Publications by authors named "Diego Carlos Reis"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Diet-induced obesity leads to alterations in behavior and gut microbiota composition in mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 06 8;92:108622. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratório de Genética Animal e Humana, Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:

The high prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Among the main causal factors of obesity, excessive consumption of food rich in sugar and fat stands out due to its high energy density. The regulation of food intake relies on hypothalamic control by the action of several neuropeptides. Excessive consumption of hypercaloric diets has impact in the behavior and in the gut microbiota. In the present study, we used a high-sugar and fat (HSB) diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice and to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, hypothalamic peptides, and behavior. We hypothesize that chronic consumption of HSB diet can change the behavior. Additionally, we also hypothesize that changes in gut microbiota can be associated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of hypothalamic peptides and behavior. To evaluate the gut microbiota, we performed the sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, which demonstrate that HSB diet modulates the gut microbiota with an increase in the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phylum and a decrease of Bacteroidetes phylum. The real time qPCR revealed that HSB-fed mice presented changes in the transcriptional regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides genes such as Npy, Gal and Galr1. The Marble-burying and Light/dark box tests also showed an alteration in anxiety and impulsive behaviors for the HSB-fed mice. Our data provides evidence that obesity induced by HSB diet consumption is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and behavior, highlighting the multifactorial characteristics of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108622DOI Listing
June 2021

Marine Seagrass Extract of Suppresses Colorectal Tumor Growth, Motility and Angiogenesis by Autophagic Stress and Immunogenic Cell Death Pathways.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jan 22;19(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Protein Science, Proteomics and Epigenetic Signaling (PPES) and Integrated Personalized and Precision Oncology Network (IPPON), Department of Biomedical Sciences, Campus Drie Eiken, University of Antwerp, Building S, 4th Floor, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

Marine plants have become an inexhaustible reservoir of new phytopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. We demonstrate in vitro/in vivo antitumor efficacy of a standardized polyphenol extract from the marine angiosperm (TTE) in colon tumor cell lines (RKO, SW480, and CT26) and a syngeneic allograft murine colorectal cancer model. MTT assays revealed a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability of RKO, CT26, and SW480 cells upon TTE treatment with IC values of, respectively, 175, 115, and 60 μg/mL. Furthermore, TTE significantly prevented basal and bFGF-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis assay. In addition, TTE suppressed bFGF-induced migration of endothelial cells in a wound closure assay. Finally, TTE treatment abrogated CT26 colorectal cancer growth and increased overall organism survival in a syngeneic murine allograft model. Corresponding transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis allowed for the identification of the mechanism of action for the antitumor effects of TTE. In line with our in vitro/in vivo results, TTE treatment triggers ATF4-P53-NFκB specific gene expression and autophagy stress pathways. This results in suppression of colon cancer cell growth, cell motility, and angiogenesis pathways in vitro and in addition promotes antitumor immunogenic cell death in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19020052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912590PMC
January 2021

Encapsulating paclitaxel in polymeric nanomicelles increases antitumor activity and prevents peripheral neuropathy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 3;132:110864. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Paclitaxel (PTX) has a great clinical significance as an antitumor drug, although several side effects are strongly dose-limiting. In this way, we prepared a PTX-loaded 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] polymeric micelles (PM/PTX) in an attempt to improve safety and effectiveness of conventional PTX formulation (CrEL/EtOH/PTX). In this study, we evaluated from both formulations: stability after dilution, hemocompatibility, cellular uptake, acute toxicity in healthy mice, antitumor activity, and toxicity after multiple-dose treatment. PM/PTX appeared to be more stable than CrEL/EtOH/PTX after dilution. PM/PTX did not exhibit hemolytic activity (values <1%), even at high concentrations. In vitro cellular uptake study indicated that polymeric micelles were able to deliver more PTX (5.8 %) than CrEL/EtOH (2.7 %) to 4T1 cells. In the acute toxicity evaluation in healthy mice, CrEL/EtOH/PTX (single dose of 20 mg/kg) induced peripheral neuropathy, which was not observed in PM/PTX group. Similar results were observed after tumor-bearing mice received a multiple-dose regimen (seven doses of 10 mg/kg). Worth mentioning, we also evaluated vehicles, and CrEL/EtOH alone was not capable of inducing neuropathic pain. Besides, PM/PTX exhibited a higher antitumor activity with an inhibition ratio approximately 1.5-fold higher than CrEL/EtOH/PTX group. This study suggested that PM/PTX is safer than CrEL/EtOH/PTX, and was able to improve the antitumor effectiveness in a 4T1 breast cancer model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110864DOI Listing
December 2020

