Publications by authors named "Dick H W Dekkers"

33 Publications

On the localization of the cleavage site in human alpha-2-antiplasmin, involved in the generation of the non-plasminogen binding form.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 05 5;18(5):1162-1170. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Alpha-2-antiplasmin (α2AP) is the main natural inhibitor of plasmin. The C-terminus of α2AP is crucial for the initial interaction with plasmin(ogen) and the rapid inhibitory mechanism. Approximately 35% of circulating α2AP has lost its C-terminus (non-plasminogen binding α2AP/NPB-α2AP) and thereby its rapid inhibitory capacity. The C-terminal cleavage site of α2AP is still unknown. A commercially available monoclonal antibody against α2AP (TC 3AP) detects intact but not NPB-α2AP, suggesting that the cleavage site is located N-terminally from the epitope of TC 3AP.

Objectives: To determine the epitope of TC 3AP and then to localize the C-terminal cleavage site of α2AP.

Methods: For epitope mapping of TC 3AP, commercially available plasma purified α2AP was enzymatically digested with Asp-N, Glu-C, or Lys-N. The resulting peptides were immunoprecipitated using TC 3AP-loaded Dynabeads® Protein G. Bound peptides were eluted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS). To localize the C-terminal cleavage site precisely, α2AP (intact and NPB) was purified from plasma and analyzed by LC-MS/MS after enzymatic digestion with Arg-C.

Results: We localized the epitope of TC 3AP between amino acid residues Asp428 and Gly439. LC-MS/MS data from plasma purified α2AP showed that NPB-α2AP results from cleavage at Gln421-Asp422 as preferred site, but also after Leu417, Glu419, Gln420, or Asp422.

Conclusions: The C-terminal cleavage site of human α2AP is located N-terminally from the TC 3AP epitope. Because C-terminal cleavage of α2AP can occur after multiple residues, different proteases may be responsible for the generation of NPB-α2AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317795PMC
May 2020

Myosin V regulates synaptopodin clustering and localization in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons.

J Cell Sci 2019 08 22;132(16). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

DFG Emmy Noether Group 'Neuronal Protein Transport', Center for Molecular Neurobiology, ZMNH, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany

The spine apparatus (SA) is an endoplasmic reticulum-related organelle that is present in a subset of dendritic spines in cortical and pyramidal neurons, and plays an important role in Ca homeostasis and dendritic spine plasticity. The protein synaptopodin is essential for the formation of the SA and is widely used as a maker for this organelle. However, it is still unclear which factors contribute to its localization at selected synapses, and how it triggers local SA formation. In this study, we characterized development, localization and mobility of synaptopodin clusters in hippocampal primary neurons, as well as the molecular dynamics within these clusters. Interestingly, synaptopodin at the shaft-associated clusters is less dynamic than at spinous clusters. We identify the actin-based motor proteins myosin V (herein referring to both the myosin Va and Vb forms) and VI as novel interaction partners of synaptopodin, and demonstrate that myosin V is important for the formation and/or maintenance of the SA. We found no evidence of active microtubule-based transport of synaptopodin. Instead, new clusters emerge inside spines, which we interpret as the SA being assembled on-site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.230177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737913PMC
August 2019

Publisher Correction: Mediator complex interaction partners organize the transcriptional network that defines neural stem cells.

Nat Commun 2019 Jul 22;10(1):3318. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11254-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646368PMC
July 2019

HSF2BP Interacts with a Conserved Domain of BRCA2 and Is Required for Mouse Spermatogenesis.

Cell Rep 2019 06;27(13):3790-3798.e7

Department of Molecular Genetics, Oncode Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is essential for homologous recombination (HR), replication fork stability, and DNA interstrand crosslink repair in vertebrates. We identify HSF2BP, a protein previously described as testis specific and not characterized functionally, as an interactor of BRCA2 in mouse embryonic stem cells, where the 2 proteins form a constitutive complex. HSF2BP is transcribed in all cultured human cancer cell lines tested and elevated in some tumor samples. Inactivation of the mouse Hsf2bp gene results in male infertility due to a severe HR defect during spermatogenesis. The BRCA2-HSF2BP interaction is highly evolutionarily conserved and maps to armadillo repeats in HSF2BP and a 68-amino acid region between the BRC repeats and the DNA binding domain of human BRCA2 (Gly2270-Thr2337) encoded by exons 12 and 13. This region of BRCA2 does not harbor known cancer-associated missense mutations and may be involved in the reproductive rather than the tumor-suppressing function of BRCA2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.096DOI Listing
June 2019

Mediator complex interaction partners organize the transcriptional network that defines neural stem cells.

