Publications by authors named "Dilaram Acharya"

29 Publications

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Underweight and Associated Factors Among Teenage Adolescent Girls in Resource-poor Settings: A Cross-sectional Study.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 6;14:9-19. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: Understanding the undernutrition status of teenage adolescent girls living in urban slums and its associated factors is meaningful to formulate customized health strategies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of being underweight and associated factors among teenage adolescent girls in urban slums.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 418 teenage adolescent girls from five of 210 urban slums of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India employing two-stage probability sampling for the selection of households and subjects, between September 2016 and July 2017. The study of underwight subjects was assessed with BMI for age using standard criteria. Factors associated with being underweight were determined by multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: Of 418 study subjects, 49.76% (208/418) were underweight. Results revealed that sociodemographic factors such as teenage adolescent girls who were from SC/ST (schedule caste/schedule tribe) caste/ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.02, 95%CI: 1.00-4.23), subjects whose father's education level was primary or lower (AOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.12-3.11), and number of people in the family >4 (AOR=2.18, 95%CI: 1.18-4.03) were associated with being underweight. Likewise, dietary behavior-related factors such as vegetarian (AOR=2.21, 95%CI: 1.25-3.92), and <3 meals per day (AOR=2.36, 95%CI: 1.40-3.98) than their counterparts were associated with being underweight. In addition, teenage adolescent girls from food-insecure households (AOR=3.33, 95%CI: 2.01-5.51) were more likely to be underweight than those from food-secure households.

Conclusion: The higher burden of underweight among teenage adolescent girls in Indian urban slums needs to be addressed through specific public health interventions such as by improving education, providing education regarding dietary behavior, and having access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S280499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797319PMC
January 2021

Frontline Healthcare Workers' Knowledge and Perception of COVID-19, and Willingness to Work during the Pandemic in Nepal.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Dec 11;8(4). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Ministry of Health and Population, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal.

This study investigated the contextual factors associated with the knowledge, perceptions, and the willingness of frontline healthcare workers (FHWs) to work during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal among a total of 1051 FHWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify independent associations between predictors and outcome variables. Of the total study subjects, 17.2% reported inadequate knowledge on COVID-19, 63.6% reported that they perceived the government response as unsatisfactory, and 35.9% showed an unwillingness to work during the pandemic. Our analyses demonstrated that FHWs at local public health facilities, pharmacists, Ayurvedic health workers (HWs), and those with chronic diseases were less likely, and male FHWs were more likely, to have adequate knowledge of COVID-19. Likewise, nurses/midwives, public health workers, FHWs from Karnali and Far-West provinces, and those who had adequate knowledge of COVID-19 were more likely to have satisfactory perceptions towards the government response. Further, FHWs-paramedics, nurse/midwives, public health workers, laboratory workers-FHWs from Karnali Province and Far-West Province, and those with satisfactory perceptions of government responses to COVID-19 were predictors of willingness to work during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest that prompt actions are required to improve FHWs' knowledge of COVID-19, address negative perceptions of government responses, and motivate them through specific measures to provide healthcare services during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764814PMC
December 2020

Clinical Characteristics of the COVID-19 Patients with Pneumonia Detected by Computerized Tomography but Negative for Infiltration by X-ray.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Nov 29;8(4). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to all corners of the globe. Different diagnostic tools, such as Chest X-ray (CXR), lung ultrasound (LUS), and computerized tomography (CT), have been used to detect active pneumonic lesions associated with COVID-19 with their varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with a pneumonic lung lesion detected by CT that is not detected by CXR. A total of 156 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at three nationally designated South Korean hospitals with no active lesion detected by CXR but on clinical suspicion of pneumonia underwent the CT examination and were enrolled. Medical records, which included demographic and clinical features, including comorbidity, symptoms, radiological, and laboratory findings on admission, were reviewed and analyzed. The risk factors of pneumonia detected by CT for patients without an active lesion detected by CXR were investigated. Of the 156 patients without an active lesion detected by CXR, 35 (22.44%) patients were found to have pneumonia by CT. The patients with pneumonia defined by CT were older than those without (64.1 years vs. 41.2 years). Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, preexisting stroke, and dementia were more common among patients with pneumonia defined by CT than those without. Serum albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP), stroke, and age ≥ 70 years were significantly associated with pneumonia defined by CT after adjustment for age. In multivariable regression analysis, serum albumin level (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.123, 95% CI = (0.035-0.429)) and preexisting stroke (AOR = 11.447, 95% CI = (1.168-112.220)) significantly and independently predicted pneumonia detection by CT. Our results suggest that CT scans should be performed on COVID-19 patients negative for a pneumonic lung lesion by CXR who are suspected to be pneumonic on clinical grounds. In addition, older patients with a lower albumin level and a preexisting stroke should be checked for the presence of pneumonia despite a negative CXR finding for an active lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711504PMC
November 2020

Socio-demographic and Healthcare-seeking Predictors of Undernutrition among Children Under-five Years of Age in a Western District of Nepal.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2020 Nov 14;18(3):488-494. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Central Department of Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Undernutrition is highly prevalent in Nepal, which interferes with physical and mental development among children. It is one of the severe health problems contributing to the significant portion of the disease burden. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic and healthcare-seeking related predictors of undernutrition among children under five years old in Dang, Nepal.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A sample of 426 children was participated through stratified proportionate random sampling to identify socio-demographics and healthcare-seeking predictors of undernutrition. Multivariable regression was applied to identify the independent predictors of undernutrition.

