-per-day intracavitary tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the treatment of pediatric intra-abdominal abscesses.

Methods: A single-center prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of the use of intracavitary tPA in abdominal abscesses in children. Patients were randomized to either tPA-treatment or saline-treatment groups. Primary outcome was drainage catheter dwell (hours). Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, times to discharge, clinical and sonographic resolution, and adverse events (AEs).

Results: Twenty-eight children were randomized to either group (n = 14 each). Demographics between groups were not significantly different (age = .28; weight = .40; gender = .44). There were significantly more abscesses in the tPA-treated group ( = .03). Abscesses were secondary to perforated appendicitis (n = 25) or postappendectomy (n = 3). Thirty-four abscesses were drained, 4 aspirated, 3 neither drained/aspirated. There was no significant difference in number of drains ( = .14), drain size ( = .19), primary outcome ( = .077), or secondary outcomes found. No procedural or intervention drug-related AEs occurred. No patient in the saline-treated group required to be switched/treated with tPA.

Conclusion: No significant difference in the length of catheter dwell time, procedure time to discharge, or time to resolution was found. Intracavitary tPA was not associated with morbidity or mortality. The results neither support nor negate routine use of tPA in the drainage of intra-abdominal abscess in children. It is possible that a multicentre study with a larger number of patients may answer this question more definitively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0846537120914263DOI Listing
April 2020

Dosimetric Feasibility of Cone-Beam CT in Pediatric Image-Guided Retrograde Gastrostomy Tube Insertions.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2020 Feb 22;71(1):68-74. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in interventional radiology allows volumetric imaging with open patient access. This work aimed to assess radiation dose metrics of CBCT in simulated image-guided retrograde gastrostomy (IGRG) tube insertions in pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms and to compare them to measured radiation dose metrics obtained using fluoroscopy during clinical IGRG tube insertions in children.

Methods: Radiation dose indices obtained from radiation dose structured reports of fluoroscopic IGRG tube insertions were retrospectively evaluated in a consecutive cohort of 30 children. Dose indices were fractionated into 3 clinical stages for each procedure (, , and ). These 3 stages in 30 patients (3 × 30 = 90 patient stages) were compared to dose indices measured from 4 CBCT acquisition protocols acquired in pediatric phantoms.

Results: The mean proportion of radiation dose during planning, insertion, and confirmation was 35%, 38% and 27%, with mean reference-point air kerma (range) measured to be 1.0 (0.02-6.0) mGy, 0.9 (0.03-4.1) mGy, and 0.7 (0.04-3.7) mGy, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography dose varied greatly depending on technical parameters and protocol selection, ranging from 0.7 to 39.3 mGy. In 19% of patient stages, the most dose-sparing CBCT protocol evaluated on phantoms delivered less radiation than the radiation dose indices recorded from patient's fluoroscopy.

Conclusions: From a dosimetric perspective, radiation delivered in CBCT can vary widely, yet can be appreciably low. With appropriate CBCT protocol selection, the radiation dose delivered may be sufficiently low to warrant consideration for use, if clinically needed during difficult IGRG tube insertions, and satisfy the interventionalist's benefit-risk assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0846537119885680DOI Listing
February 2020

Ultrasound-guided techniques for peripheral intravenous placement in children with difficult venous access.

