Publications by authors named "Diane M Renz"

43 Publications

Ultrashort echo time MRI of the lung in children and adolescents: comparison with non-enhanced computed tomography and standard post-contrast T1w MRI sequences.

Eur Radiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Paediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany.

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic value of ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the lung versus the gold standard computed tomography (CT) and two T1-weighted MRI sequences in children.

Methods: Twenty-three patients with proven oncologic disease (14 male, 9 female; mean age 9.0 + / - 5.4 years) received 35 low-dose CT and MRI examinations of the lung. The MRI protocol (1.5-T) included the following post-contrast sequences: two-dimensional (2D) incoherent gradient echo (GRE; acquisition with breath-hold), 3D volume interpolated GRE (breath-hold), and 3D high-resolution radial UTE sequences (performed during free-breathing). Images were evaluated by considering image quality as well as distinct diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and parenchymal areal opacities with consideration of sizes and characterisations.

Results: The UTE technique showed significantly higher overall image quality, better sharpness, and fewer artefacts than both other sequences. On CT, 110 pulmonary nodules with a mean diameter of 4.9 + / - 2.9 mm were detected. UTE imaging resulted in a significantly higher detection rate compared to both other sequences (p < 0.01): 76.4% (84 of 110 nodules) for UTE versus 60.9% (67 of 110) for incoherent GRE and 62.7% (69 of 110) for volume interpolated GRE sequences. The detection of parenchymal areal opacities by the UTE technique was also significantly higher with a rate of 93.3% (42 of 45 opacities) versus 77.8% (35 of 45) for 2D GRE and 80.0% (36 of 45) for 3D GRE sequences (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The UTE technique for lung MRI is favourable in children with generally high diagnostic performance compared to standard T1-weighted sequences as well as CT. Key Points • Due to the possible acquisition during free-breathing of the patients, the UTE MRI sequence for the lung is favourable in children. • The UTE technique reaches higher overall image quality, better sharpness, and lower artefacts, but not higher contrast compared to standard post-contrast T1-weighted sequences. • In comparison to the gold standard chest CT, the detection rate of small pulmonary nodules small nodules ≤ 4 mm and subtle parenchymal areal opacities is higher with the UTE imaging than standard T1-weighted sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08236-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety and parents´ acceptance of ultrasound contrast agents in children and adolescents - contrast enhanced voiding urosonography and contrast enhanced ultrasound.

Med Ultrason 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University hospital Jena, Jena, Germany.

Aims: To evaluate the safety of the contrast enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in children and adolescence and to receive data about parents' acceptance of intravesical and intravenous application of sulfur hexafluoride.

Material And Methods: In this prospective, single centre study conducted over a 1 year study period, parents of 56 children (f/m=32/24; mean age 3.1 years; range 3 weeks - 15.9 years) with ceVUS and of 30 children (f/m=15/15; mean age 10.5 years; range 2 months - 17.7 years) with CEUS agreed to be included. A standardized telephone survey about the acceptance of the parents during and after the procedure as well as the adverse events (AE) were conducted within three days of the examination.

Results: The parents would agree with the use of both ceVUS and CEUS as a diagnostic tool again in 96% (54/56) or 100% (30/30) of the cases, respectively and 92.9% (52/56) would prefer ceVUS to voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). In addition, 83.3% (25/30) would prefer CEUS to CT and 73.3% (22/30) would prefer CEUS to MRI. AE were reported in 3.6% after ceVUS (2/56; skin rash, mild fever) and in 3.3% after CEUS (1/30; vomiting). AE were subacute and self‑limited.

Conclusions: The vast majority of parents prefer ceVUS and CEUS to VCUG, CT or MRI because of the safety profile of the contrast agent and diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-3196DOI Listing
September 2021

Radiographic remission in rheumatoid arthritis quantified by computer-aided joint space analysis (CASJA): a post hoc analysis of the RAPID 1 trial.