Results: This study found that children below 24 months of age were more likely to be undernourished than children aged 24-36 months. Female children (OR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.19-4.54), illiterate or non-formally educated women (OR=4.09, 95% CI: 1.84-9.08), mother's occupation other than a housewife (OR=13.05, 95% CI: 4.19-40.68), labor work of father (OR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.04-5.57) had increased risk of undernutrition among children. Similarly, food insufficiency from their land, antenatal care visit, postnatal care visit, and delivery place were significantly associated with childhood undernutrition among children.  Conclusions: The study showed that undernutrition among children is associated with age and gender of children, educational attainment of the mother, food sufficiency, health-seeking practices of the mother during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal. Socio-demographics and health-seeking practices related predictors must be explicitly considered to address undernutrition among children under the age of five years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33314/jnhrc.v18i3.2875DOI Listing
November 2020

Mortality Rate and Predictors of Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Sep 13;8(3). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Dongguk University Gyeongju hospital, Dongdae-ro 87, Gyeongju 38067, Korea.

Studies have confirmed COVID-19 patients with diabetes are at higher risk of mortality than their non-diabetic counterparts. However, data-driven evidence of factors associated with increased mortality risk among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes is scarce in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the mortality rate and identify risk factors of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Gyeongsangbuk-do province, South Korea. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 324 patients with confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized at two of the tertiary level healthcare facilitates of Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea from 18 February to 30 June 2020. Demographic and clinical data and laboratory profiles were analyzed and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of mortality among diabetic patients with COVID-19. Of the 324 patients, 55 (16.97%) had diabetes mellitus. The mean age of all study subjects was 55 years, and the mean age of those with diabetes was greater than that of those without (69.8 years vs. 51.9 years). Remarkably, the mortality rate was much higher among those with diabetes (20.0% vs. 4.8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an older age (≥70 years) and a high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels significantly predicted mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Our study cautions more attention to be paid to patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19, especially those aged ≥ 70 years and those with a high serum LDH level, to reduce the risk of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551813PMC
September 2020

Effects of Female Community Health Volunteer Capacity Building and Text Messaging Intervention on Gestational Weight Gain and Hemoglobin Change Among Pregnant Women in Southern Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Public Health 2020 17;8:312. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju-si, South Korea.

Public health interventions such as text messaging are commonly evaluated in high-income countries and that the evaluation reports of the effectiveness of community health volunteers in low-income countries like Nepal is scarce. This study aimed to determine whether female community health volunteer (FCHV) capacity building and text messaging to expectant mother increases gestational weights and hemoglobin levels of pregnant women living in southern Nepal. A cluster randomized control trial was carried out in 52 clusters of 6 Village Development Committees in southern Nepal between July 2015 and March 2016. A total of 413 pregnant mothers of gestation age between 13 and 28 weeks (214 in the intervention group and 199 in the control group) were included in the analysis. Intervention consisted of FCHV capacity building followed by regular supervision and monitoring and mobile phone text messaging to expectant mothers. Regression analysis, controlled for confounders, was conducted to assess gestational weight gains and changes in hemoglobin levels. At the end of the pregnancy, the mean weight gain difference between the intervention and control groups was 1.1 kg (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). Rates of weight increases in the intervention and control groups were 0.504 kg/week (95% CI: 0.371, 0.528), and 0.399 kg/week (95% CI: 0.362, 0.465), respectively. Similarly, the mean inter group difference in hemoglobin levels was 0.11 gm/dl (95% CI: 0.09, 0.15), and rates of hemoglobin increases (gm/dl/week) in the intervention and control groups were 0.02 gm/dl (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09) and 0.004 gm/dl (95% CI: 0.02, 0.12), respectively. The study shows that FCHV capacity building and mobile text messaging have a positive effect on the gestational weights and hemoglobin levels of expectant mothers. Our findings suggest that mobile text messaging coupled with FCHV capacity building services should be supported and would usefully expand in resource poor settings. ISRCTN60684155.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379845PMC
July 2020

A Diarrhoeagenic () Infection Outbreak That Occurred among Elementary School Children in Gyeongsangbuk-Do Province of South Korea Was Associated with Consumption of Water-Contaminated Food Items.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 30;17(9). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

