Publications by authors named "Dilip G Naik"

6 Publications

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Tooth shade variation in Indian population: An objective guide to age estimation.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 5;7(2):e06164. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Periodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Introduction: The color of the teeth is affected by chronological age due to the variations of the hard and soft tissue structure of the teeth. There are very few studies have assessed the shade of the Enamel and correlated it with the age changes. Hence the study aimed to assess the enamel shade with the aging in the individual.

Materials And Methods: The central incisors of 388 individuals (5-78 years) were assessed for tooth color using a VITA 3D master shade guide and the Hue, Value and Chroma were noted. Mean grey values of the teeth were obtained by image manipulation using Image J software and normalized using the values obtained from the 18% contrast grey card. Chi square tests and linear regression analysis is used to find associations with age and tooth shade variations.Results: The teeth had higher score of Hue, Value and Chroma in older individuals. The tooth shade tended to shift towards redder hue with older age group. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation of age with normalized grey value in association with the shade parameters. (r = 0.717, SEE = 12.322 years)Conclusion: Tooth color changes with age and the mean age in grey values and shade guides can be a useful tool for age estimation.
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February 2021

Periodontal disease and hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: Is there a nexus?

J Oral Biosci 2019 06 22;61(2):129-133. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India. Electronic address:

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an erythrocyte enzyme defect that amplifies the susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress due to excessive levels of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, erythrocyte destruction and hemolysis occur.

Highlight: The possible mechanism of oxidative stress-mediated destruction of erythrocytes in G6PD deficient individuals induced by periodontal infection is highlighted.

Conclusion: Periodontal diseases feature systemic loading of reactive oxygen species, and they may increase the risk of hemolysis in individuals with G6PD deficiency.
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June 2019

Towards a Common Etiopathogenesis: Periodontal Disease and Endometriosis.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2018 Jul-Sep;11(3):269-273

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Context: Periodontal disease and endometriosis are seen to share a common pathogenesis. There is only one report suggesting the possible association between the two conditions.

Aims: To study the association between endometriosis and periodontal disease.

Settings And Design: This was a case-control study.

Subjects And Methods: Periodontal screening was carried out in 25 women with endometriosis and 25 women without endometriosis. Severity of periodontal disease was classified based on the extent of loss of attachment.

Statistical Analysis Used: Student's -test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Karl Pearson correlation coefficient tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The proportion of women with severe periodontitis was seen to be higher among women with endometriosis (70%).

Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate the existence of a relationship between endometriosis and periodontal disease. However, further studies among larger cohorts of endometriosis may provide evidence about the association.
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December 2018

The validity and reliability of the Sense of Coherence scale among Indian university students.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Dec 20;23(4):16-26. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: The importance of salutogenesis, with the focus of what creates health rather than what causes diseases, has been highlighted for a long time. This has been operationalized by Aaron Antonovsky as the Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) scale. The aim of this study was to further examine the psychometric properties of the SOC-13 in India.

Methods: The present study was carried out among second-year degree students at three randomly chosen institutions at Mangalore University. Investigators assessed the appropriateness, relevance, comprehensiveness and understandability of the scale. Further, the scale was assessed by five subject experts. The SOC-13 was then pretested by administering it to peers, individuals and a few of the study subjects. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability. Test-retest reliability was assessed by administering the instrument to the same study participants after two weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis employing varimax rotation was employed.

Results: The SOC-13 revealed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.76. Split-half reliability and Guttman split-half reliability were found to be 0.71 and 0.70, respectively. Test-retest reliability was found to be 0.71 (p < 0.01). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution explaining 40.53% of the variation in SOC.

Conclusions: SOC-13 was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring SOC in an Indian context. The present study contributes to health promotion in an Indian context, and could be useful even in other developing countries and for further research in India.
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December 2016

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Silorane and Methacrylate based Dental Composites using Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Jan 1;9(1):ZC05-8. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Additional Professor, Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College , Manipal University, Manipal, India .

Aim: The effects of leached substances from the restorative dental materials may induce local and systemic adverse effects. Thus the biological and toxic properties of the restorative dental materials must be compatible with the oral tissues or with general health. Therefore, the need for biocompatible restorative dental material implies the necessity of toxicity testing. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine and compare the possible toxic effect of silorane based composite (Filtek P90) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) in vitro using cytotoxicity measuring parameters (MTT assay) in comparison with its methacrylate counterpart (Z100) for their viability, proliferation rate.

Materials And Methods: Fresh healthy biopsy specimens of human gingival tissue of patients were obtained. For HGF, cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium and grown to sub confluent monolayers. After attaining confluence, cells were treated with different doses of the Filtek P90 or Z 100 for different time point. HGF cells were observed for their proliferation, viability by MTT assay.

Results: The results of the cytotoxicity assay showed that, the percentage of viable cells was very good in the first 24h and marginally decreased in the next 48h period in all groups. However, the proliferation rate was never below 84% in all the groups, at any given concentration. Filtek P90 and Z100 treated cells exhibited insignificant decrease in the cell proliferation both in 24h and 48h exposure when compared to significant decrease in the cell survival rate in the positive control (Mitomycin C 250 μg/ml).) Comparison of the toxicity between Filtek P90 and Z100 in 24h & 48h separately showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between these two composites in 24h and 48h' time period at all concentrations of the composites.

Conclusion: To conclude, the new silorane based restorative composite showed comparable cytotoxic characteristics to clinically successful dimethacrylate composites suggesting the non-toxic nature in the oral environment and hence contributing to clinical success of these new restorative materials.
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January 2015

Redefining the role of dendritic cells in periodontics.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013 Nov;17(6):700-5

Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

A properly functioning adaptive immune system signifies the best features of life. It is diverse beyond compare, tolerant without fail, and capable of behaving appropriately with a myriad of infections and other challenges. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required to explain how this remarkable system is energized and directed. DCs consist of a family of antigen presenting cells, which are bone-marrow-derived cells that patrol all tissues of the body with the possible exceptions of the brain and testes. DCs function to capture bacteria and other pathogens for processing and presentation to T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs. They serve as an essential link between innate and adaptive immune systems and induce both primary and secondary immune responses. As a result of progress worldwide, there is now evidence of a central role for dendritic cells in initiating antigen-specific immunity and tolerance. This review addresses the origins and migration of DCs to target sites, their basic biology and plasticity in playing a key role in periodontal diseases, and finally, selected strategies being pursued to harness its ability to prevent periodontal diseases.
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November 2013