Prophylactic and therapeutic supplementation using fructo-oligosaccharide improves the intestinal homeostasis after mucositis induced by 5- fluorouracil.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 27;133:111012. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

The beneficial effects of prebiotic, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), in intestinal inflammation have been demonstrated in several studies. Herein, we evaluate whether joint treatment with FOS, both before and during mucositis, had additional beneficial effects and investigated the mechanisms underlying in the action of FOS on the intestinal barrier. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: CTR (without mucositis + saline solution), FOS (without mucositis + 6 % FOS), MUC (mucositis + saline solution), PT (mucositis + 6 % FOS supplementation before disease induction), and TT (mucositis + 6 % FOS supplementation before and during disease induction). Mucositis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (300 mg/kg) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). After 72 h, the animals were euthanized and intestinal permeability (IP), tight junction, bacterial translocation (BT), histology and morphometry, and immunoglobulin A secretory (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate, and production of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, butyrate and propionate) were evaluated. The MUC group showed an increase in the IP, BT, and inflammatory infiltrate but a decrease in the tight junction expression and butyrate and propionate levels (P < 0.05). In the PT and TT groups, FOS supplementation maintained the IP, tight junction expression, and propionate concentration within physiologic levels, increased butyrate levels, and reduced BT and inflammatory infiltrate (P < 0.05). Total treatment with FOS (TT group) was more effective in maintaining histological score, morphometric parameters, and sIgA production. Thus, total treatment (prophylactic and therapeutic supplementation) with FOS was more effective than pretreatment alone, in reducing 5-FU-induced damage to the intestinal barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111012DOI Listing
January 2021

CXCR1 and CXCR2 Inhibition by Ladarixin Improves Neutrophil-Dependent Airway Inflammation in Mice.

Front Immunol 2020 2;11:566953. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Rationale: Increased IL-8 levels and neutrophil accumulation in the airways are common features found in patients affected by pulmonary diseases such as Asthma, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Influenza-A infection and COPD. Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is usually corticosteroid insensitive and may be relevant in the progression of those diseases.

Objective: To explore the role of Ladarixin, a dual CXCR1/2 antagonist, in several mouse models of airway inflammation with a significant neutrophilic component.

Findings: Ladarixin was able to reduce the acute and chronic neutrophilic influx, also attenuating the Th2 eosinophil-dominated airway inflammation, tissue remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Correspondingly, Ladarixin decreased bleomycin-induced neutrophilic inflammation and collagen deposition, as well as attenuated the corticosteroid resistant Th17 neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, restoring corticosteroid sensitivity. Finally, Ladarixin reduced neutrophilic airway inflammation during cigarette smoke-induced corticosteroid resistant exacerbation of Influenza-A infection, improving lung function and mice survival.