(1) Background: In response to the notification made by an elementary school authority that reported a number of elementary school children being absent in three schools as a result of gastroenteritis symptoms on 4 July 2018, in Gyeongsangbuk-Do Province, South Korea, an epidemic investigation was carried out to determine the extent, cause, and source of the outbreak in order to prevent secondary cases and make recommendations to prevent future recurrences. (2) Methods: In this epidemiologic study, a total of 106 human subjects (school children, staff members, and cooks) who had consumed the possibly contaminated foodstuffs were enrolled retrospectively. Human specimens from clinically defined cases, food and drinks, supply and storage of them, and environmental and sanitary conditions were also assessed by observation, laboratory tests, and survey questionnaires-where and whatever applicable. The attack rate and positive rate for human specimens were first presented followed by the calculation of the relative risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI (confidence intervals) in order to identify the exposure and outcome relationships. (3) Results: The attack rate was 12.26% (13/106) for those who had ingested the food items at the three schools and the positive rate of enteropathogenic () was 15.38% (2/13). The relative risk (RR) of developing food poisoning of those who consumed the cucumber chili with ssamjang and seasoned cucumber and chives were 4.55 (95% CI 1.05-19.54) and 9.20 (95% CI 1.24-68.22), respectively. In addition, within the human specimens as well as the water and environmental samples different strains of diarrhoeagenic () were detected. (4) Conclusions: Provision of safe and wholesome water access to all elementary schools by concerned authorities, especially during the likely seasons of water source contamination, as well as health education promotion about foodborne outbreaks to all school stakeholders is therefore recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246572PMC
April 2020

Burden of injuries in Nepal, 1990-2017: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 8;26(Supp 1):i57-i66. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Nepal is a low-income country undergoing rapid political, economic and social development. To date, there has been little evidence published on the burden of injuries during this period of transition.

Methods: The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is a comprehensive measurement of population health outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. We analysed the GBD 2017 estimates for deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injuries to ascertain the burden of injuries in Nepal from 1990 to 2017.

Results: There were 16 831 (95% uncertainty interval 13 323 to 20 579) deaths caused by injuries (9.21% of all-cause deaths (7.45% to 11.25%)) in 2017 while the proportion of deaths from injuries was 6.31% in 1990. Overall, the injury-specific age-standardised mortality rate declined from 88.91 (71.54 to 105.31) per 100 000 in 1990 to 70.25 (56.75 to 85.11) per 100 000 in 2017. In 2017, 4.11% (2.47% to 6.10%) of all deaths in Nepal were attributed to transport injuries, 3.54% (2.86% to 4.08%) were attributed to unintentional injuries and 1.55% (1.16% to 1.85%) were attributed to self-harm and interpersonal violence. From 1990 to 2017, road injuries, falls and self-harm all rose in rank for all causes of death.

Conclusions: The increase in injury-related deaths and DALYs in Nepal between 1990 and 2017 indicates the need for further research and prevention interventions. Injuries remain an important public health burden in Nepal with the magnitude and trend of burden varying over time by cause-specific, sex and age group. Findings from this study may be used by the federal, provincial and local governments in Nepal to prioritise injury prevention as a public health agenda and as evidence for country-specific interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571348PMC
October 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Association between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Microalbuminuria and to Predict the Risk for the Development of Microalbuminuria Using Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

Healthcare (Basel) 2019 Sep 26;7(4). Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) provides a useful means of assessing cardiovascular events and diabetic complications. However, the nature of associations between baPWV and microalbuminuria (MAU) and its presence in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) have rarely been investigated. This study aimed to examine the association between baPWV and MAU coupled with prediction of MAU using baPWV measurement among Type 2 DM patients. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 424 Type 2 DM patients who visited the cardiology and endocrinology department at a tertiary level health care facility, Republic of Korea between 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, and risk factors associated with MAU and prediction of risk for the development of MAU using baPWV measurement. The association between MAU and baPWV was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis and predicted MAU by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of the 424 Type 2 DM patients, 93 (21.9%) had MAU (20-200 μg/min). baPWV (cm/sec) was found to be significantly correlated with MAU levels (ug/min) ( = 0.791, < 0.001). Further, baPWV was significantly associated MAU with higher odds ratio (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 10.899; 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.518-26.292)). Similarly, smoking (AOR 10.899; 95% CI (4.518-26.292)), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (mg/dL) (AOR 1.017; 95% CI (1.001-1.033)) were also significantly associated with MAU. The appropriate cut-off value for baPWV to predict MAU 20 μg/min in our study was 1700 cm/sec (area under ROC curve = 0.976). This study shows that baPWV, cigarette smoking, and LDL-cholesterol are associated with MAU in Type 2 DM patients and suggests that a baPWV cut-off of 1700 cm/sec could be used to predict the presence of MAU (20 μg/min) in Type 2 DM patients in the Korean community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955908PMC
September 2019

Socio-Demographic and Diet-Related Factors Associated with Insufficient Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Adolescent Girls in Rural Communities of Southern Nepal.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 06 17;16(12). Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Sufficient fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and adverse health conditions. However, the determinants of insufficient of FV intake among adolescent girls in Nepal have not been determined. This study was undertaken to identify associations between socio-demographic and diet-related factors with insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescent girls living in rural communities. This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 adolescent girls from rural communities in the Bateshwar rural municipality of Dhanusha district, Southern Nepal between 12 October, 2018 and 14 December, 2018. The study subjects responded to FV consumption and dietary factor-related questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Data were analyzed using the univariate logistic regression followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. From the 407 study subjects, 359 (88.2%) reported insufficient FV consumption. The factors significantly associated with insufficient FV consumption were education to under the 10th grade, household income in the first tercile, lack of awareness of the importance of FV consumption, the non-availability of FVs at the household level, the low level of dietary diversity, and undernutrition (BMI (body mass index) (<18.5)). The study shows almost 90% of adolescent girls consumed inadequate amounts of FV and that socio-demographic and dietary factors should be taken into account while designing preventive strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption to recommended levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617531PMC
June 2019