Arthritis Res Ther 2020 10 6;22(1):229. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller, University Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Background: The reduction of finger joint space width (JSW) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is strongly associated with joint destruction. Treatment with certolizumab pegol (CZP), a PEGylated anti-TNF, has been proven to be effective in RA patients. The computer-aided joint space analysis (CAJSA) provides the semiautomated measurement of joint space width at the metacarpal-phalangeal joints (MCP) based on hand radiographs. The aim of this post hoc analysis of the RAPID 1 trial was to quantify MCP joint space distance (JSD-MCP) measured by CAJSA between baseline and week 52 in RA patients treated with certolizumab pegol (CZP) plus methotrexate (MTX) compared with MTX/placebo.

Methods: Three hundred twenty-eight patients were included in the post hoc analysis and received placebo plus MTX, CZP 200 mg plus MTX and CZP 400 mg plus MTX. All patients underwent X-rays of the hand at baseline and week 52 as well as assessment of finger joint space narrowing of the MCP using CAJSA (Version 1.3.6; Sectra; Sweden). The joint space width (JSW) was expressed as mean joint space distance of the MCP joints I to V (JSD-MCP).

Results: The MTX group showed a significant reduction of joint space of - 4.8% (JSD-MCP), whereas in patients treated with CZP 200 mg/MTX and CZP 400 mg/MTX a non-significant change (JSD-MCP + 0.6%) was observed. Over 52 weeks, participants with DAS28 remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6) exhibited a significant joint space increase of + 3.3% (CZP 200 mg plus MTX) and + 3.9% (CZP pegol 400 mg plus MTX).

Conclusion: CZP plus MTX did not reduce JSD-MCP estimated by CAJSA compared with MTX/placebo. Furthermore, clinical remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6) in patients treated with CZP plus MTX was associated with an increasing JSD, indicating radiographic remission in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02322-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541323PMC
October 2020

Inhibition of periarticular bone loss is associated with clinical remission and ACR70-Response in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatol Int 2019 04 19;39(4):637-645. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Straße des Friedens 122, 07548, Gera, Germany.

The aim of this study, based on a post hoc analysis of the data set used in the RAPID 1 trial, focuses on the associations between metacarpal bone mineral density, as estimated by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR), and clinical remission as well as ACR70-Response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with certolizumab pegol (CZP). The trial evaluates a total of 345 RA patients treated with methotrexate versus CZP 200 mg versus CZP 400 mg. All patients underwent X-rays of the hand at baseline and week 52 as well as computerized calculations of bone mineral density (BMD) by DXR. Clinical remission was defined as DAS28 < 2.6. ACR70-Response was also evaluated. The radiological assessment of disease progression was estimated using the modified total Sharp Score. The mean difference for DAS28 was observed for patients treated with CZP 400 mg (median: - 3.53, minimum: - 6.77; maximum: + 0.48) and CZP 200 mg (median: - 3.13, minimum: - 6.37; maximum: - 0.52) compared to the methotrexate group (median - 2.41, minimum: - 4.76; maximum: + 0.31). The DXR-BMD showed a minor bone loss for the treatment groups undergoing therapy with CZP 200 mg (median: - 0.009 g/cm, minimum: - 0.059 g/cm; maximum: + 0.095 g/cm) and CZP 400 mg (median: - 0.008 g/cm, minimum: - 0.064 g/cm; maximum: + 0.080 g/cm). The methotrexate group presented an advanced periarticular metacarpal bone loss as measured by DXR-BMD (median: - 0.024 g/cm, minimum: - 0.102 g/cm; maximum: + 0.057 g/cm). In the case of clinical remission and ACR70-Response, no significant change of the DXR-BMD was observed for both CZP groups. The study highlights that patients treated with CZP show a less accentuated periarticular bone loss as estimated by DXR in comparison to patients with methotrexate plus placebo. In addition, patients with clinical remission and ACR70-Response revealed no periarticular demineralisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-018-4226-7DOI Listing
April 2019

Tailored CT angiography in follow-up after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR): combined dose reduction techniques.