Nat Commun 2019 06 17;10(1):2669. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

The Mediator complex regulates transcription by connecting enhancers to promoters. High Mediator binding density defines super enhancers, which regulate cell-identity genes and oncogenes. Protein interactions of Mediator may explain its role in these processes but have not been identified comprehensively. Here, we purify Mediator from neural stem cells (NSCs) and identify 75 protein-protein interaction partners. We identify super enhancers in NSCs and show that Mediator-interacting chromatin modifiers colocalize with Mediator at enhancers and super enhancers. Transcription factor families with high affinity for Mediator dominate enhancers and super enhancers and can explain genome-wide Mediator localization. We identify E-box transcription factor Tcf4 as a key regulator of NSCs. Tcf4 interacts with Mediator, colocalizes with Mediator at super enhancers and regulates neurogenic transcription factor genes with super enhancers and broad H3K4me3 domains. Our data suggest that high binding-affinity for Mediator is an important organizing feature in the transcriptional network that determines NSC identity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10502-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6573065PMC
June 2019

Heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and cerebral malformations reflected by rotatin cellular dynamics.

Brain 2019 04;142(4):867-884

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (Erasmus MC), CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439326PMC
April 2019

Proteomic analysis of FOXP proteins reveals interactions between cortical transcription factors associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Jun 26. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy230DOI Listing
June 2018

Proteomic analysis of FOXP proteins reveals interactions between cortical transcription factors associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 04;27(7):1212-1227

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands.

FOXP transcription factors play important roles in neurodevelopment, but little is known about how their transcriptional activity is regulated. FOXP proteins cooperatively regulate gene expression by forming homo- and hetero-dimers with each other. Physical associations with other transcription factors might also modulate the functions of FOXP proteins. However, few FOXP-interacting transcription factors have been identified so far. Therefore, we sought to discover additional transcription factors that interact with the brain-expressed FOXP proteins, FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4, through affinity-purifications of protein complexes followed by mass spectrometry. We identified seven novel FOXP-interacting transcription factors (NR2F1, NR2F2, SATB1, SATB2, SOX5, YY1 and ZMYM2), five of which have well-estabslished roles in cortical development. Accordingly, we found that these transcription factors are co-expressed with FoxP2 in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and also in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, suggesting that they may cooperate with the FoxPs to regulate neural gene expression in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that etiological mutations of FOXP1 and FOXP2, known to cause neurodevelopmental disorders, severely disrupted the interactions with FOXP-interacting transcription factors. Additionally, we pinpointed specific regions within FOXP2 sequence involved in mediating these interactions. Thus, by expanding the FOXP interactome we have uncovered part of a broader neural transcription factor network involved in cortical development, providing novel molecular insights into the transcriptional architecture underlying brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy035DOI Listing
April 2018

Improvement of ubiquitylation site detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

J Proteomics 2018 02 6;172:49-56. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Proteomics Center, Erasmus University Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Ubiquitylation is an important posttranslational protein modification that is involved in many cellular events. Immunopurification of peptides containing a K-ε-diglycine (diGly) remnant as a mark of ubiquitylation combined with mass spectrometric detection has resulted in an explosion of the number of identified ubiquitylation sites. Here, we present several significant improvements to this workflow, including fast, offline and crude high pH reverse-phase fractionation of tryptic peptides into only three fractions with simultaneous desalting prior to immunopurification and better control of the peptide fragmentation settings in the Orbitrap HCD cell. In addition, more efficient sample cleanup using a filter plug to retain the antibody beads results in a higher specificity for diGly peptides and less non-specific binding. These relatively simple modifications of the protocol result in the routine detection of over 23,000 diGly peptides from HeLa cells upon proteasome inhibition. The efficacy of this strategy is shown for lysates of both non-labeled and SILAC labeled cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this strategy is useful for the in-depth analysis of the endogenous, unstimulated ubiquitinome of in vivo samples such as mouse brain tissue. This study presents a valuable addition to the toolbox for ubiquitylation site analysis to uncover the deep ubiquitinome.

Significance: A K-ε-diglycine (diGly) mark on peptides after tryptic digestion of proteins indicates a site of ubiquitylation, a posttranslational modification involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we report several improvements to methods for the isolation and detection of diGly peptides from complex biological mixtures such as cell lysates and brain tissue. This adapted method is robust, reproducible and outperforms previously published methods in terms of number of modified peptide identifications from a single sample. In-depth analysis of the ubiquitinome using mass spectrometry will lead to a better understanding of the roles of protein ubiquitylation in cellular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.10.014DOI Listing
February 2018

Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Extensive Changes in the Ubiquitinome after Perturbation of the Proteasome by Targeted dsRNA-Mediated Subunit Knockdown in Drosophila.