Maternal Factors and the Utilization of Maternal Care Services Associated with Infant Feeding Practices among Mothers in Rural Southern Nepal.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 28;16(11). Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the maternal factors and utilization of maternal care services associated with infant feeding practices in rural areas of Southern Nepal. Data from a cluster randomized controlled trial 'MATRI-SUMAN'(Maternal Alliance for Technological Research Initiative on Service Utilization and Maternal Nutrition) conducted between 2015-2016 were analyzed. A total of 426 pregnant women in their second trimester were recruited from the MATRI-SUMAN trial, which was conducted on six villages in rural areas of the Dhanusha district, Nepal. A total of 379 mothers that had ever breastfed their infants, and followed for at least seven months after birth were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors associated with child feeding practices after controlling for potential confounders. Of the 379 mothers, 41.4%, 53%, and 43% initiated breast feeding within the first hour of birth (EIBF), practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and initiated timely complementary feeding (CF) at six months, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results revealed that maternal education (secondary or higher), an occupation in the service/business/household sectors, receipt of MATRI-SUMAN intervention, more than four ANC (antenatal care) visits, and delivery in a health facility were associated with higher odds ratios of EIBF. Similarly, mothers with a primary, secondary and higher level of education, that worked in the service/business/household sectors, primiparous mothers, those that received MATRI-SUMAN intervention, visited ANC more than four times, and made a PNC (postnatal care) visit had higher odds ratios of EBF, while mothers who were 35-45 years of age were less likely to have used EBF. In addition, education to the secondary or a higher level, a male baby, receipt of MATRI-SUMAN intervention and a PNC visit had higher odds ratios of CF initiation at six months. The promotion of maternal ANC visits, birth at a health institution, and postnatal visits should be recommended in order to improve child feeding practices in Nepal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603766PMC
May 2019

Factors Associated with Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Rhinitis among Residents of Two Municipal Areas in South Korea.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 12;55(5). Epub 2019 May 12.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

The growing burden and deleterious health consequences of allergic diseases, especially of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD), in developed countries remains an important public health issue. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis among residents of Pohang-Si and Yeongdeok-Gun, two municipal areas in South Korea. : A cross-sectional study was conducted in both municipal areas between 12 November and 13 December 2017. A total of 302 subjects were recruited from 100 households (25 apartments and 25 houses in each municipality), by system extraction according to district code numbers. Data were collected using International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Standard Questionnaires for children and a health questionnaire for adults. Risk factors were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. : Of the 302 study participants, 12.9% and 25.5% had AD and AR, respectively. The significant factors associated with AD by multivariate logistic regression analysis were age ≥19 years (aOR (adjusted odds ratio) 6.9; 95% CI (confidence interval) (2.9-16.37)), residence in Pohang-Si (aOR 2.5; 95% CI (1.18-5.53)), and family history of allergic disease (aOR 2.3; 95% CI (1.09-4.9)). Similarly, the significant factors associated with AR were male gender (aOR 2.3; 95% CI (1.24-4.42)), age ≥19 years (aOR 4.4; 95% CI (2.28-8.48)), residence in Pohang-Si (aOR 2.8; 95% CI (1.51-5.37)), and family history of allergic disease (aOR 6.7; 95% CI (3.50-12.82)). The present study shows that age ≥19 years, residence in Pohang-Si, and family history of allergic disease are risk factors for AD and AR, and that, additionally, male gender is a risk factor of AR. Understanding the risk factors of allergic diseases can aid the design and implementation of evidence-specific strategies to reduce the long-standing problems associated with allergic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55050131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572473PMC
May 2019

Prevalence of behavioral risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and associated socio-economic factors among pregnant women in a rural area in Southern Nepal.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 7;18(1):484. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physiology, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have dramatically infiltrated populations living in abject poverty in Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMICs), and poor maternal and child health outcomes have been frequently reported for those with CVD risk factors. However, few studies have explored the behavioral risk factors of CVDs among pregnant women in rural settings. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and identifying the socio-economic predictors of behavioral risk factors of CVDs among pregnant women in rural area in Southern Nepal.

Methods: A Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 52 clusters of Dhanusha District of Nepal in a total of 426 pregnant women in their second trimester using multistage cluster sampling method. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess independent associations between behavioral risk factors during pregnancy and maternal socio-economic characteristics.

Results: Of the 426 study participants, 86.9, 53.9, 21.3 and 13.3%, respectively, reported insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, and harmful alcohol drinking. Socio-economic factors significantly associated with more than one behavioral risk factors in expectant mothers with a primary level education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.78; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.35-5.72)), 20-34 years age group (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.27; 95% CI (0.13-0.56)), and those with the highest wealth index (AOR 0.36; 95% CI (0.16-0.84)).