Acta Radiol 2018 Nov 10;59(11):1316-1325. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

1 Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) requires lifelong surveillance by computed tomography angiography (CTA). This is attended by a substantial accumulation of radiation exposure. Iterative reconstruction (IR) has been introduced to approach dose reduction. Purpose To evaluate adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at different levels of tube voltage concerning image quality and dose reduction potential in follow-up post EVAR. Material and Methods One hundred CTAs in 67 patients with EVAR were examined using five protocols: protocol A (n = 40) as biphasic standard using filtered back projection (FBP) at 120 kV; protocols B (n = 40), C (n = 10), and D1 (n = 5) biphasic using ASIR at 120, 100, and 80 kV, respectively; and protocol D2 (n = 5) with a monophasic splitbolus ASIR protocol at 80 kV. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Applied doses were determined. Results Applied doses in ASIR protocols were significantly lower than FBP standard (up to 75%). Compared to protocol A, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (e.g. arterial CNR intra-/extra-stent lumen: A = 35.4 ± 13.5, B = 34.2 ± 10.0, C = 29.6 ± 6.8, D1 = 32.1 ± 6.3, D2 = 40.8 ± 23.1) in protocol B were equal and in protocols C and D equal to partially inferior, however not decisive for diagnostic quality. Subjective image quality ratings in all protocols were good to excellent without impairments of diagnostic confidence (A-D2: 5), with high inter-rater agreement (60-100%). Conclusion ASIR contributes to significant dose reduction without decisive impairments of image quality and diagnostic confidence. We recommend an adapted follow-up introducing ASIR and combined low-kV in the long-term surveillance after EVAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185118756952DOI Listing
November 2018

Relation of Ultrasound Findings and Abdominal Symptoms obtained with the CFAbd-Score in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Sci Rep 2017 12 12;7(1):17465. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Jena University Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Jena, Germany.

Abdominal symptoms are a hallmark of Cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet, their association with morphological abnormalities of different abdominal organs is still poorly understood. Aim was therefore to relate these symptoms, assessed with a questionnaire, to findings in abdominal ultrasound (US). In 114 CF patients of all ages, findings in US considering seventeen specific parameters were related to abdominal symptoms compiled with our novel CF-specific 26-modal symptom score (CFAbd-Score). US abnormalities were detected in 95% of the patients. Most frequent findings were pancreatic lipomatosis (88%), liver steatosis (37%), hepatomegaly (31%), and thickened bowel walls (23%). Highest burden of GI-symptoms was clearly associated with pancreatic lipomatosis (p = 0.036). In detail, patients revealing this pathology reported higher rates of abdominal pain (p = 0.018), flatulence (p = 0.006), heartburn (p = 0.04), and reflux of stomach content (p = 0.006). Patients with pancreatic sufficiency had less US-findings (p = 0.033), which in turn was associated with lower rates of abdominal symptoms. The majority of them were carriers of class IV-VI or G551D mutations. Our approach gives new insights regarding the underestimated multi-organ abdominal involvement in CF. The new score can be of high interest e.g. as a complementary tool to assess the gastrointestinal effects of promising novel CF therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17302-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727223PMC
December 2017

Comparison of Unenhanced T1-Weighted Signal Intensities Within the Dentate Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus After Serial Applications of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Versus Gadobutrol in a Pediatric Population.

Invest Radiol 2018 02;53(2):119-127

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol.

Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutrol were analyzed. All MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system acquiring unenhanced T1-weighted spin echo sequences, which were evaluated on the baseline MRI and after the contrast medium administrations. For analysis of SI changes in the DN, the ratios of the DN to the pons (P) and to the middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) were assessed. The GP was compared with the thalamus (TH) by dividing the SIs between GP and TH (GP-to-TH ratio).