Paediatr Anaesth 2020 02 19;30(2):108-115. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Peripheral intravenous placement in children can be challenging. Different techniques have been used to improve first pass success rates in children with known history of difficult venous access including surface landmarking, local warming, transillumination, ultrasonography, epidermal nitroglycerin, central venous access, intraosseous placement, and venous cutdown. Among these, ultrasound guidance has garnered the most interest among anesthesiologists. The cumulative literature surrounding the utility of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous placement in children with and without difficult venous access has shown mixed results. Literature on the utility of ultrasound guidance for peripheral intravenous placement in children under deep sedation or anesthesia is limited but encouraging. This review summarizes the overall evidence for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous placement in children with difficult venous access under deep sedation or general anesthesia. Furthermore, five subtly varying approaches to ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous placement with their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. One of these five approaches is Dynamic Needle Tip Positioning. Utilizing a short axis out of plane ultrasound view, this promising technique allows for accurate needle tip localization and may increase the success rate of peripheral intravenous placement, even in small children, under deep sedation, or general anesthesia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13780DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of implanted venous port-a-caths in children with medical complexity and neurologic impairment.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 09 13;49(10):1354-1361. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Image Guided Therapy Centre, Diagnostic Imaging Department, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Children with medical complexity and associated neurologic impairment frequently face difficulties with venous access. Intermittently they require urgent intravenous administration of fluids and medication.

Objective: To analyze the use of implanted port-a-caths in children with medical complexity who have neurologic impairment and difficult venous access.

Materials And Methods: We performed a single-center observational study of port-a-caths placed by interventional radiologists in children with medical complexity with neurologic impairment. We analyzed peripheral intravenous access attempts, peripheral intravenous starts, peripheral intravenous complications, alternative temporary central venous access devices, port-a-cath insertions, catheter days, access days, port-a-cath-related complications, hospital admissions and emergency department visits. We compared the year pre port-a-cath to the year post port-a-cath.

Results: Twenty-one children with medical complexity with neurologic impairment (10 boys, 11 girls; median age 4.1 years; median weight 13.7 kg) underwent 26 port-a-cath insertions (median catheter days 787). In the year post port-a-cath compared to pre port-a-cath there was a highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in numbers of peripheral intravenous attempts, peripheral intravenous starts and skin punctures; and a significant reduction (P<0.05) in need for other devices, number of emergency department visits, emergency department visits resulting in hospital admissions, and total admissions. Adverse events were graded as mild (n=18), moderate (n=6) and severe (n=0).

Conclusion: Port-a-cath placement in children with medical complexity with neurologic impairment significantly reduced all peripheral intravenous attempts, peripheral intravenous starts, skin punctures, total number of emergency department visits, visits culminating in admission, and total number of inpatient admissions. Advantages must be considered against potential port-a-cath-related adverse events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04470-wDOI Listing
September 2019

Experience with Compressed Gelfoam Plugs in Children during Liver Biopsies and Other IR Procedures: A Retrospective Single-Center Case Series.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2019 Nov 13;30(11):1855-1862. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Image Guided Therapy, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Purpose: To analyze the experience using compressed gelfoam plugs (CGPs) in children during liver biopsies and other interventional procedures.

Materials And Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, consecutive case series of 477 various pediatric interventional radiology procedures using CGPs (January 2012 to December 2016) performed on 397 children (209 males, 188 females; median age, 7 years [range, 9 days-17.8 years]; median weight, 18 kg [range, 2.7-141 kg]). Of 477 procedures, most (n = 371) were liver biopsies, 98 were biopsies of other organs, and 8 were non-biopsy procedures. Analysis focused on liver biopsies.

Results: Of liver biopsies, a median of 2 CGPs were used per procedure, and the mean drop in hemoglobin was -0.36 g/dl (-3.0% change). Thirty-seven mild, 8 moderate, 2 severe, and 1 life-threatening (an anaphylaxis to CGP) adverse events (AEs) occurred. Analysis of liver biopsies with AEs showed significant association between number of passes, cores, and focal-type lesions (unadjusted logistic regression: P = .007, P = .022, P = .028, respectively) and age, weight, and number of passes (adjusted multiple logistic regression: P = .006, P = .032, P = .046, respectively). Technical problems relating to CGP deployment were noted in 5 (1%), without any AEs.