Conclusion: Higher prevalence of behavioral risk factors for CVDs and their socio-economic factors prevailing among pregnant women living in rural Nepal call for immediate health promotion interventions such as community awareness and appropriate antenatal counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-2122-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286585PMC
December 2018

Maternal Factors and Utilization of the Antenatal Care Services during Pregnancy Associated with Low Birth Weight in Rural Nepal: Analyses of the Antenatal Care and Birth Weight Records of the MATRI-SUMAN Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 3;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Low birth weight (LBW) remains a major public health problem in developing countries, including Nepal. This study was undertaken to examine the association between LBW and maternal factors and antenatal care service utilization, in rural Nepal, using data obtained for a capacity-building and text-messaging intervention, designed to enhance maternal and child health service utilization among pregnant women, in rural Nepal ("MATRI-SUMAN"). The study used a clustered randomized controlled design and was conducted during 2015⁻2016. We investigated maternal and antenatal care service utilization determinants of LBW, using a logistic regression model. Of the four hundred and two singleton babies, included in the present study, seventy-eight (19.4%) had an LBW (mean (SD), 2210.64 (212.47)) grams. It was found that Dalit caste/ethnicity, illiteracy, manual labor, a female baby, and having more than four family members were significantly positively associated with LBW. In addition, mothers who did not visit an antenatal care (ANC) unit, visited an ANC < 4 times, did not take iron and folic acid (IFA), de-worming tablets, and mothers that did not consume additional food, during pregnancy, were more likely to have an LBW baby, than their counterparts. The MATRI-SUMAN intervention and availability of a kitchen garden at home, were found to reduce the risk of LBW. Nepalese child survival policies and programs should pay attention to these maternal and antenatal care service utilization factors, while designating preventive strategies to improve child health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267196PMC
November 2018

Correlates of Biochemical Markers of Bone turnover among Post-Menopausal Women.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2018 Jul-Aug;56(212):754-758

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea,Department of Community Medicine, Devdaha Medical College and Research Institute, Devdaha, Rupandehi, Nepal.

Introduction: Bone turnover leading to osteoporosis and poor quality of life is common during post-menopausal period. Study of bone turnover markers that contribute to non-invasive assessment of bone-metabolic disorders holds an important area of research in low income country like Nepal. This study aimed to examine the correlates of bone turnover markers in post-menopausal women in tertiary level of health care center of Nepal.

Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted during the period of November 2016 to December 2017 among 354 women. Blood samples for calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D were collected and analyzed using a validated and calibrated tools. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20.

Results: Mean±Standard deviation of age of post-menopausal women was significantly higher compared to pre-menopausal women (post-menopausal women, (57.98±8.08) vs. pre-menopausal, (31.35±5.83), (P<0.001). Selected biochemical markers of bone-turnover such as alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher with year since menopause (P<0.001), whereas serum calcium, and vitamin D were decreasing with year since menopause among post-menopausal women. In addition, calcium and vitamin D were significantly negatively correlated with year since menopause (P<0.01) while body mass index, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were significantly positively correlated with year since menopause (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Our study revealed that body mass index, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase positively correlated with year since menopause while calcium and vitamin D were negatively correlated suggesting for a medical supervision of hormonal changes and periodic dosing of calcium and vitamin D among post-menopausal women to reduce the problem of bone health.
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October 2019

Seroreactivity and Risk Factors Associated with Human Brucellosis among Cattle Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 10 29;15(11). Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

The prevalence rate of human brucellosis in high-risk populations, as well as their risk factors, have not been well understood in South Korea. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the seroreactivity and risk factors associated with human brucellosis among South Korean cattle slaughterhouse workers. We enrolled 922 subjects working in 71 slaughterhouses across the country in 2012. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the subjects, following which blood samples were collected and tested using the microagglutination test; serum titers ≥ 1:20 were considered reactive. Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward elimination. Overall, 62 of 922 participants (6.7%) exhibited seroreactivity for brucellosis, and 0.4% had a seroprevalence at a dilution of 1:160. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for human brucellosis seroreactivity included large-scale slaughtering (≥100 cattle per day; odds ratio (OR), 5.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.95⁻9.91) and medium-scale slaughtering (50⁻99 cattle per day; OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.16⁻5.51). Moreover, the risk of brucellosis infection was significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers who always wear protective glasses (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.11⁻0.69) than in those who sometimes or rarely wore such glasses. Regular and consistent use of personal protective equipment, especially protective glasses, should be encouraged among cattle slaughterhouse workers to reduce brucellosis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266338PMC
October 2018

Seroreactivity and Risk Factors Associated with Infection among Cattle Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 10 16;15(10). Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Q fever, caused by , is a zoonotic disease that is an occupational hazard to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. A nationwide serologic study among cattle slaughterhouse workers who were presumed to be at risk of having infection in South Korea was performed to investigate the seroreactivity of infection and identify related risk factors. Out of 1017 cattle slaughterhouse workers in South Korea, 923 (90.8%) participated in this cross-sectional study. Samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) antibodies against phase II via indirect immunofluorescence assay. The overall seroreactivity, defined as IgG or IgM antibody titer cutoffs ≥1:16, was 9.1% (84/923). Additionally, a significant association was found between the seroreactivity of infection and performing carcass evisceration work (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.39⁻4.03) in multivariate analysis. To diminish infection, cattle slaughterhouse workers need to take precautions during the evisceration process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210963PMC
October 2018

How to Prevent and Manage Green Tobacco Sickness?