Results: Twenty-eight patients (13 boys, 15 girls; mean age, 8.4 ± 6.8 years) who received at least 3 applications of gadopentetate dimeglumine and 25 patients (13 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 9.7 ± 5.4 years) with 3 or more gadobutrol injections were included. After 3 administrations of gadopentetate dimeglumine, the T1-weighted SI ratios significantly increased: mean difference value of 0.036 ± 0.031 (DN-to-P; P < 0.001), 0.034 ± 0.032 (DN-to-MCP; P < 0.001), and 0.025 ± 0.025 (GP-to-TH; P = 0.001). In a subanalysis of 12 patients with more than 3 injections of gadopentetate dimeglumine, the mean differences of the SI ratios were slightly higher: 0.043 ± 0.032 (DN-to-P; P = 0.001), 0.041 ± 0.035 (DN-to-MCP; P = 0.002), and 0.028 ± 0.025 (GP-to-TH; P = 0.003). In contrast, gadobutrol did not show a significant influence on the SI ratios, neither after 3 nor after more than 3 applications.

Conclusions: The T1-weighted SI increase within the DN and GP after serial administrations of the linear contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine, but not after serial applications of the macrocyclic agent gadobutrol, found in a pediatric population, is consistent with results published for adult patients. The clinical impact of the intracranial T1-hyperintensities is currently unclear. However, in accordance with the recent decision of the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency, intravenous macrocyclic agents should be preferred and MR contrast media should be used with caution and awareness of the pediatric brain development in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000419DOI Listing
February 2018

Abdominal symptoms in cystic fibrosis and their relation to genotype, history, clinical and laboratory findings.

PLoS One 2017 4;12(5):e0174463. Epub 2017 May 4.

Jena University Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Jena, Germany.

Background & Aims: Abdominal symptoms (AS) are a hallmark of the multiorgan-disease cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abdominal involvement in CF is insufficiently understood and, compared to the pulmonary manifestation, still receives little scientific attention. Aims were to assess and quantify AS and to relate them to laboratory parameters, clinical findings, and medical history.

Methods: A total of 131 patients with CF of all ages were assessed with a new CF-specific questionnaire (JenAbdomen-CF score 1.0) on abdominal pain and non-pain symptoms, disorders of appetite, eating, and bowel movements as well as symptom-related quality of life. Results were metrically dimensioned and related to abdominal manifestations, history of surgery, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus colonization, genotype, liver enzymes, antibiotic therapy, lung function, and nutritional status.

Results: AS during the preceding 3 months were reported by all of our patients. Most common were lack of appetite (130/131) and loss of taste (119/131) followed by abdominal pain (104/131), flatulence (102/131), and distention (83/131). Significantly increased AS were found in patients with history of rectal prolapse (p = 0.013), distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (p = 0.013), laparotomy (p = 0.022), meconium ileus (p = 0.037), pancreas insufficiency (p = 0.042), or small bowel resection (p = 0.048) as well as in patients who have been intermittently colonized with P. aeruginosa (p = 0.006) compared to patients without history of these events. In contrast, no statistically significant associations were found to CF-associated liver disease, chronic pathogen colonization, lung function, CF-related diabetes, and nutritional status.

Conclusion: As the complex abdominal involvement in CF is still not fully understood, the assessment of the common AS is of major interest. In this regard, symptom questionnaires like the herein presented are meaningful and practical tools facilitating a wider understanding of the abdominal symptoms in CF. Furthermore, they render to evaluate possible abdominal effects of novel modulators of the underlying cystic fibrosis transmembrane (conductance) regulator (CFTR) defect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174463PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417419PMC
September 2017

Metacarpal bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis estimated by a new Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry method - initial results.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2017 01 6;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Straße des Friedens 122, 07548, Gera, Germany.

Background: The Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry (DXR) method measures the cortical bone thickness in the shafts of the metacarpals and has demonstrated its relevance in the assessment of hand bone loss caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to validate a novel approach of the DXR method in comparison with the original version considering patients with RA.