Conclusion: CXCR1/2 antagonist Ladarixin offers a new strategy for therapeutic treatment of acute and chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation, even in the context of corticosteroid-insensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.566953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566412PMC
May 2021

Clinical significance and prognostic role of tumor-associated macrophages infiltration according to histologic location in canine mammary carcinomas.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Mar 17;135:329-334. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Laboratório de Patologia Comparada (LPC), Departamento de Patologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, 31270-091 Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been involved in growth and metastases of human and canine mammary tumors. However, the prognostic importance of TAM specific location in canine mammary tumors (CMT) was not evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of TAMs in specific histologic locations - intratumoral (iTAM) and stromal (sTAM), as well as total macrophage (tTAM) counts - as prognostic indicators in CMT. Clinicopathologic data from 66 animals with mammary carcinoma and their tumors were used in this study. Samples were stained with anti-macrophage antibody for subsequent TAM count. High levels of iTAM, sTAM, and tTAM were related with advanced clinical stage and vascular invasion. Additionally, tTAM revealed a relation with larger tumor size, while high levels of sTAM and tTAM were also correlated with node metastasis and a poor prognosis based on survival analysis. CMT with aggressive features can reveal higher TAM counts. TAMs are associated with vascular invasion and nodal metastasis, and sTAM and tTAM counts are correlated with overall survival, suggesting they could be used as prognostic indicators in canine mammary carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.10.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Milk Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 (ST11) Modulates the Immune Response and Microbiota to Exert its Protective Effects Against Salmonella typhimurium Infection in Mice.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2020 12;12(4):1398-1408

Department of Microbiology, Biological Science Institute (ICB), Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Probiotics form a promising strategy to maintain intestinal health. Milks fermented with probiotic strains, such as the Lactobacillus paracasei ST11, are largely commercialized in Brazil and form a low-cost alternative to probiotic pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, we assessed the probiotic effects of milk fermented by L. paracasei ST11 (administered through fermented milk) in a Salmonella typhimurium infection model in BALB/c mice. We observed in this murine model that the applied probiotic conferred protective effects against S. typhimurium infection, since its administration reduced mortality, weight loss, translocation to target organs (liver and spleen) and ileum injury. Moreover, a reduction in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17 in animals that received the probiotic before challenge was observed. Additionally, the ileum microbiota was better preserved in these animals. The present study highlights a multifactorial protective aspect of this commercial probiotic strain against a common gastrointestinal pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09634-xDOI Listing
December 2020

Versican and Tumor-Associated Macrophages Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis in Canine and Murine Models of Breast Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:577. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Versican and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in growth and metastases in several cancers. Here, we investigated the potential role of versican, a matrix proteoglycan, and its correlation with TAMs infiltrates in different stages of two different breast cancer models: spontaneous canine mammary gland carcinomas and the murine 4T1 breast cancer model. The stromal versican expression was correlated with TAMs accumulation in tumors with an advanced stage from spontaneous canine mammary carcinoma samples. Versican expression in mice, identified in late stages of tumor progression, was associated to a high number of peri-tumoral infiltrating TAMs. Indeed, TAMs were related to a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic state in the primary tumor. Furthermore, TAMs accumulation was related to versican expression in the lungs and an increased number of pulmonary metastatic nodules with pulmonary mechanical dysfunction, which was due to leukocyte influx in the airways and elevated growth factor levels in the microenvironment. Thus, we suggest that versican and TAMs as attractive targets for breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616078PMC
July 2019

Conjugated linoleic acid prevents damage caused by intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in an experimental model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Jul 7;103:1567-1576. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have showed the protective effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on intestinal epithelium, modulating host immune and inflammatory responses on intestinal diseases.

Objective: To evaluate the preventive effects of CLA on the intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU in a murine model.

Methods: Sixty-four BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTL), fed a standard chow diet; CLAs, fed a diet supplemented with CLA; Mucositis (5-FU), fed a standard chow diet and underwent mucositis induction and CLAs 5-FU, fed a diet supplemented with CLA and underwent mucositis induction. Mucositis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg 5-FU. After 72 h, the animals were euthanized and intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, inflammatory mediators, and intestinal histology were evaluated.