Indian J Occup Environ Med 2018 May-Aug;22(2):115

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_93_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176697PMC
October 2018

Correlates of the Timely Initiation of Complementary Feeding among Children Aged 6⁻23 Months in Rupandehi District, Nepal.

Children (Basel) 2018 Aug 6;5(8). Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Janaki Medical College, Tribhuvan University, Janakpur 45600, Nepal.

Although the predictors of the timely initiation of complementary feeding are well-known elsewhere, there is less awareness of the topic in Nepal. The current study was undertaken to identify the correlates of timely initiation of complementary feeding among children aged 6⁻23 months. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Rupandehi district, Nepal. A total of 155 mother-child pairs were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders was employed to examine the independent association between risk factors and the timely initiation of complementary feeding. Fewer than 3 in 5 children aged 6⁻23 months received complementary feeding at the recommended time. Literate mothers and a maternal occupation in the service or business sectors were found to be associated with complementary feeding at 6 months. In addition, child characteristics such as birth order, male children, and those fed micronutrients were also more likely to have been received complementary feeding at 6 months than their counterparts. Maternal education and occupation, and child characteristics such as, birth order, male gender, and micronutrient consumption, which are correlates of the timely initiation of complementary feeding, suggest that the Nepalese Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) programme should target these predictors while designing preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children5080106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111930PMC
August 2018

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Microalbuminuria among Type 2 Diabetic Patients : A Hospital Based Study.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2018 Jan-Feb;56(209):516-521

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Republic of Korea, Department of Community Medicine , Devdaha Medical College and Research Institute, Devdaha, Rupandehi, Nepal.

Introduction: Microalbuminuria is the earliest clinical evidence of diabetic nephropathy. However, prevalence and associated factors with microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetic patients has been understudied area of research in Nepalese context. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Blood samples for serum creatinine, Hemoglobin A1C, Fasting blood sugar and urine sample for microalbumin and urine creatinine were collected and analyzed using validated and standardized tools from a total of 400 Type 2 diabetic patients in Devdaha Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Rupandehi, Nepal from August 2014 to September 2017. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio greater than 30 and less than300 μg /mg of creatinine Results: Of 400 type 2 diabetic patients, 186 (46.5%) had microalbuminuria. The mean values of FBS, HbA1C, serum creatinine, microalbumin, microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio were higher in microalbuminuria group. Microalbuminuria was significantly positively correlated with duration of diabetes, FBS, HbA1C, serum creatinine, microalbumin, microalbumin/ urine creatinine, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P< 0.01).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that nearly half of the type 2 diabetic patients had microalbuminuria. Our results emphasize to increase to accessibility to microalbuminuria testing for all the type 2 diabetic patients and bring them under medical supervision to reduce the unwanted complications of diabetes mellitus.
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September 2019

Household Food Insecurity and Mental Health Among Teenage Girls Living in Urban Slums in Varanasi, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 07 26;15(8). Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.

This study was undertaken to investigate the relation between household food insecurity and mental health problems in teenage girls living in urban slums. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 urban slums in Varanasi, India, between September 2016 and July 2017. A probability proportion to size (PPS) method was employed to select 5 of 210 urban slums at a first stage, and in the second stage, 418 teenage girls were chosen randomly from selected households. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and mental health inventory tools were employed to assess food insecurity and mental health status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with at a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between household food insecurity and mental health status. Of 418 respondents, 47.6% were food insecure; 64.1%, 57.7%, and 58.4% had high levels of anxiety, depression, or psychological distress, respectively; and 57.2% exhibited a medium level of loss of behavioral control. Furthermore, teenage girls from food insecure households were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, depression, loss of behavioral control and psychological distress than those living in food secure households. This study shows food insecurity is independently associated with mental health problems among teenage girls. Food insecurity in Indian slums should be addressed by specific public health intervention programs that provide access to sufficient safe, nutritious food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121584PMC
July 2018

'MATRI-SUMAN' a capacity building and text messaging intervention to enhance maternal and child health service utilization among pregnant women from rural Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 06 14;18(1):447. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation.

Method/design: MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT). The trial involves pregnant women from 52 clusters of six village development committees (VDCs) covering 66,000 populations of Dhanusha district of Nepal. In the intervention clusters, Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) will receive capacity development skills through reinforcement training, supervision and monitoring skills for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and study participants will receive periodic promotional text messaging service about MCH components through mobile phones. A sample of 354with equal numbers in each study arm is estimated using power calculation formula. The primary outcomes of this study are the rate of utilization of skilled birth attendants and consumption of a specified diversified meal. The secondary outcomes are: four antenatal (ANC) visits, weight gain of women during pregnancy, delivery of a baby at the health facility, postnatal care (PNC) visits, positive changes in child feeding practices among mothers, performance of FCHVs in MCH service utilization.

