Publications by authors named "Dilpreet Bajwa"

9 Publications

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Author Correction: Cellulose Mediated Transferrin Nanocages for Enumeration of Circulating Tumor Cells for Head and Neck Cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 1;10(1):16607. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58108, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72920-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530764PMC
October 2020

Cellulose Mediated Transferrin Nanocages for Enumeration of Circulating Tumor Cells for Head and Neck Cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 06 19;10(1):10010. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, 58108, ND, USA.

Herein we report a hierarchically organized, water-dispersible 'nanocage' composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which are magnetically powered by iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles (NPs) to capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Capturing CTCs from peripheral blood is extremely challenging due to their low abundance and its account is clinically validated in progression-free survival of patients with HNC. Engaging multiple hydroxyl groups along the molecular backbone of CNC, we co-ordinated FeO NPs onto CNC scaffold, which was further modified by conjugation with a protein - transferrin (Tf) for targeted capture of CTCs. Owing to the presence of FeO nanoparticles, these nanocages were magnetic in nature, and CTCs could be captured under the influence of a magnetic field. Tf-CNC-based nanocages were evaluated using HNC patients' blood sample and compared for the CTC capturing efficiency with clinically relevant Oncoviu platform. Conclusively, we observed that CNC-derived nanocages efficiently isolated CTCs from patient's blood at 85% of cell capture efficiency to that of the standard platform. Capture efficiency was found to vary with the concentration of Tf and FeO nanoparticles immobilized onto the CNC scaffold. We envision that, Tf-CNC platform has immense connotation in 'liquid biopsy' for isolation and enumeration of CTCs for early detection of metastasis in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66625-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305211PMC
June 2020

High-Performance Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Nanocomposites Reinforced by Surface-Modified Cellulose Nanofibers.

ACS Omega 2019 Aug 1;4(8):13189-13199. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Statistics, and Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, United States.

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is widely used in the tire, footwear, and belt industries. SBR products contain a high content of carbon black, which is hazardous to human health and the environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential of using bio-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as a replacement for carbon black under simulated industrial formula/processing conditions. CNFs were surface-modified using five different reagents to have either -SH or -C=C functional groups grafted onto their surfaces. Vulcanized SBR sheets reinforced with pristine CNFs, and the five functionalized CNFs were prepared and their properties were tested and compared with those of industrial SBR containing carbon black. All the CNFs, pristine or modified, demonstrated higher reinforcing efficiencies (property increase/amount of reinforcement) than carbon black. The modified CNFs showed even higher reinforcing efficiencies than the pristine ones because of the former's better dispersion and stronger interfacial bonding. The -SH and -C=C functional groups reduced the hydrophilicity of CNFs and allowed chemical linkages between CNFs and SBR to be established during vulcanization. Solvent (toluene) resistance of the rubber was also improved after the incorporation of CNFs because of the barrier effect of the nanofibers and the restrained SBR chain mobility. The latter also led to reduced rubber damping. Although CNFs provide much stronger reinforcement than carbon black, going forward, SBR/CNFs/carbon black hybrid nanocomposites can also be developed to offer tailorable property combinations that meet different application requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b01313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704437PMC
August 2019

Functionalized Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Potential Fire Retardant for Polymer Composites.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Aug 18;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 18.

USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA.

The flammability of synthetic thermoplastic polymers has been recognized as an increasingly important safety problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate a green and safe fire-retardant system comprising of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). CNCs coated with nano ZnO were incorporated in the high-density polyethylene polymer (HDPE) matrix at different concentrations. Fire testing results of different formulations of HDPE containing 0.4 to 1.0% zinc oxide coated CNC exhibited a substantial decrease in the average mass loss, peak heat release rate and total smoke release. The time to ignition exhibited a positive correlation with CNC-ZnO concentration. Modest improvement in the flexural strength and moduli of composites was noticed validating no adverse effects of CNC-ZnO complex. The transmission electron microscopy further confirmed dispersion of nanoparticles as well as the presence of some nanoparticle aggregates in the matrix. The uniform dispersion of CNC-ZnO complex is expected to further improve fire and mechanical properties of polymer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11081361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722989PMC
August 2019

A review on cellulose nanocrystals as promising biocompounds for the synthesis of nanocomposite hydrogels.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Jul 8;216:247-259. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States. Electronic address:

Hydrogels are hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks formed via the simple reaction of one or more monomers with the ability to retain a significant extent of water. Owing to an increased demand for environmentally friendly, biodegradable, and biocompatible products, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high hydrophilicity have emerged as a promising sustainable material for the formation of hydrogels. The cytocompatibility, swellability, and non-toxicity make CNC hydrogels of great interest in biomedical, biosensing, and wastewater treatment applications. There has been a considerable progress in the research of CNC hydrogels, as the number of scientific publications has exponentially increased (>600%) in the last five years. In this paper, recent progress in CNC hydrogels with particular emphasis on design, materials, and fabrication techniques to control hydrogel architecture, and advanced applications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.04.033DOI Listing
July 2019

Deterioration in the Physico-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Biopolymers Due to Reprocessing.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Jan 2;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA.

Biopolymers are an emerging class of materials being widely pursued due to their ability to degrade in short periods of time. Understanding and evaluating the recyclability of biopolymers is paramount for their sustainable and efficient use in a cost-effective manner. Recycling has proven to be an important solution, to control environmental and waste management issues. This paper presents the first recycling assessment of Solanyl, Bioflex, polylactic acid (PLA) and PHBV using a melt extrusion process. All biopolymers were subjected to five reprocessing cycles. The thermal and mechanical properties of the biopolymers were investigated by GPC, TGA, DSC, mechanical test, and DMA. The molecular weights of Bioflex and Solanyl showed no susceptible effect of the recycling process, however, a significant reduction was observed in the molecular weight of PLA and PHBV. The inherent thermo-mechanical degradation in PHBV and PLA resulted in 20% and 7% reduction in storage modulus, respectively while minimal reduction was observed in the storage modulus of Bioflex and Solanyl. As expected from the Florry-Fox equation, recycled PLA with a high reduction in molecular weight (78%) experienced 9% reduction in glass transition temperature. Bioflex and Solanyl showed 5% and 2% reduction in molecular weight and experienced only 2% reduction in glass transition temperature. These findings highlight the recyclability potential of Bioflex and Solanyl over PLA and PHBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11010058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401911PMC
January 2019

Spin-coating: A new approach for improving dispersion of cellulose nanocrystals and mechanical properties of poly (lactic acid) composites.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Jun 23;190:139-147. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726-2398, United States. Electronic address:

This study systematically evaluated the influence of masterbatch preparation techniques, solvent casting and spin-coating methods, on composite properties. Composites were manufactured by combining CNCs masterbatches and PLA resin using twin screw extruder followed by injection molding. Different microscopy techniques were used to investigate the dispersion of CNCs in masterbatches and composites. Thermal, thermomechanical, and mechanical properties of composites were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed superior dispersion of CNCs in spin-coated masterbatches compared to solvent cast masterbatches. At lower CNCs concentrations, both SEM and optical microscope images confirmed more uniform CNCs dispersion in spin-coated composites than solvent cast samples. Degree of crystallinity of PLA exhibited a major enhancement by 147% and 380% in solvent cast and spin-coated composites, respectively. Spin-coated composites with lower CNCs concentration exhibited a noticeable improvement in mechanical properties. However, lower thermal characteristics in spin-coated composites were observed, which could be attributed to the residual solvents in masterbatches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.02.069DOI Listing
June 2018

Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite.

Materials (Basel) 2016 May 19;9(5). Epub 2016 May 19.

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA.

In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU) composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA), specific gravity (SG), coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE), flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma9050390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5503059PMC
May 2016

Application of bioethanol derived lignin for improving physico-mechanical properties of thermoset biocomposites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2016 Aug 27;89:265-72. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dolve Hall 111, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

Lignin is the most abundant of renewable polymers next to cellulose with a global annual production of 70million tons, largely produced from pulping and second generation biofuel industries. Low value of industrial lignin makes it an attractive biomaterial for wide range of applications. The study investigated the application of wheat straw and corn stover based lignin derived from ethanol production for use in thermoset biocomposites. The biocomposite matrix constituted a two component low viscosity Araldite(®)LY 8601/Aradur(®) 8602 epoxy resin system and the lignin content varied from 0 to 25% by weight fraction. The analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of the biocomposites show bioethanol derived lignin can improve selective properties such as impact strength, and thermal stability without compromising the modulus and strength attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.04.077DOI Listing
August 2016
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