Conclusions: CGPs were used in a wide variety of procedures and organs in children. There was 1 life-threatening AE resulting from the rare risk of anaphylaxis caused by the gelfoam-containing plug. After liver biopsies, transfusion was required in 2/371 (0.5%) procedures, 1 related to pre-biopsy anemia (0.25%).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2019.04.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Clinical Impact of Chronic Venous Changes Induced by Central Lines in Children: A Cohort with Abnormal Venograms.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2019 May 27;30(5):715-723. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Purpose: To explore the hypothesis that central venous stenosis/obstructions (CVS/O) in children are influenced by prior central venous access devices (CVADs) and are associated with future risk for thromboses.

Material And Methods: A convenience sample of 100 patients with abnormal venography (stenosis, collaterals, occlusions) documented during peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements were identified from consecutive PICC placements (January 2008 to November 2012). The patients (41 males, 59 females, median age 2.7 years, median weight 11 kg) were categorized based on venographic presence (Group A, n = 53) or absence (Group B, n = 47) of visible connection to the superior vena cava. Each patient's CVAD history, before and after venography, was analyzed (until October 2016).

Results: Before venogram, Group B patients were associated with a higher number of previous CVADs, larger diameter devices, greater incidence of malposition, and more use of polyurethane catheters than Group A patients (P < .001). An ipsilateral PICC was successfully placed in 98% of Group A, compared to 32% of Group B (P < .001). After venogram, significantly more Doppler ultrasounds (DUS) were performed and thromboses diagnosed in Group B (57% and 36%) compared to Group A (21% and 8%) (P < .003; P = .001), respectively.

Conclusions: Previous catheter characteristics influenced the severity of venographic changes of CVS/O (Group B). Group B was associated with more subsequent symptomatic thromboses. This information may assist parents and referring physicians to anticipate potential adverse sequelae from CVS/O on the child's venous health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2018.08.034DOI Listing
May 2019

Perforations associated with peripherally inserted central catheters in a neonatal population.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 01 6;48(1):109-119. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are increasingly used in neonates but perforations can result in devastating complications such as pericardial and pleural effusions. Identifying risk factors may guide surveillance and reduce morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To determine the risk factors for PICC perforation in neonates.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective case:control (1:2) study of neonates admitted between 2004-2014. Charts and imaging were reviewed for clinical and therapeutic risk factors.

Results: Among 3,454 PICCs, 15 cases of perforation (incidence 0.4%, 5 pericardial effusions, 10 pleural effusions) were matched to 30 controls, based on gestation and insertion date. Timing of perforations post-insertion was median 4 days for pericardial effusions and 21.5 days for pleural effusions. A risk factor for pericardial effusion was lower weight at PICC insertion compared with controls. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in catheter material, insertion site, PICC size and lumen number. Among upper limb PICCs, pericardial effusions were associated with tip positions more proximal to the heart at insertion (P=0.005) and at perforation (P=0.008), compared with controls. Pleural effusions were associated with tip positions more distal from the heart at perforation (P=0.008). Within 48 h before perforation, high/medium risk infusions included total parenteral nutrition (100% cases vs. 56.7% controls, P=0.002) and vancomycin (60% cases vs. 23.3% controls, P=0.02).

Conclusion: PICC-associated pericardial effusions and pleural effusions are rare but inherent risks and can occur at any time after insertion. Risk factors and etiologies are multifactorial, but PICC tip position may be a modifiable risk factor. To mitigate this risk, we have developed and disseminated guidelines for target PICC positions and routinely do radiographs to monitor PICCs for migration and malposition in our NICU. The increased knowledge of risk profiles from this study has helped focus surveillance efforts and facilitate early recognition and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3983-xDOI Listing
January 2018

Technique, Safety, and Yield of Bone Biopsies for Histomorphometry in Children.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2017 Nov 18;28(11):1577-1583. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Division of Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8 Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate image-guided bone biopsy for bone histomorphometry to assess osteoporosis in children with respect to safety and yield.

Materials And Methods: A single-center retrospective review was performed of 79 bone biopsies in 73 patients performed between 2007 and 2015. Biopsies of the iliac bone were performed under general anesthesia, after tetracycline labeling, using a Rochester needle (Medical Innovations International, Inc, Rochester, Minnesota). Ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance were used in all procedures. Biopsy technique, technical success, safety, and histomorphometry results (complete, incomplete, none) were analyzed.