J Proteome Res 2017 08 11;16(8):2848-2862. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Proteomics Center, ‡Netherlands Proteomics Center, and §Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center , Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a highly regulated mechanism including the active marking of proteins by ubiquitin to be degraded, is critical in regulating proteostasis. Dysfunctioning of the UPS has been implicated in diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we investigate the effects of proteasome malfunctioning on global proteome and ubiquitinome dynamics using SILAC proteomics in Drosophila S2 cells. dsRNA-mediated knockdown of specific proteasome target subunits is used to inactivate the proteasome. Upon this perturbation, both the global proteome and the ubiquitinome become modified to a great extent, with the overall impact on the ubiquitinome being the most dramatic. The abundances of ∼10% of all proteins are increased, while the abundances of the far majority of over 14 000 detected diGly peptides are increased, suggesting that the pool of ubiquitinated proteins is highly dynamic. Remarkably, several proteins show heterogeneous ubiquitination dynamics, with different lysine residues on the same protein showing either increased or decreased ubiquitination. This suggests the occurrence of simultaneous and functionally different ubiquitination events. This strategy offers a powerful tool to study the response of the ubiquitinome upon interruption of normal UPS activity by targeted interference and opens up new avenues for the dissection of the mode of action of individual components of the proteasome. Because this is to our knowledge the first comprehensive ubiquitinome screen upon proteasome malfunctioning in a fruit fly cell system, this data set will serve as a valuable repository for the Drosophila community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00156DOI Listing
August 2017

Nipbl Interacts with Zfp609 and the Integrator Complex to Regulate Cortical Neuron Migration.

Neuron 2017 Jan 29;93(2):348-361. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

The Francis Crick Institute, Mill Hill Laboratory, The Ridgeway, London NW7 1AA, UK. Electronic address:

Mutations in NIPBL are the most frequent cause of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a developmental disorder encompassing several neurological defects, including intellectual disability and seizures. How NIPBL mutations affect brain development is not understood. Here we identify Nipbl as a functional interaction partner of the neural transcription factor Zfp609 in brain development. Depletion of Zfp609 or Nipbl from cortical neural progenitors in vivo is detrimental to neuronal migration. Zfp609 and Nipbl overlap at genomic binding sites independently of cohesin and regulate genes that control cortical neuron migration. We find that Zfp609 and Nipbl interact with the Integrator complex, which functions in RNA polymerase 2 pause release. Indeed, Zfp609 and Nipbl co-localize at gene promoters containing paused RNA polymerase 2, and Integrator similarly regulates neuronal migration. Our data provide a rationale and mechanistic insights for the role of Nipbl in the neurological defects associated with CdLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2016.11.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5263256PMC
January 2017

BRCA1185delAG tumors may acquire therapy resistance through expression of RING-less BRCA1.

J Clin Invest 2016 08 25;126(8):2903-18. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Heterozygous germline mutations in breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) strongly predispose women to breast cancer. BRCA1 plays an important role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination (HR), which is important for tumor suppression. Although BRCA1-deficient cells are highly sensitive to treatment with DSB-inducing agents through their HR deficiency (HRD), BRCA1-associated tumors display heterogeneous responses to platinum drugs and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in clinical trials. It is unclear whether all pathogenic BRCA1 mutations have similar effects on the response to therapy. Here, we have investigated mammary tumorigenesis and therapy sensitivity in mice carrying the Brca1185stop and Brca15382stop alleles, which respectively mimic the 2 most common BRCA1 founder mutations, BRCA1185delAG and BRCA15382insC. Both the Brca1185stop and Brca15382stop mutations predisposed animals to mammary tumors, but Brca1185stop tumors responded markedly worse to HRD-targeted therapy than did Brca15382stop tumors. Mice expressing Brca1185stop mutations also developed therapy resistance more rapidly than did mice expressing Brca15382stop. We determined that both murine Brca1185stop tumors and human BRCA1185delAG breast cancer cells expressed a really interesting new gene domain-less (RING-less) BRCA1 protein that mediated resistance to HRD-targeted therapies. Together, these results suggest that expression of RING-less BRCA1 may serve as a marker to predict poor response to DSB-inducing therapy in human cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI70196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966325PMC
August 2016

Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2016 Feb 19;9(1):6-13. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

From the Department of Neurology (S.C.A.W., E.B., P.A.v.D.), Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases (S.C.A.W., G.J.S., M.E.K., T.J.M.v.G., S.G., J.P., E.B., A.T.v.d.P., P.A.v.D., W.W.M.P.P.), Molecular Stem Cell Biology, Department of Clinical Genetics (G.J.S., T.J.M.v.G., S.G., J.P., W.W.M.P.P.), Department of Cardiology (M.M.), Department of Clinical Chemistry (R.H.N.v.S.), Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Division of Metabolic Diseases and Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (G.J.S., T.J.M.v.G., S.G., J.P., A.T.v.d.P., W.W.M.P.P.); Proteomics Center, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (D.H.W.D., J.A.A.D.); Netherlands Proteomics Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (D.H.W.D., J.A.A.D.); and NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands (L.B.V.).

Background: Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury.