Method: The study includes 49 patients with verified RA. The new version is an extension of the BoneXpert method commonly used in pediatrics which has these characteristics: (1) It introduces a new technique to analyze the images which automatically validates the results for most images, and (2) it defines the measurement region relative to the ends of the metacarpals. The BoneXpert method measures the Metacarpal Index (MCI) at the metacarpal bone (II to IV). Additionally, the MCI is quantified by the DXR X-posure System.

Results: The new version correctly analyzed all 49 images, and 45 were automatically validated. The standard deviation between the MCI results of the two versions was 2.9% of the mean MCI. The average Larsen score was 2.6 with a standard deviation of 1.3. The correlation of MCI to Larsen score was -0.81 in both versions, and there was no significant difference in their ability to detect erosions.

Conclusion: The new DXR version (BoneXpert) validated 92% of the cases automatically, while the same good correlation to RA severity could be presented compared to the old version.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-016-1348-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5216610PMC
January 2017

Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography vs. mammography and MRI - clinical performance in a multi-reader evaluation.

Eur Radiol 2017 Jul 28;27(7):2752-2764. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study.

Methods: One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria. MRI was assessed by another group of three readers. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Size measurements for the 70 lesions detected by all readers in each modality were correlated with pathology.

Results: Reading results for 604 lesions were available (273 malignant, 4 high-risk, 327 benign). The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for CESM alone (0.84) and CESM + MG (0.83) compared to MG (0.76) (largest advantage in dense breasts) while it was not significantly different from MRI (0.85). Pearson correlation coefficients for size comparison were 0.61 for MG, 0.69 for CESM, 0.70 for CESM + MG and 0.79 for MRI.

Conclusions: This study showed that CESM, alone and in combination with MG, is as accurate as MRI but is superior to MG for lesion detection. Patients with dense breasts benefitted most from CESM with the smallest additional dose compared to MG.

Key Points: • CESM has comparable diagnostic performance (ROC-AUC) to MRI for breast cancer diagnostics. • CESM in combination with MG does not improve diagnostic performance. • CESM has lower sensitivity but higher specificity than MRI. • Sensitivity differences are more pronounced in dense and not significant in non-dense breasts. • CESM and MRI are significantly superior to MG, particularly in dense breasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-016-4650-6DOI Listing
July 2017

Psoriatic arthritis is associated with bone loss of the metacarpals.

Arthritis Res Ther 2016 10 25;18(1):248. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Straße des Friedens 122, Gera, 07548, Germany.

Background: BoneXpert (BX) is a newly developed medical device based on digital X-ray radiogrammetry to measure human cortical bone thickness. The aim of this study was to quantify cortical bone loss of the metacarpals in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and compare these findings with other radiological scoring methods.

Methods: The study includes 104 patients with verified PsA. The BX method was used to measure the Metacarpal Index (MCI) at the metacarpal bones (II-IV). Additionally, the T-score of the MCI (T-score) was calculated. Radiographic severity was determined by the Psoriatic Arthritis Ratingen Score (Proliferation Score and Destruction Score) as published by Wassenberg et al. and the Psoriatic Arthritis modified van der Heijde Sharp Score (Joint Space Narrowing Score and Erosion Score).

Results: For the total PsA study cohort, the T-score was significantly reduced by -1.289 ± 1.313 SD. The MCI negatively correlated with the Proliferation Score (r = -0.732; p < 0.001) and the Destruction Score (r = -0.771; p < 0.001) of the Psoriatic Arthritis Ratingen Score. Lower coefficients of correlations were observed for the Psoriatic Arthritis modified van der Heijde Sharp Score. In this context, a severity-dependent and PsA-related periarticular demineralisation as measured by the MCI was quantified. The strongest reduction of -30.8 % (p < 0.01) was observed for the MCI in the Destruction Score.