Results: There were 41 male patients (51.8%). Technical success was achieved in 76/79 (96%) procedures. Of 79 biopsies, 75 (95%) were uneventful. Unplanned overnight observation was required in 3 (minor SIR grade B), and prolonged hospital stay owing to hematoma causing nerve compression pain was required in 1 (major SIR grade D). Complete histomorphometric reports were obtained in 69 (87%) procedures, incomplete reports were obtained in 7 (9%), and no reports were obtained in 3(4%). Incomplete reports were insufficient to provide a definitive diagnosis or guide treatment. Histomorphometry impacted subsequent therapy in 69 (87%) biopsies.

Conclusions: Image-guided bone biopsy for osteoporosis using the Rochester needle is a valuable and safe technique for establishing the diagnosis of osteoporosis and directing treatment based on histomorphometry results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2017.07.003DOI Listing
November 2017

Measuring hemoglobin prior to early discharge without routine surveillance ultrasound after percutaneous native renal biopsy in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2017 10 5;32(10):1927-1934. Epub 2017 May 5.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1H4, Canada.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the role of post-procedural hemoglobin (hb), without pre-discharge ultrasound (US), after US-guided renal biopsy in children.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of consecutive outpatient native kidney biopsies over an 8-year period. Procedures were performed under real-time US guidance. Data collected included number of passes, presence and size of perinephric hematoma, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), fasting status, hb and platelets. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, group differences were tested with Student's unpaired t test and analysis of variance and correlations were assessed using Pearson's r. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Hb changes (g/L), percentage hb (%hb) change, hematoma size and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV, respectively) were analyzed.

Results: A total of 330 procedures in 300 children (141 females, mean age 11.2 ± 4.30 years) were analyzed. Post-procedural hematoma occurred in 63%. There was a significant (p = 0.0001) post-procedural hb decrease of 6.3 ± 5.5 g/L and %hb decrease of 4.56 ± 4.01%. Fasting during pre-procedural hb estimation and procedural hematoma was associated with a greater hb drop. A ≥10% hb drop had 73% PPV for repeat blood work and US and a 17% PPV for admission, whereas a <10% hb drop had a NPV of 84% and 98%, respectively. Hb change showed a weak correlation with age, and hematoma size showed a weak inverse correlation with platelet count, but no correlation with BMI, number of passes or BP.

Conclusions: Bleeding complications from US-guided native kidney biopsies in pediatric outpatients can be safely followed by a complete blood count at 6 h post procedure. A 10% hb decrease is strongly associated with requirement for further testing and/or admission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-017-3680-xDOI Listing
October 2017

Ultrasound-guided steroid tendon sheath injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 10-year single-center retrospective study.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2017 Apr 11;15(1):22. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: The aims of this study were to: (a) Identify tendon sheaths most commonly treated with steroid injections in a pediatric patient population with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA); (b) Describe technical aspects of the procedure; (c) Characterize sonographic appearance of tenosynovitis in JIA; (d) Assess agreement between clinical request and sites injected.

Methods: This was a 10 year single-center retrospective study (May 2006-April 2016) of patients with JIA referred by Rheumatology for ultrasound-guided tendon sheath injections. Patient demographics, clinical referral information, sonographic appearance of the tendon sheaths and technical aspects of the procedure were analyzed.

Results: There were 308 procedures of 244 patients (75% female, mean age 9.6 years) who underwent a total of 926 tendon sheath injections. Ankle tendons were most commonly injected (84.9%), specifically the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior (22.3%), peroneus longus (20%) and brevis (19.7%). The majority of treated sites (91.9%) showed peritendinous fluid and sheath thickening on ultrasound. There were 2 minor intra-procedure complications without sequelae. A good agreement between clinical request and sites injected was observed.

Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided tendon sheath injections with steroids are used frequently to treat patients with JIA. It is a safe intervention with a high technical success rate. The ankle region, specifically the medial compartment, is the site most commonly injected in this group of patients. The most common sonographic finding is peritendinous fluid and sheath thickening. These findings might assist clinicians and radiologists to characterize and more effectively manage tenosynovitis in patients with JIA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-017-0155-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5387283PMC
April 2017

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Pediatric Patients: To Repair or Not Repair.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2017 Jun 30;40(6):845-851. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Introduction: Preservation of venous access in children is a major concern in pediatric interventional radiology. If a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) breaks, there are two options: repair the line with a repair kit or exchange the line over a wire in the interventional suite. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of PICC repairs in children and to compare these with the outcomes of PICC exchange.

Materials And Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective study of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) following management of externally broken PICCs (2010-2014). The occurrence of CLABSI within 30 days after repair (Group A) or exchange (Group B) of a line was analyzed, as well as PICCs exchanged following an initial and failed repair.

Results: A total of 235 PICC breaks were included in the study, of which 161 were repaired, and 116 of whom were successful (68%, Group A). No repair was performed in 74 PICCs-55/74 of these were exchanged over a wire (74%, Group B), and 19/74 lines were removed. The 30 days post-repair CLABSI rate (Group A) was 2.0 infections per 1000 catheter days, and the calculated risk was 4.3%. In comparison the 30 days post-exchange CLABSI rate (Group B) was 4.0 per 1000 catheter days and the calculated risk 10.9%. This difference was significant when adjusted for antibiotic use (OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.07-14.0, p = 0.039).

Conclusion: The results of this study support repairing a broken PICC instead of removing or replacing the line.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-017-1580-xDOI Listing
June 2017

Correlation of PET/CT and Image-Guided Biopsies of Pediatric Malignancies.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Mar 27;208(3):656-662. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

2 Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate an early experience with correlation of PET/CT findings and image-guided biopsy results in pediatric patients.

Materials And Methods: In a single-center retrospective case series, the inclusion criterion was performance of image-guided biopsy within 6 weeks of PET/CT, either before or after the biopsy.

Results: Forty-five patients (23 boys, 22 girls; age range, 4-17 years; median, 10.5 years; weight range, 14.6-86.2 kg; median, 48 kg) underwent 47 PET/CT examinations and biopsies. Nineteen patients (20 biopsies) had known malignancy, and 26 patients had suspected malignancy. The results were malignant in 24 cases, benign in 16, and inadequate or normal in 7 cases. Thirty-nine of 47 PET/CT examinations had positive results, and eight had negative results. Final analysis of 37 of the 47 cases (confounders excluded) showed concordant results between biopsy and PET in 36 cases and discordant results in one case.

Conclusion: PET/CT can be used for disease staging and follow-up. In the future PET/CT can play a valuable role in directing image-guided biopsies of children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.15.15914DOI Listing
March 2017

Pediatric thyroid FNA biopsy: Outcomes and impact on management over 24 years at a tertiary care center.

Cancer Cytopathol 2016 Nov 14;124(11):801-810. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Division of Endocrinology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Thyroid malignancy is rare in young children, although the incidence increases sharply during adolescence. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid cancer in children differ substantially from those in adults, because the rates of malignancy among children are roughly 5-fold higher, and local and distant metastases as well as recurrences are more common. Even with the recent introduction of pediatric guidelines, there remains a paucity of pediatric data on which to base clinical decision making. The objectives of this study were to characterize the outcomes of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of nodular thyroid disease at a pediatric tertiary-care institution over a 24-year period and to relate cytopathology to histopathology and management decisions in this population.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent preoperative FNAB and thyroid surgery between 1992 and 2015 was conducted. In total, 207 nodules were biopsied among 178 patients.