Methods And Results: In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values <14 ng/L). Cardiac troponin I levels were normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (P<0.001). None of the abnormal ECGs recorded in 21 patients were indicative of acute myocardial infarction, and there were no differences in cTnT levels between patients with and without (n=90) abnormalities on ECG (median 28 ng/L in both groups). The median left ventricular mass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue.

Conclusions: Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.115.001322DOI Listing
February 2016

Identification of the (Pro)renin Receptor as a Novel Regulator of Low-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism.

Circ Res 2016 Jan 18;118(2):222-9. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

From the Astra Zeneca-Shenzhen University Joint Institute of Nephrology, Shenzhen University Medical Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China (X.L.); Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (X.L., M.E.M., M.T.M., A.H.J.D.) and Proteomics Center (D.H.W.D., J.A.A.D.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and Department of Medical Biochemistry (X.L., J.K.N., V.S., A.L., S.S., N.Z.) and Laboratory of Experimental Vascular Medicine (G.M.D-.T.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Rationale: The (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR) interacts with (pro)renin at concentrations that are >1000× higher than observed under (patho)physiological conditions. Recent studies have identified renin-angiotensin system-independent functions for (P)RR related to its association with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

Objective: To uncover renin-angiotensin system-independent functions of the (P)RR.

Methods And Results: We used a proteomics-based approach to purify and identify (P)RR-interacting proteins. This resulted in identification of sortilin-1 (SORT1) as a high-confidence (P)RR-interacting protein, a finding which was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous (P)RR and SORT1. Functionally, silencing (P)RR expression in hepatocytes decreased SORT1 and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein abundance and, as a consequence, resulted in severely attenuated cellular LDL uptake. In contrast to LDL, endocytosis of epidermal growth factor or transferrin remained unaffected by silencing of the (P)RR. Importantly, reduction of LDL receptor and SORT1 protein abundance occurred in the absence of changes in their corresponding transcript level. Consistent with a post-transcriptional event, degradation of the LDL receptor induced by (P)RR silencing could be reversed by lysosomotropic agents, such as bafilomycin A1.

Conclusions: Our study identifies a renin-angiotensin system-independent function for the (P)RR in the regulation of LDL metabolism by controlling the levels of SORT1 and LDL receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306799DOI Listing
January 2016

Proteins that bind regulatory regions identified by histone modification chromatin immunoprecipitations and mass spectrometry.

Nat Commun 2015 May 20;6:7155. Epub 2015 May 20.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The locations of transcriptional enhancers and promoters were recently mapped in many mammalian cell types. Proteins that bind those regulatory regions can determine cell identity but have not been systematically identified. Here we purify native enhancers, promoters or heterochromatin from embryonic stem cells by chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) for characteristic histone modifications and identify associated proteins using mass spectrometry (MS). 239 factors are identified and predicted to bind enhancers or promoters with different levels of activity, or heterochromatin. Published genome-wide data indicate a high accuracy of location prediction by ChIP-MS. A quarter of the identified factors are important for pluripotency and includes Oct4, Esrrb, Klf5, Mycn and Dppa2, factors that drive reprogramming to pluripotent stem cells. We determined the genome-wide binding sites of Dppa2 and find that Dppa2 operates outside the classical pluripotency network. Our ChIP-MS method provides a detailed read-out of the transcriptional landscape representative of the investigated cell type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455091PMC
May 2015

TAF10 Interacts with the GATA1 Transcription Factor and Controls Mouse Erythropoiesis.

Mol Cell Biol 2015 Jun 13;35(12):2103-18. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Cellular Signaling and Nuclear Dynamics Program, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), UMR 7104 CNRS, INSERM U964, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France

The ordered assembly of a functional preinitiation complex (PIC), composed of general transcription factors (GTFs), is a prerequisite for the transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II. TFIID, comprised of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), is the GTF that is thought to recognize the promoter sequences allowing site-specific PIC assembly. Transcriptional cofactors, such as SAGA, are also necessary for tightly regulated transcription initiation. The contribution of the two TAF10-containing complexes (TFIID, SAGA) to erythropoiesis remains elusive. By ablating TAF10 specifically in erythroid cells in vivo, we observed a differentiation block accompanied by deregulated GATA1 target genes, including Gata1 itself, suggesting functional cross talk between GATA1 and TAF10. Additionally, we analyzed by mass spectrometry the composition of TFIID and SAGA complexes in mouse and human cells and found that their global integrity is maintained, with minor changes, during erythroid cell differentiation and development. In agreement with our functional data, we show that TAF10 interacts directly with GATA1 and that TAF10 is enriched on the GATA1 locus in human fetal erythroid cells. Thus, our findings demonstrate a cross talk between canonical TFIID and SAGA complexes and cell-specific transcription activators during development and differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01370-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438247PMC
June 2015

Global quantitative proteomics reveals novel factors in the ecdysone signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster.