Conclusions: The BX MCI score showed periarticular demineralisation and severity-dependent bone loss in patients with PsA. The measurements of the BX technique were able to sensitively differentiate between the different stages of disease manifestation affecting bone integrity and thereby seem to achieve the potential to be a surrogate marker of radiographic progression in PsA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-016-1145-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5080685PMC
October 2016

A severe pediatric infection with a novel enterovirus A71 strain, Thuringia, Germany.

J Clin Virol 2016 11 19;84:90-95. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Infection by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Outbreaks including severe cases with neurological and cardiopulmonary complications have been reported particularly from Southeast Asia. In Europe, the epidemiology of EV-A71 is not well understood. In summer 2015, a two-year-old girl from Thuringia, Germany, presented with rhombencephalitis/brainstem encephalitis associated with severe neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. EV-A71 was detected in stool and almost the entire viral genome was amplified and sequenced. While the capsid protein VP1-encoding region belongs to the EV-A71 subgenogroup C1, the 3D polymerase encoding region represents a unique lineage. Thus, the data suggest that the Thuringian EV-A71 sequence likely represents a recombinant. The case underlines the importance of intensified EV-A71 surveillance in Germany and Europe including analysis of full-genome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2016.09.007DOI Listing
November 2016

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry and its sensitivity and specificity for the identification of rheumatoid arthritis-related cortical hand bone loss.

J Bone Miner Metab 2017 Mar 15;35(2):192-198. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Straße des Friedens 122, 07548, Gera, Germany.

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) is a computer-assisted diagnosis technique for quantifying cortical hand bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the metacarpal index (MCI) in the metacarpal bones from radiographs. The objective was to compare DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI between healthy individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and verify the sensitivity and specificity of this technique for the identification of cortical hand bone loss as an additional diagnostic approach in RA. 618 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: those with RA (n = 309) and a healthy control group (n = 309) as a reference database. DXR-BMD and the DXR-MCI were measured by DXR using hand radiographs. The severity of RA was evaluated by the modified Larsen score. Mean values for DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI in RA patients were significantly lower compared to healthy subjects (-20.7 and -21.1 %, respectively). Depending on the severity of RA-related joint damage, DXR-BMD revealed a significant reduction of -28.1 % and DXR-MCI -28.2 %, comparing score 1 and score 5 of the modified Larsen score. Both DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI had a high sensitivity (DXR-BMD 91 %, DXR-MCI 87 %) and a moderate specificity (DXR-BMD 47 %, DXR-MCI 49 %) to identify RA-related cortical hand bone loss. The DXR technique seems to be able to quantify RA-related periarticular bone loss as a characteristic feature in the course of RA. Consequently, periarticular osteoporosis seems to function as a reliable diagnostic approach comparable to erosions and joint space narrowing in the diagnosis of RA and as a surrogate marker for the progression of bone loss in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-016-0741-3DOI Listing
March 2017

The Application of Fluorescence Optical Imaging in Systemic Sclerosis.

Biomed Res Int 2015 18;2015:658710. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to visualize soft tissue inflammation using FOI on patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) characterized by SSc-related Raynaud's phenomenon and to detect the therapeutic response to treatment with iloprost or alprostadil.

Methods: Twenty-one patients with SSc and Raynaud's phenomenon and twenty-six healthy controls were prospectively included. The SSc patients were intravenously treated with iloprost or alprostadil over seven days. FOI was performed at baseline and after seven days using an intravenous application of indocyanine green (ICG). The hands were divided into nineteen segments per hand. All segments were quantitatively evaluated to determine changes in ICG.

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of FOI in the detection of ICG enhancement in patients with SSc were 95% versus 96%. At baseline, 31.5% hand segments showed ICG enhancement. After seven days of either iloprost or alprostadil therapy a significant reduction in the ICG was observed which ranged from 40.9% to 24.7%.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the FOI technique is able to visualize soft-tissue inflammation with both high sensitivity and specificity. The anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects of iloprost were slightly stronger than alprostadil. FOI offers promising benefits in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with SSc-associated Raynaud's phenomenon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/658710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555360PMC
June 2016

Comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis with regard to clinical, laboratory, and pulmonary functional parameters.