Results: Adequate FNAB samples were obtained in 74% of biopsies. Sixty-five patients underwent thyroidectomy after FNAB. In this group, the malignancy rates for lesions deemed benign, atypical, suspicious, and malignant on FNAB cytology were 16%, 67%, 71%, and 100%, respectively. Twenty-seven individuals underwent >1 biopsy; however, no malignancies were identified in these patients. Surprisingly, the rate of malignancy in patients who underwent preoperative FNAB was not significantly different from the rate in those who proceeded directly to surgery (n = 146).

Conclusions: FNAB remains a valuable tool for preoperative assessment of pediatric thyroid nodules. When samples are adequate for assessment, cytology other than clearly "benign" merits referral for diagnostic or therapeutic thyroidectomy. In this series, FNAB did not reduce rates of surgery for benign disease. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:801-10. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.21750DOI Listing
November 2016

Variables decreasing tip movement of peripherally inserted central catheters in pediatric patients.

Pediatr Radiol 2016 Oct 7;46(11):1532-8. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: The position of the tip of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is crucial; malposition can lead to malfunction of the line or life-threatening events (e.g., arrhythmias, perforation).

Objective: To determine what factors other than arm position and accessed vein might influence the tip position of a PICC.

Materials And Methods: Inclusion criteria were upper limb PICC placement, body weight <20 kg, intraoperative imaging with the arm in 0°, 45° and 90° abduction and an arm view marking the skin entry site relative to the shoulder. Evaluated variables included patient demographics, and PICC and insertion site characteristics. We measured central tip movement in rib units.

Results: We included 112 children who received a PICC (42 girls/70 boys, mean age 31±13 months, mean weight 6.5±4.9 kg). The overall range of central tip movement was -1 to +4 rib units (mean +0.8±0.7 rib units). Silicone PICCs moved significantly less than polyurethane PICCs (P<0.05). PICCs placed in the cephalic vein moved significantly less than those placed in other veins (P<0.05). Patient demographics and PICC characteristics (size, number of lumens, left or right arm accessed, length of the line) did not influence the range of central tip movement of a PICC (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Silicone PICCs and PICCs inserted into the cephalic vein move less than PICCs made of polyurethane and PICCs inserted into the brachial and basilic veins. These findings might assist operators in deciding which PICC to place in children in a given clinical context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3648-1DOI Listing
October 2016

Findings in percutaneous cholangiography in two cases of Type III cystic biliary atresia (with ultrasound correlation).

BJR Case Rep 2016 15;2(2):20150377. Epub 2016 May 15.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Cystic biliary atresia (Type III) is uncommon and it may be difficult to differentiate this from a choledochal cyst, an entity that has a very different management and prognosis. This report shows the percutaneous cholangiographic findings in two cases of Type III biliary atresia with a non-communicating cyst, with ultrasound and clinical correlation. These findings are helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients with this condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjrcr.20150377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180854PMC
May 2016

Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2016 Sep 12;46(10):1444-50. Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children.

Objective: To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected.

Results: Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor.

Conclusion: Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome. Patients with peritonitis are delayed starting feeds and have a hospital stay that is an average of 5 days longer than those without.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3628-5DOI Listing
September 2016

Brachial pseudoaneurysm of the neonate with partial response to thrombin injections and late spontaneous thrombosis and regression during expectant management.

BJR Case Rep 2016 4;2(3):20150383. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Image Guided Therapy, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

We illustrate the case of a brachial pseudoaneurysm in a 32-week preterm baby male who presented with a large pulsatile mass in the right antecubital fossa, with no clear aetiologic factor. The management of this type of lesion has been controversial and based mainly on case reports. In this case, after obtaining partial response with two thrombin injections, it spontaneously regressed during expectant management. This combination of therapeutic options may be an alternative for the management of complex lesions and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjrcr.20150383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243352PMC
May 2016

IR Approaches to Difficult Removals of Totally Implanted Venous Access Port Catheters in Children: A Single-Center Experience.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016 Jun 19;27(6):876-81. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Division of Image Guided Therapy, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify factors associated with adherence of implanted venous access port catheters in children and describe technical strategies for removing "stuck" ports.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective single-center review of port removals was conducted between 2003 and 2012. Cases were identified through radiology reports. Clinical details (eg, demographics, disease, port dwell time, interventional techniques) were obtained through patient charts. Cases were classified as difficult removals if there was documented adherence to soft tissues or vein, or simple removals if no difficulty was recorded. Difficult removals were categorized and graded on increasing invasiveness of techniques required. Successful removal was defined as complete removal of the port catheter. Difficult removals were compared with simple removals for factors associated with difficult removal. Of all removals (N = 1,306), 58 were classified as difficult removals (4%).