Results: Mice in the CLAs 5-FU group showed reduced weight loss compared to those in the 5-FU group (p < 0.005). Furthermore, the results also showed that the treatment with CLA reduced intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, and biomarkers of inflammatory response besides minor damage to ZO-1 and occludin with maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and a favorable balance between the inflammatory and regulatory cytokines.

Conclusion: This study suggests that CLA reduced the adverse effects from 5-FU administration on the intestinal mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.133DOI Listing
July 2018

Intestinal toxicity evaluation of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes loaded with cisplatin.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2017 Aug 22;106:142-151. Epub 2017 May 22.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901. Brazil. Electronic address:

Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in several anticancer protocols for instance head and neck, testicle, ovarian, lung and peritoneal carcinomatosis. According to the literature, the use of CDDP is associated with several side effects; among them, we highlighted the mucositis. CDDP, when administered by IP, promoted significant intestinal epithelium alterations in an experimental model. Our research group has proposed that the incorporation of CDDP into long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes (SpHL-CDDP) could help to overcome some side effects induced by this drug. Thus, we evaluated signs of intestinal toxicity 24h and 72h after the administration of a single i.p dose of free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP to healthy Swiss mice. Twenty-four hours after administration of free CDDP, the mice showed signs of intestinal toxicity, principally weight loss, increased intestinal permeability associated with a decrease in expression of tight junctions, and histological damage with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. These changes persisted after 72h. While signs of intestinal toxicity were also observed 24h after administration of SpHL-CDDP, after 72h body weight and intestinal permeability of mice in this group were similar to those of mice in the control group. In comparison with the free CDDP treatment group, 72h after treatment mice in the SpHL-CDDP group showed better histological parameters, lower levels of inflammatory infiltrate with increased IL-10 and IgA levels, and less activation of caspase-3, ERK1/2 and NF-κB. These differences could account for the recovery of the intestinal epithelium observed in mice treated with SpHL-CDDP but not in mice treated with free CDDP. In conclusion, here we show that encapsulation of CDDP in SpHL lessens intestinal damage and that, as such, SpHL-CDDP is a promising candidate for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2017.05.046DOI Listing
August 2017

Azithromycin for the treatment of eosinophilic nasal polyposis: Clinical and histologic analysis.

Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2016 Jan 26;7(2):55-61. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Post Graduate Program in Surgery and Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais [UFMG], Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Introduction: Macrolides used as immunomodulators are a promising tool for chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP) is still considered a disease that is difficult to control with the currently standardized treatments.

Objectives: To evaluate prolonged treatment with low-dose azithromycin for ENP based on clinical and histopathologic variables.

Methods: The present investigation was a self-paired case study of 33 patients with ENP. A comparison was performed between patients before and after treatment with azithromycin for 8 weeks. The patients were subjected to clinical examinations, staging (three-dimensional imaging by endoscopy), application of the questionnaire, and biopsy of nasal polyps at the beginning and at the end of the treatment.

Results: The treatment yielded a clinical improvement regarding the two variables studied: polyposis staging (69.7%) and questionnaire (57.6%). We did not find significant differences in the inflammatory pattern and in the percentage or absolute number of eosinophils per field between samples obtained before and after the treatment (p > 0.05). There was no difference between the answers obtained from groups with and without asthma and/or aspirin intolerance (p > 0.3). The patients with advanced initial staging exhibited lower subjective improvement index and staging reduction (p = 0.031 and p = 0.012, respectively).

Conclusion: Based on this study, azithromycin may be considered as another therapeutic option for ENP. However, further studies are necessary to define the real mechanism of action involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/ar.2016.7.0160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010433PMC
January 2016

Tissue-selective inflammation in the oral cavity of the rat.