Invest Radiol 2015 Oct;50(10):733-42

From the *Department of Radiology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin; †Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Clinic Gera, Gera; ‡Division of Pulmonology and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin; §Department of Internal Medicine III, and ∥Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is effective as computed tomography (CT) in determining morphologic and functional pulmonary changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in association with multiple clinical parameters.

Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. In this prospective study, 30 patients with CF (17 men and 13 women; mean (SD) age, 30.2 (9.2) years; range, 19-52 years) were included. Chest CT was acquired by unenhanced low-dose technique for clinical purposes. Lung MRI (1.5 T) comprised T2- and T1-weighted sequences before and after the application of 0.1-mmol·kg gadobutrol, also considering lung perfusion imaging. All CT and MR images were visually evaluated by using 2 different scoring systems: the modified Helbich and the Eichinger scores. Signal intensity of the peribronchial walls and detected mucus on T2-weighted images as well as signal enhancement of the peribronchial walls on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were additionally assessed on MRI. For the clinical evaluation, the pulmonary exacerbation rate, laboratory, and pulmonary functional parameters were determined.

Results: The overall modified Helbich CT score had a mean (SD) of 15.3 (4.8) (range, 3-21) and median of 16.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 6.3). The overall modified Helbich MR score showed slightly, not significantly, lower values (Wilcoxon rank sum test and Student t test; P > 0.05): mean (SD) of 14.3 (4.7) (range, 3-20) and median of 15.0 (IQR, 7.3). Without assessment of perfusion, the overall Eichinger score resulted in the following values for CT vs MR examinations: mean (SD), 20.3 (7.2) (range, 4-31); and median, 21.0 (IQR, 9.5) vs mean (SD), 19.5 (7.1) (range, 4-33); and median, 20.0 (IQR, 9.0). All differences between CT and MR examinations were not significant (Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Student t tests; P > 0.05). In general, the correlations of the CT scores (overall and different imaging parameters) to the clinical parameters were slightly higher compared to the MRI scores. However, if all additional MRI parameters were integrated into the scoring systems, the correlations reached the values of the CT scores. The overall image quality was significantly higher for the CT examinations compared to the MRI sequences.

Conclusions: One major diagnostic benefit of lung MRI in CF is the possible acquisition of several different morphologic and functional imaging features without the use of any radiation exposure. Lung MRI shows reliable associations with CT and clinical parameters, which suggests its implementation in CF for routine diagnosis, which would be particularly important in follow-up imaging over the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000178DOI Listing
October 2015

Is there a role for Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry as surrogate marker for radiological progression and imaging of structural integrity in rheumatoid arthritis?

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2015 Jun 23;16:155. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera GmbH, Straße des Friedens 122, 07548, Gera, Germany.

Introduction: The established scoring techniques based on radiographs present limitations in the evaluation of structural integrity due to high effectiveness of innovative therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the periarticular mineralisation as detected by Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry (DXR) as surrogate marker for structural integrity during the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: 11 centers throughout Germany contributed data of 94 patients with verified RA. The patients were treated with leflunomide or methotrexate during a mean observation period of 22 months. All patients underwent complete computerized calculations of bone mineral density (BMD) and metacarpal index (MCI) by DXR using digitized hand radiographs. The radiological assessment of disease progression was estimated by the Sharp Score.

Results: The Sharp Score revealed no significant change during the study period. DXR-BMD revealed minimal decrease of -1.4 % (leflunomide group) versus a higher reduction of -4.3 % (methotrexate group). Regarding DXR-MCI, a reduction of -2.2 % (leflunomide group) and -4.9 % (methotrexate group) was observed.