Discussion: The intervention is designed to enhance the capacity of health volunteers for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and text messaging through a mobile phone to expecting mothers to increase MCH service utilization. The trial if proven effective will have policy implications in poor resource settings.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN60684155, ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN60684155 ). The trial was registered retrospectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3223-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001039PMC
June 2018

Awareness and Work-Related Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus: A Case-Control Study from South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 06 1;15(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, 123 Dongdae-ro, Gyeongju-si 38066, Korea.

This study aimed to examine the awareness and the work-related factors associated with scrub typhus to provide data essential for evidence-based preventive strategies. A community-based case control study was carried out in the rural areas of Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. Confirmed cases of scrub typhus ( = 57) were based on laboratory tests performed by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), 114 matched neighborhood controls, age (±6 years), gender and area of residence in the Gyeongsangbuk-do of South Korea. These cases were contracted over the 12-month period of January to December 2015. Overall, 61.4% cases and 79.8% of the control group had heard about scrub typhus. Cases were less aware about the fact that mites are mainly found in the bushes and that long sleeves and full-length pants and boots helped prevent scrub typhus. However, more were aware of the eschar lesion as a characteristic sign of scrub typhus. Work related risk factors such as having a wetland or puddles of water surrounding the house, dry field farming and working in the livestock industry were significantly associated with the scrub typhus. Health promotion strategies, such as creating general awareness, personal protection methods and improving personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in collaboration with relevant sectors, are recommended to reduce the burden of scrub typhus. Further intervention studies on awareness and behavioral and environmental modifications are required to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025028PMC
June 2018

Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and use of antenatal care among rural women in southern Terai of Nepal.

Women Birth 2018 Apr;31(2):96-102

Department of Public Health, Sanjeevani College of Medical Sciences, Purbanchal University, Butwal, Rupandehi, Nepal. Electronic address:

Background: Underutilisation of antenatal care services due to intimate partner violence during pregnancy has been well documented elsewhere, but it is understudied in Nepal. Our study aimed at exploring the impact of intimate partner violence on antenatal care service utilisation in southern Terai of Nepal.

Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was performed in 6 village development committees in Dhanusha district, Nepal. A total of 426 pregnant women in their second trimester were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the association between exposure to intimate partner violence and selected antenatal care services, adjusting for covariates.

Results: Among 426 pregnant women, almost three out of ten women (28.9%) were exposed to intimate partner violence at some point during their pregnancy. Pregnant women who were exposed to intimate partner violence were less likely to: register for antenatal care (OR 0.31; 95% CI (0.08-0.50)), take iron and folic acid (OR 0.55; 95% CI (0.12-0.90)), report dietary diversity (middle vs low: OR 0.34; 95% CI (0.11-0.58) and high vs low: OR 0.18; 95% CI (0.08-0.37)), have rest and sleep during day time (OR 0.47; 95% CI (0.61-0.58)), and attend mother's group meetings (OR 0.29; 95% CI (0.10-0.83)).

Conclusions: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is associated with low utilisation of antenatal care services. Therefore, effective strategies to prevent or reduce intimate partner violence during pregnancy is needed, which may lead to improved antenatal care service utilization in Nepal with healthier mothers and children's outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2017.07.009DOI Listing
April 2018

Association of water handling and child feeding practice with childhood diarrhoea in rural community of Southern Nepal.

J Infect Public Health 2018 Jan - Feb;11(1):69-74. Epub 2017 May 30.

Population Services International, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. While the childhood diarrhoea and its association with child feeding, and hygiene, hand washing and water treatment are studied elsewhere, the association of water handling and child feeding with childhood diarrhoea is an understudied area in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate the association of water handling and child feeding practice with childhood diarrhoea among children of one to five years of age in Southern, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Dhanusha district of Southern Nepal in 2013. A total of 284 mother-child pairs were selected using systemic random sampling. A four-week prevalence of childhood diarrhoea was reported using frequency distribution. The association of childhood diarrhoea with water handling and child feeding practices was ascertained using multiple logistic regressions after adjusting for potential confounders. The result of the study demonstrated that the four-week prevalence of childhood diarrhoea was 36.6%. Our finding showed that unsafe water handling practices were associated independently with childhood diarrhoea: untreated water (aOR 3.55; 95% CI: 1.13-11.10), uncovered water (aOR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.09-4.19). Similarly, partial breast feeding (aOR 4.35; 95% CI: 1.87-10.12) was also associated with higher odds of childhood diarrhoea. One third of children in Southern Nepal still had diarrhoea within the four weeks preceding the survey. As poor water handling and sub optimal infant feeding practice were major risk factors contributing to such a high burden of the disease, health promotion strategies such as promotion of safe water handling, improved hygiene and child feeding practices are recommended for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea in Southern Terai of Nepal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2017.04.007DOI Listing
July 2018

Association between sociodemographic characteristics of female community health volunteers and their knowledge and performance on maternal and child health services in rural Nepal.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2016 21;9:111-20. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture,Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India.