Proteomics 2015 Feb 14;15(4):725-38. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Proteomics Center, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Netherlands Proteomics Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The ecdysone signaling pathway plays a major role in various developmental transitions in insects. Recent advances in the understanding of ecdysone action have relied to a large extent on the application of molecular genetic tools in Drosophila. Here, we used a comprehensive quantitative SILAC MS-based approach to study the global, dynamic proteome of a Drosophila cell line to investigate how hormonal signals are transduced into specific cellular responses. Global proteome data after ecdysone treatment after various time points were then integrated with transcriptome data. We observed a substantial overlap in terms of affected targets between the dynamic proteome and transcriptome, although there were some clear differences in timing effects. Also, downregulation of several specific mRNAs did not always correlate with downregulation of their corresponding protein counterparts, and in some cases there was no correlation between transcriptome and proteome dynamics whatsoever. In addition, we performed a comprehensive interactome analysis of EcR, the major target of ecdysone. Proteins copurified with EcR include factors involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, ecdysone signaling, ecdysone biosynthesis, and other signaling pathways. Novel ecdysone-responsive proteins identified in this study might link previously unknown proteins to the ecdysone signaling pathway and might be novel targets for developmental studies. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecdysone signaling is studied by global quantitative proteomics. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001455 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001455).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201400308DOI Listing
February 2015

NLS-tagging: an alternative strategy to tag nuclear proteins.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Dec 26;42(21). Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center, Faculty building, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands Center for Biomedical Genetics and Medical Epigenetics Consortium, Erasmus Medical Center, Faculty building, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands Center for Biomedical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Faculty building, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

The characterization of transcription factor complexes and their binding sites in the genome by affinity purification has yielded tremendous new insights into how genes are regulated. The affinity purification requires either the use of antibodies raised against the factor of interest itself or by high-affinity binding of a C- or N-terminally added tag sequence to the factor. Unfortunately, fusing extra amino acids to the termini of a factor can interfere with its biological function or the tag may be inaccessible inside the protein. Here, we describe an effective solution to that problem by integrating the 'tag' close to the nuclear localization sequence domain of the factor. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach with the transcription factors Fli-1 and Irf2bp2, which cannot be tagged at their extremities without loss of function. This resulted in the identification of novel proteins partners and a new hypothesis on the contribution of Fli-1 to hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245968PMC
December 2014

Nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme GMP synthase is a TRIM21-controlled relay of p53 stabilization.

Mol Cell 2014 Feb 23;53(3):458-70. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Nucleotide biosynthesis is fundamental to normal cell proliferation as well as to oncogenesis. Tumor suppressor p53, which prevents aberrant cell proliferation, is destabilized through ubiquitylation by MDM2. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) plays a dualistic role in p53 regulation and has been proposed to deubiquitylate either p53 or MDM2. Here, we show that guanosine 5'-monophosphate synthase (GMPS) is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of p53. Normally, most GMPS is sequestered in the cytoplasm, separated from nuclear USP7 and p53. In response to genotoxic stress or nucleotide deprivation, GMPS becomes nuclear and facilitates p53 stabilization by promoting its transfer from MDM2 to a GMPS-USP7 deubiquitylation complex. Intriguingly, cytoplasmic sequestration of GMPS requires ubiquitylation by TRIM21, a ubiquitin ligase associated with autoimmune disease. These results implicate a classic nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme and a ubiquitin ligase, better known for its role in autoimmune disease, in p53 control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.12.017DOI Listing
February 2014

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC.

Nature 2013 Mar;495(7440):251-4

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Most human coronaviruses cause mild upper respiratory tract disease but may be associated with more severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised individuals. However, SARS coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory disease with nearly 10% mortality and evidence of systemic spread. Recently, another coronavirus (human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center (hCoV-EMC)) was identified in patients with severe and sometimes lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Viral genome analysis revealed close relatedness to coronaviruses found in bats. Here we identify dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; also known as CD26) as a functional receptor for hCoV-EMC. DPP4 specifically co-purified with the receptor-binding S1 domain of the hCoV-EMC spike protein from lysates of susceptible Huh-7 cells. Antibodies directed against DPP4 inhibited hCoV-EMC infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells and Huh-7 cells. Expression of human and bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) DPP4 in non-susceptible COS-7 cells enabled infection by hCoV-EMC. The use of the evolutionarily conserved DPP4 protein from different species as a functional receptor provides clues about the host range potential of hCoV-EMC. In addition, it will contribute critically to our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging human coronavirus, and may facilitate the development of intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7095326PMC
March 2013

UV-sensitive syndrome protein UVSSA recruits USP7 to regulate transcription-coupled repair.