Inflammopharmacology 2016 Aug 20;24(4):145-53. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Pharmacology Department of Biological Sciences Institute (ICB), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

In the current study, carrageenan (CG; 100-1000 μg/site) was injected intraorally in the cheeks of Holtzman or Wistar rats to evaluate the consequences of administration of a non-immunogenic stimulus in the orofacial region. Subsequent inflammation was measured as oedema (increased thickness of the cheek wall using digital calipers), relative to the other cheek injected with saline. Oedema formation and tissue collection for histopathological studies were assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after injection. In parallel, other groups of rats were injected with CG in the hind paw, to provide a reference response. The inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, indomethacin, and antagonists of histamine, serotonin and NK1 receptors were injected s.c., 0.5 h before CG. CG induced a dose-related oedema more rapidly from 0 to 2 h which lasted for at least 72 h, showing a biphasic profile (peak at 2 and 24 h), compared with the monophasic oedema induced in rat paws (maximal duration of 24 h). Histopathological analysis of the CG-injected cheek revealed oedema formation with little leukocyte recruitment at 1-3 h, mast cell degranulation at 6 h, and a mixed polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltrate by 24 h. Histamine and serotonin antagonists and indomethacin, but not the NK1 antagonist, decreased cheek oedema in the first 4 h following carrageenan. Taken together, our data indicated important differences in the pattern of inflammation between the oral cavity and the paw which will determine the therapeutic approach to the treatment of inflammatory conditions in the oral cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-016-0269-0DOI Listing
August 2016

Evaluation of the improvement of quality of life with Azithromycin in the treatment of eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Mar-Apr;82(2):198-202. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Phonoaudiology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Introduction: The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22) is an important tool in assessing the quality of life (QoL) of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with a validated version in Brazil. The eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP) represents most of the cases of nasal polyposis (85-90%) and belongs to the group of chronic rhinosinusitis. It is a chronic inflammatory disease that impacts the QoL of patients, not only causing localized symptoms, but also resulting in a general malaise. The standard treatments (corticosteroids and nasal endoscopic surgery) lead to partial control of symptoms, but relapses are frequent. Macrolide acting as an immunomodulator is a promising tool for more effective control of this disease. Studies are still lacking to assess the real impact on the QoL in patients treated with macrolides.

Objective: To evaluate the improvement of QL, evaluated using SNOT-22, in patients with PNSE treated with immunomodulatory dose azithromycin.

Methods: This is a paired experimental study in patients with ENP. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment with azithromycin was performed. Patients completed the SNOT-22 questionnaire before the start of treatment and returned for evaluation after eight weeks of treatment. Azithromycin was prescribed at a dose of 500 mg, orally, three times a week, for 8 weeks.

Results: SNOT-22 score decreased 20.3 points on average. There was a significant decrease in the SNOT-22 (difference greater than 14 points) in 19 patients (57.6%). There was no significant difference in improvement in SNOT in subgroups with or without asthma/aspirin intolerance.

Conclusion: Azithromycin resulted in significant improvement of QoL, assessed by SNOT-22, in the studied population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2015.03.018DOI Listing
August 2016

Combination therapy with carboplatin and thalidomide suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in 4T1 murine breast cancer model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2014 Feb 26;68(1):51-7. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Department of general pathology, laboratory of comparative pathology, biological sciences institute, Federal university of Minas Gerais, 486, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Carboplatin, efficient cytostatics for cancer therapy, could induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of vascular endothelium in several tumor cell lines and xenograft models. It has been suggested that the antitumor effect of chemotherapy could be increased by combining it with an antiangiogenesis agent in anticancer strategy. The present study explored the potential to increase the antitumor effect of carboplatin by combining it with thalidomide in mouse 4T1 breast cancer models, and the underlining mechanism was investigated. The systemic administration of carboplatin and thalidomide significantly decreased tumor growth through increased tumor cell apoptosis compared with either control group. Collectively, these findings suggest that combined treatment has shown synergistic suppression in tumor progression according to the analysis. Furthermore, also was observed reduction in number of lung metastases as compared to isolated treatments and increased survival of the animals. The present study may be important in future exploration of the potential application of the combined approach in the treatment of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2013.08.004DOI Listing
February 2014
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