Results: Using various techniques, 57 of 58 (98%) adherent port catheters were successfully removed. Factors identified with difficult removals included primary diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (78% vs 37%, P < .0001), age at insertion (3.7 y vs 5.4 y, P = .0019), and port dwell time (median 1,087 d vs 616 d, P < .0001).

Conclusions: Difficulty removing port catheters in children is uncommon. Port catheters can usually be removed successfully using various IR techniques ranging in invasiveness. There is an association of difficult removal with early age at insertion, ALL diagnosis, and long port dwell time. Awareness of these factors may help physicians inform parents of potential difficulties and plan the removal procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2016.02.021DOI Listing
June 2016

Evaluation of Radiology Teachers' Performance and Identification of the "Best Teachers" in a Residency Program: Mixed Methodology and Pilot Study of the MEDUC-RX32 Questionnaire.

Acad Radiol 2016 07 6;23(7):779-88. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Marcoleta 367 (mailbox 114-D). Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Radiology teachers are well trained in their specialty; however, when working in academic institutions, faculty development and promotion through the education pathway tends to be based on their teaching knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to assess psychometric properties of the Medicina Universidad Católica-Radiology 32 items (MEDUC-RX32), an instrument designed to evaluate the performance of postgraduate radiology teachers and to identify the best teachers.

Materials And Methods: Mixed methodology was used, including qualitative and quantitative phases. The psychometric properties of the MEDUC-RX32 survey were performed by factor analysis (validity), Cronbach alpha coefficient, and G coefficient (reliability). The residents assessed their teachers and simultaneously voted for the "best teacher," which was used as a gold standard for the receiver operating characteristic curves construction comparing their votes with the global score.

Results: A total of 28 residents answered 164 surveys. The global score was 6.23 ± 0.8 (scale from 1 to 7). The factor analysis showed six domains of the resident's perception: (1) tutorial teaching, feedback, and independent learning; (2) communication and teamwork; (3) learning objectives; (4) respectful behavior; (5) radiological report; and (6) teaching and care support. The tutor's strengths were related with respectful behavior and teamwork. The instrument is highly reliable with a Cronbach alpha of 0.937 and a G coefficient of 0.831 (with a minimum of 8 residents). The MEDUC-RX32 instrument has a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 83.3% to identify tutors as best teachers with at least one vote with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.931 with a cutoff of 5.94.

Conclusions: The MEDC-RX32 instrument is a multidimensional, valid, and highly reliable method to evaluate radiology teachers, identifying teachers with excellence in tutorial teaching in a postgraduate radiology program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2016.02.015DOI Listing
July 2016

Ultrasound-Guided Thrombin Injection for the Treatment of Femoral Pseudoaneurysm in Pediatric Patients.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016 Apr;27(4):519-23

Division of Imaging Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8. Electronic address:

Eight patients with nine femoral pseudoaneurysms were treated with 13 ultrasound-guided thrombin injections. Mean patient age was 3.3 years (range, 5 mo to 13.6 y), mean pseudoaneurysm diameter was 2.0 cm ± 0.6, and mean thrombin dose was 119 IU (500 IU/mL ± 116; 0.95 CI). Mean follow-up was 27 days (range, 7-120 d). Eight pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated, and one failed to close as a result of arterial wall disease. No complications were observed. The approach used at the authors' pediatric institution resulted in safe and effective treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2015.12.756DOI Listing
April 2016