Publications by authors named "Dillibabu Ethiraj"

8 Publications

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QJM: An International Journal of MedicineTitle: "Imaging of Primary hyperoxaluria with classical renal and skeletal changes".

QJM 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern which is due to deficiency of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase enzyme. It causes defective glyoxylate metabolism in liver which in turn leads to excessive oxalate production and deposition. Supersaturation of oxalic acid in urine (>45 mg/day) is known as hyperoxaluria which causes nephrolithiasis, cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency. Secondary hyperoxaluria is due to over ingestion of oxalic acids or its precursors or can be due to its reduced excretion. Deposition of these highly insoluble calcium oxalate crystals (serum oxalate >30.0 mmol/L) in extra-renal tissues is known as systemic oxalosis. Here we present a rare case of infantile presentation, where nephrocalcinosis sets in at a very early age without nephrolithiasis, leading to ESRD in very early childhood and extra renal deposition in skeletal system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcab027DOI Listing
February 2021

Systemic arterio-venous thrombosis in COVID-19: A pictorial review.

World J Radiol 2021 Jan;13(1):19-28

Department of Radiology, Dr. Rela Institute and Medical Centre, Chennai 600044, India.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Systemic complications include cardiovascular, neurological, hepatic, renal and altered coagulation. Derangements in haemostasis with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been termed COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC). CAC is postulated to be one of the significant causes for sudden deaths in this pandemic, with infection of endothelial cells and subsequent endotheliitis through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors playing a key role in the pathogenesis. In this pictorial review, we describe the imaging findings in a multitude of extrapulmonary arterial (aorta, cerebral, mesenteric, renal and peripheral arterial system) and venous thrombotic phenomena detected on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of COVID-19 patients which could not be attributed to any other causes. Knowledge of incidence of these complications, lowering the threshold for diagnostic imaging in symptomatic patients and timely radiological detection can play a vital role in subsequent management of these critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4329/wjr.v13.i1.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852348PMC
January 2021

Abdominal Cocoon: "Cauliflower Sign" on Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scan.

GE Port J Gastroenterol 2020 Dec 19;28(1):76-77. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841799PMC
December 2020

"Thread and streak sign in hepatocellular carcinoma".

QJM 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Consultant, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dr. Rela Institute and Medical Centre, 7 Works Road, Chromepet, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600044, India,, PIN:, Email:

'Thread and streak sign' refers to the pattern of early opacification of the blood spaces within the portal vein tumor thrombus in Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma. Originally described in digital subtraction angiogram, this sign is increasingly observed in the hepatic arterial phase of contrast study of the abdomen. Here we present a typical 'thread and streak' sign in contrastenhanced CT of the abdomen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa317DOI Listing
November 2020

Imaging of Pharyngocele: An Occupational Overuse Syndrome.

Oman Med J 2020 Sep 30;35(5):e181. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Pharyngocele is a rare pathology of the pharynx caused by the laxity of the thyrohyoid membrane. Only about 60 true lateral pharyngocele cases have been reported in the literature over the last 133 years. Laryngocele is a close differential, and the two are difficult to tell apart. Though they have been described well in the literature, they are often misdiagnosed or interchangeably diagnosed. The acquired type of pharyngocele is due to prolonged increased intrapharyngeal pressure and pharyngeal wall weakness, and it is more common than congenital pharyngoceles. Close differential diagnoses include Zenker's diverticulum, laryngocele, and jugular venous phlebectasia. Acquired lateral pharyngoceles are seen in wind instrument musicians and glassblowers. Hence, these diverticula are described as 'overuse syndrome'. We present a case of bilateral neck swelling, which occurred doing the Valsalva maneuver with imaging studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2020.122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568824PMC
September 2020

Primary Hyperoxaluria-Imaging of Renal Oxalosis.

Urology 2019 Dec 1;134:e3-e4. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India; IVR Scans, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Primary Hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder due to deficient alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase enzyme with defective glyoxylate metabolism leading to excessive oxalate production and deposition into the tissues (oxalosis). Deposition of excessive calcium oxalates in nephrons leads to crystallization (nephrocalcinosis) which increases risk for end-stage renal disease. We are presenting a case of primary hyperoxaluria type I confirmed with genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.09.020DOI Listing
December 2019

Trousseau's sign in the left internal jugular vein in gastric cancer.

Indian J Cancer 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):415-416

Department of Radiology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_321_18DOI Listing
June 2019

Alkaptonuria-an atypical case: multi-modality imaging review.

Skeletal Radiol 2019 May 8;48(5):819-822. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Radiology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, 7, Works Road, Chromepet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600044, India.

Alkaptonuria is a rare inborn metabolic disorder due to a mutation in the homogentisic acid oxidase enzyme (HGO) gene on chromosome 3q. As HGO is deficient in alkaptonuria patients, there is an accumulation of homogentisic acid in the blood and urine. Homogentisic acid gets deposited in the soft tissues, tendons, cartilages, large joints and intervertebral discs. Ochronosis usually affects the dorsolumbar spine and typically spares the cervical spine and sacroiliac joints. However, in this case of isolated ochronosis, we report co-existent extensive cervical spine degenerative changes and cervical vertebral fusion, which has not been described in the literature so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-018-3104-4DOI Listing
May 2019