Background: Engaging community health volunteers and community health workers to provide maternal and child health (MCH) care services in resource-poor settings is one of the global and widely used concepts. Despite a great role of female community health volunteers (FCHVs) in MCH services in Nepal, few research studies have been performed in this area. Our research aimed to assess the knowledge and performance of FCHVs on MCH services associated with their sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and performance on selected MCH services of FCHVs using structured questionnaire in 16 village development committees of Dhanusha district, Southern Terai, Nepal, from the first of January to the end of February of 2014. A total of 138 FCHVs were selected by using multistage random sampling technique. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between selected sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge and performance on MCH services of FCHVs after adjusting for significant variables associated with knowledge and performance and within-cluster effect.

Results: Our findings demonstrated that sociodemographic characteristics were associated independently with good knowledge of FCHVs on MCH services: education level secondary and above (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-12.2); residing in Mother and Infant Research Activities, nongovernmental organization working area (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.5-8.8); and middle caste (aOR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.3). Similarly, satisfactory performance of FCHVs significantly associated with MCH services were education level secondary and above (aOR 8.9; 95% CI 3.2-24.3) and residing in Mother and Infant Research Activities working areas (aOR 9.0; 95% CI 3.5-22.6).

Conclusion: The study recommends considering education level while recruiting rural FCHVs and capacity enhancement through additional training and development programs in collaboration with developmental partner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S98700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807928PMC
April 2016

Perceived Usefulness of a Microfinance Intervention on Health Awareness and Practices in Nepal.

Front Public Health 2015 14;3:289. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Clinical and Research Department, Everest International Clinic and Research Centre , Kathmandu , Nepal.

Background: Economic constraints may lead to poor health among people from the developing world. Microfinance has proven to be useful in improving health outcomes elsewhere, but it still remains a neglected issue in Nepal. This study aims to assess perceived usefulness of the microfinance on health awareness and practices among different ethnic groups of Nepal.

Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four districts of western Nepal. A total of 500 microfinance clients representing different ethnic groups (upper caste, aadibasi and janajati, and dalit) were selected by using systemic random sampling. Health awareness and practices among different ethnic groups were compared by logistic regression after adjustment for age, level of education, sex of household heads, occupation, and place of residence. Since participants were asked about their health awareness and practices, before and after microfinance intervention, during a single interview, there was a strong possibility of recall bias with respect to their preintervention awareness and other measures.

Results: Microfinance intervention positively influenced self-reported health awareness and practices among different ethnic groups in Nepal, which was highest among the upper caste group (77-92%, rate ratios around 1.7-2.6), followed by the aadibasi/janajati (60-76%, rate ratios around 1.4-1.8) and dalit group (33-52%, reference group). Self-reported awareness about environment and sanitation, family planning methods, and available health services at local level improved from 11.2 to 69.2, 9.2 to 65.0, and 3.8 to 59.8%, respectively, among the clients after microfinance intervention (p < 0.001). Similarly, the practices of eating nutritious food/balanced diet, drinking safe water, using toilet, immunizing the children, and regularly visiting the healthcare facility were improved from 4.2 to 63.8, 12.6 to 66.8, 15.2 to 70.4, 15.8 to 73.8, and 3.6 to 61.4%, respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Despite lack of control group and potential recall bias, this study reports positive effect of microfinance on self-reported health awareness and practices among different ethnic groups of Nepal. This finding supports further implementation and evaluation of equity-based microfinance to improve health and economic conditions of Nepalese people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712313PMC
February 2016

Impact of mass media on the utilization of antenatal care services among women of rural community in Nepal.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Aug 12;8:345. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Public Health, Purbanchal University, Sanjeevani College of Medical Science, Rupandehi, Nepal.

Background: Antenatal care has several benefits for expecting mothers and birth outcomes; yet many mothers do not utilise this service in Nepal. Mass media may play an important role in increasing the use of antenatal care and other maternal health services. However, the effect of mass media on increasing health service utilisation has remained an under studied area in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in rural Nepal.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sinurjoda Village Development Committee of Dhanusha District, Nepal. A total of 205 mothers of children aged under 1 year were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between selected antenatal care services and mass media exposure after adjusting for other independent variables.

Results: A majority of mothers were exposed to mass media. Radio was accessible to most (60.0%) of the participants followed by television (43.41%). Mothers exposed to mass media were more likely to attending antenatal visits [Odds ratio (OR) 6.28; 95% CI (1.01-38.99)], taking rest and sleep during pregnancy [OR 2.65; 95% CI (1.13-6.26)], and receiving TT immunization [OR 5.12; 95% CI (1.23-21.24)] than their non-exposed counterparts.

Conclusions: The study reported a positive influence of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal. Therefore, further emphasis should be given to increase awareness of women of rural Nepal through mass media to improve utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1312-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534014PMC
August 2015