Nat Genet 2012 May;44(5):598-602

Department of Genetics and Netherlands Proteomics Centre, Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair (TC-NER) is a subpathway of NER that efficiently removes the highly toxic RNA polymerase II blocking lesions in DNA. Defective TC-NER gives rise to the human disorders Cockayne syndrome and UV-sensitive syndrome (UV(S)S). NER initiating factors are known to be regulated by ubiquitination. Using a SILAC-based proteomic approach, we identified UVSSA (formerly known as KIAA1530) as part of a UV-induced ubiquitinated protein complex. Knockdown of UVSSA resulted in TC-NER deficiency. UVSSA was found to be the causative gene for UV(S)S, an unresolved NER deficiency disorder. The UVSSA protein interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II, localizes specifically to UV-induced lesions, resides in chromatin-associated TC-NER complexes and is implicated in stabilizing the TC-NER master organizing protein ERCC6 (also known as CSB) by delivering the deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 to TC-NER complexes. Together, these findings indicate that UVSSA-USP7–mediated stabilization of ERCC6 represents a critical regulatory mechanism of TC-NER in restoring gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2230DOI Listing
May 2012

Remodelers organize cellular chromatin by counteracting intrinsic histone-DNA sequence preferences in a class-specific manner.

Mol Cell Biol 2012 Feb 28;32(3):675-88. Epub 2011 Nov 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Center for Biomedical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The nucleosome is the fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we assessed the interplay between DNA sequence and ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors (remodelers) in the nucleosomal organization of a eukaryotic genome. We compared the genome-wide distribution of Drosophila NURD, (P)BAP, INO80, and ISWI, representing the four major remodeler families. Each remodeler has a unique set of genomic targets and generates distinct chromatin signatures. Remodeler loci have characteristic DNA sequence features, predicted to influence nucleosome formation. Strikingly, remodelers counteract DNA sequence-driven nucleosome distribution in two distinct ways. NURD, (P)BAP, and INO80 increase histone density at their target sequences, which intrinsically disfavor positioned nucleosome formation. In contrast, ISWI promotes open chromatin at sites that are propitious for precise nucleosome placement. Remodelers influence nucleosome organization genome-wide, reflecting their high genomic density and the propagation of nucleosome redistribution beyond remodeler binding sites. In transcriptionally silent early embryos, nucleosome organization correlates with intrinsic histone-DNA sequence preferences. Following differential expression of the genome, however, this relationship diminishes and eventually disappears. We conclude that the cellular nucleosome landscape is the result of the balance between DNA sequence-driven nucleosome placement and active nucleosome repositioning by remodelers and the transcription machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.06365-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266603PMC
February 2012

Involvement of reperfusion injury salvage kinases in preconditioning depends critically on the preconditioning stimulus.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2011 Jul 16;236(7):874-82. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Experimental Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Different preconditioning stimuli can activate divergent signaling pathways. In rats, adenosine-independent pathways (triple 3-min coronary artery occlusion [3CAO3]) and adenosine-dependent pathways (one 15-min coronary artery occlusion [ICAO15]) exist, both ultimately converging at the level of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, while 3CAO3, 1CAO15 and exogenous adenosine (ADO) are equally cardioprotective, only 1CAO15 increases interstitial myocardial adenosine levels. Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) pathway kinases have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning, but not all preconditioning stimuli activate this pathway. Consequently, we evaluated in anesthetized rats the effects of three distinctly different preconditioning stimuli (3CAO3, 1CAO15 or ADO) on infarct size (IS), signaling pathways with a special emphasis on kinases belonging to the RISK pathway (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-nitric oxide synthase and extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) and mitochondrial respiration. All three stimuli increased state-2 respiration (using succinate as complex-II substrate), thereby decreasing the respiratory control index, which was accompanied by a limitation of IS produced by a 60-min coronary artery occlusion (CAO). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition abolished the mitochondrial effects and the cardioprotection by 3CAO3, 1CAO15 or ADO. In contrast, the PI3 kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, blocked protection by 1CAO15, but did not affect protection by 3CAO3 or ADO. Western blotting confirmed that phosphorylation of Akt and ERK were increased by 1CAO15 (which was inhibited by wortmannin), but not by 3CAO3 or ADO. In conclusion, while the three cardioprotective stimuli 3CAO3, 1CAO15 and ADO afford cardioprotection via nitric oxide-mediated modulation of mitochondrial respiration, only the 1CAO15 exerts its protection via activation of kinases belonging to the RISK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/ebm.2011.010260DOI Listing
July 2011

Sox2 cooperates with Chd7 to regulate genes that are mutated in human syndromes.

Nat Genet 2011 Jun 1;43(6):607-11. Epub 2011 May 1.

Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center (MC), Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The HMG-box transcription factor Sox2 plays a role throughout neurogenesis and also acts at other stages of development, as illustrated by the multiple organs affected in the anophthalmia syndrome caused by SOX2 mutations. Here we combined proteomic and genomic approaches to characterize gene regulation by Sox2 in neural stem cells. Chd7, a chromatin remodeling ATPase associated with CHARGE syndrome, was identified as a Sox2 transcriptional cofactor. Sox2 and Chd7 physically interact, have overlapping genome-wide binding sites and regulate a set of common target genes including Jag1, Gli3 and Mycn, genes mutated in Alagille, Pallister-Hall and Feingold syndromes, which show malformations also associated with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome or CHARGE syndrome. Regulation of disease-associated genes by a Sox2-Chd7 complex provides a plausible explanation for several malformations associated with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome or CHARGE syndrome. Indeed, we found that Chd7-haploinsufficient embryos showed severely reduced expression of Jag1 in the developing inner ear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.825DOI Listing
June 2011

Nuclear protein extraction from frozen porcine myocardium.

J Physiol Biochem 2011 Jun;67(2):165-73

Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Protocols for the extraction of nuclear proteins have been developed for cultured cells and fresh tissue, but sometimes only frozen tissue is available. We have optimized the homogenization procedure and subsequent fractionation protocol for the preparation of nuclear protein extracts from frozen porcine left ventricular (LV) tissue. This method gave a highly reproducible protein yield (6.5±0.7% of total protein; mean±SE, n=9) and a 6-fold enrichment of the nuclear marker protein B23. The nuclear protein extracts were essentially devoid of cytosolic, myofilament, and histone proteins. Compared to nuclear extracts from fresh LV tissue, some loss of nuclear proteins to the cytosolic fraction was observed. Using this method, we studied the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (PY-STAT3) in LV tissue of animals treated with the β-agonist dobutamine. Upon treatment, PY-STAT3 increased 30.2±8.5-fold in total homogenates, but only 6.9±2.1-fold (n=4, P=0.03) in nuclear protein extracts. Of all PY-STAT3 formed, only a minor fraction appeared in the nuclear fraction. This simple and reproducible protocol yielded nuclear protein extracts that were highly enriched in nuclear proteins with almost complete removal of cytosolic and myofilament proteins. This nuclear protein extraction protocol is therefore well-suited for nuclear proteome analysis of frozen heart tissue collected in biobanks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-010-0059-xDOI Listing
June 2011

Detrimental effect of combined exercise training and eNOS overexpression on cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2009 May 13;296(5):H1513-23. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

Div. of Experimental Cardiology, Dept. of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Univ. Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands.

It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased oxidative stress secondary to eNOS "uncoupling."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00485.2008DOI Listing
May 2009

Proteomic profiling of endothelin-1-stimulated hypertrophic cardiomyocytes reveals the increase of four different desmin species and alpha-B-crystallin.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Jul-Aug;1784(7-8):1068-76. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

Department of Biochemistry G. Moruzzi, INRC, University of Bologna, Italy.

We performed a proteomic investigation on primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes after treatment with 10 nM endothelin-1 (ET1) for 48 h, an in vitro model for cardiac hypertrophy. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis profiles of cell lysates were compared after colloidal Coomassie Blue staining. 12 protein spots that significantly changed in density due to ET1 stimulation were selected for in-gel digestion and identified through mass spectrometry. Of these, 8 spots were increased and 4 were decreased. Four of the increased proteins were identified as desmin, the cardiac component of intermediate filaments and one as alpha-B-crystallin, a molecular chaperone that binds desmin. All the desmins increased 2- to 5-fold, and alpha-B-crystallin increased 2-fold after ET1 treatment. Desmin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial activity and distribution, as well as in the formation of amyloid bodies. Mitochondria-specific fluorescent probe MitoTracker indicated mitochondrial redistribution in hypertrophic cells. An increase of amyloid aggregates containing desmin upon treatment with ET1 was detected by filter assay. Of the four proteins that showed decreased abundance after ET1 treatment, the chaperones hsp60 and grp75 were decreased 13- and 9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, proteomic profiling of ET1-stimulated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes reveals specific changes in cardiac molecular phenotype mainly involving intermediate filament and molecular chaperone proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2905868PMC
August 2008

Differential Signaling and Hypertrophic Responses in Cyclically Stretched vs Endothelin-1 Stimulated Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2007 ;47(1):21-32

Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Numerous neurohumoral factors such as endothelin (ET)-1 and angiotensin (Ang) II as well as the stretch stimulus act concertedly in the in vivo overloaded heart in inducing hypertrophy and failure. The primary culture of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes is the only in vitro model that allows the comparative analysis of growth responses and signaling events in response to different stimuli. In the present study, we examined stretched rat cardiomyocytes grown on flexible bottomed culture plates for hypertrophic growth responses (protein synthesis, protein/DNA ratio, and cell volume), F-actin filaments rearrangement (by confocal laser scanning microscopy), and for signaling events (activation of phospholipase C [PLC]-beta, protein kinase C [PKC], mitogenactivated protein [MAP] kinases) and compared these responses with ET-1 (10-8 M)-stimulated cells. Cyclic stretch for 48 h induced hypertrophic growth in cardiomyocytes indicated by increases in the rate of protein synthesis, cell volume, and diameter, which were less pronounced in comparison to stimulation by ET-1. During cyclic stretch, we observed disoriented F-actin, particularly stress-fibers whereas during ET-1 stimulation, Factins rearranged clearly in alignment with sarcomeres and fibers. The upstream part of signaling by cyclic stretch did not follow the PLCbeta-PKC cascade, which, in contrast, was strongly activated during ET-1 stimulation. Cyclic stretch and, to greater extent, ET-1 stimulated downstream signaling through ERK, p38 MAP kinase, and JNK pathways, but the involvement of tyrosine kinase and PI3 kinase-Akt signaling during cyclic stretch could not be proven. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both cyclic stretch and ET-1 induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes with different effects on organization of F-actin stress fibers in case of stretch. Furthermore, on the short-term basis, cyclical stretch, unlike ET-1, mediates its hypertrophic response not through activation of PLC-beta and PKC but more likely through integrin-linked pathways, which both lead to downstream activation of the MAP kinase family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/cbb:47:1:21DOI Listing
January 2008

Early exercise training normalizes myofilament function and attenuates left ventricular pump dysfunction in mice with a large myocardial infarction.

Circ Res 2007 Apr 8;100(7):1079-88. Epub 2007 Mar 8.

Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The extent and mechanism of the cardiac benefit of early exercise training following myocardial infarction (MI) is incompletely understood, but may involve blunting of abnormalities in Ca(2+)-handling and myofilament function. Consequently, we investigated the effects of 8-weeks of voluntary exercise, started early after a large MI, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction in the mouse. Exercise had no effect on survival, MI size or LV dimensions, but improved LV fractional shortening from 8+/-1 to 12+/-1%, and LVdP/dt(P30) from 5295+/-207 to 5794+/-207 mm Hg/s (both P<0.05), and reduced pulmonary congestion. These global effects of exercise were associated with normalization of the MI-induced increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity (DeltapCa(50)=0.037). This effect of exercise was PKA-mediated and likely because of improved beta(1)-adrenergic signaling, as suggested by the increased beta(1)-adrenoceptor protein (48%) and cAMP levels (36%; all P<0.05). Exercise prevented the MI-induced decreased maximum force generating capacity of skinned cardiomyocytes (F(max) increased from 14.3+/-0.7 to 18.3+/-0.8 kN/m(2) P<0.05), which was associated with enhanced shortening of unloaded intact cardiomyocytes (from 4.1+/-0.3 to 7.0+/-0.6%; P<0.05). Furthermore, exercise reduced diastolic Ca(2+)-concentrations (by approximately 30%, P<0.05) despite the unchanged SERCA2a and PLB expression and PLB phosphorylation status. Importantly, exercise had no effect on Ca(2+)-transient amplitude, indicating that the improved LV and cardiomyocyte shortening were principally because of improved myofilament function. In conclusion, early exercise in mice after a large MI has no effect on LV remodeling, but attenuates global LV dysfunction. The latter can be explained by the exercise-induced improvement of myofilament function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000262655.16373.37DOI Listing
April 2007

Prorenin induces intracellular signaling in cardiomyocytes independently of angiotensin II.

Hypertension 2006 Oct 28;48(4):564-71. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Tissue accumulation of circulating prorenin results in angiotensin generation, but could also, through binding to the recently cloned (pro)renin receptor, lead to angiotensin-independent effects, like p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 release. Here we investigated whether prorenin exerts angiotensin-independent effects in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Polyclonal antibodies detected the (pro)renin receptor in these cells. Prorenin affected neither p42/p44 MAPK nor PAI-1. PAI-1 release did occur during coincubation with angiotensinogen, suggesting that this effect is angiotensin mediated. Prorenin concentration-dependently activated p38 MAPK and simultaneously phosphorylated HSP27. The latter phosphorylation was blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Rat microarray gene (n=4800) transcription profiling of myocytes stimulated with prorenin detected 260 regulated genes (P<0.001 versus control), among which genes downstream of p38 MAPK and HSP27 involved in actin filament dynamics and (cis-)regulated genes confined in blood pressure and diabetes QTL regions, like Syntaxin-7, were overrepresented. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of 7 selected genes (Opg, Timp1, Best5, Hsp27, pro-Anp, Col3a1, and Hk2) revealed temporal regulation, with peak levels occurring after 4 hours of prorenin exposure. This regulation was not altered in the presence of the renin inhibitor aliskiren or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist eprosartan. Finally, pilot 2D proteomic differential display experiments revealed actin cytoskeleton changes in cardiomyocytes after 48 hours of prorenin stimulation. In conclusion, prorenin exerts angiotensin-independent effects in cardiomyocytes. Prorenin-induced stimulation of the p38 MAPK/HSP27 pathway, resulting in alterations in actin filament dynamics, may underlie the severe cardiac hypertrophy that has been described previously in rats with hepatic prorenin overexpression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000240064.19301.1bDOI Listing
October 2006