Conclusion: Quantitative data of hand bone mass estimated by the presented DXR-technique may be a complementary precise tool in the identification of RA-related radiographic changes and in the assessment of structural integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-015-0577-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477593PMC
June 2015

Reference values for digital X-ray radiogrammetry parameters in children and adolescents in comparison to estimates in patients with distal radius fractures.

J Bone Miner Metab 2016 Jan 17;34(1):55-64. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Clinic Gera, Str. des Friedens 122, 07548, Gera, Germany.

The first objective of this study was to determine normative digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) values, based on original digital images, in a pediatric population (aged 6-18 years). The second aim was to compare these reference data with patients suffering from distal radius fractures, whereas both cohorts originated from the same geographical region and were evaluated using the same technical parameters as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria. DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI of the metacarpal bones II-IV were assessed on standardized digital hand radiographs, without printing or scanning procedures. DXR parameters were estimated separately by gender and among six age groups; values in the fracture group were compared to age- and gender-matched normative data using Student's t tests and Z scores. In the reference cohort (150 boys, 138 girls), gender differences were found in bone mineral density (DXR-BMD), with higher values for girls from 11 to 14 years and for boys from 15 to 18 years (p < 0.05). Girls had higher normative metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) values than boys, with significant differences at 11-14 years (p < 0.05). In the case-control investigation, the fracture group (95 boys, 69 girls) presented lower DXR-BMD at 15-18 years in boys and 13-16 years in girls vs. the reference cohort (p < 0.05); DXR-MCI was lower at 11-18 years in boys and 11-16 years in girls (p < 0.05). Mean Z scores in the fracture group for DXR-BMD were -0.42 (boys) and -0.46 (girls), and for DXR-MCI were -0.51 (boys) and -0.53 (girls). These findings indicate that the fully digital DXR technique can be accurately applied in pediatric populations ≥ 6 years of age. The lower DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI values in the fracture group suggest promising early identification of individuals with increased fracture risk, without the need for additional radiation exposure, enabling the initiation of prevention strategies to possibly reduce the incidence of osteoporosis later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-014-0641-3DOI Listing
January 2016

Intraindividual, randomized comparison of the macrocyclic contrast agents gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine in breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Radiol 2015 Mar 25;25(3):837-49. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany,

Objectives: To compare intraindividually two macrocyclic contrast agents - gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) - for dynamic and quantitative assessment of relative enhancement (RE) in benign and malignant breast lesions.

Methods: This was an ethically approved, prospective, single-centre, randomized, crossover study in 52 women with suspected breast lesions referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent one examination with gadobutrol and one with Gd-DOTA (0.1 mmol/kg BW) on a 1.5 T system 1 - 7 days apart. Dynamic, T1-weighted, 3D gradient echo sequences were acquired under identical conditions. Quantitative evaluation with at least three regions of interest (ROI) per lesion was performed. Primary endpoint was RE during the initial postcontrast phase after the first and second dynamic acquisition, and peak RE. All lesions were histologically proven; differences between the examinations were evaluated.

Results: Forty-five patients with a total of 11 benign and 34 malignant lesions were assessed. Mean RE was significantly higher for gadobutrol than Gd-DOTA (p < 0.0001). Gadobutrol showed significantly less washout (64.4 %) than Gd-DOTA (75.4 %) in malignant lesions (p = 0.048) CONCLUSIONS: Gadobutrol has higher RE values compared with Gd-DOTA, whereas Gd-DOTA shows more marked washout in malignant lesions. This might improve the detection of breast lesions and influence the specificity of breast MRI-imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-014-3426-0DOI Listing
March 2015

Influence of angulation on metacarpal bone mineral density measurements using digital X-ray radiogrammetry.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2015 May 3;10(5):587-92. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 , Jena, Germany,

Objective: Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) is a computer-assisted technique used to quantify cortical bone density of the metacarpals. The influence of metacarpal bone rotation and type of cast material on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using the DXR technique was tested.

Methods: The bone mineral density of the hand was measured by DXR, and rotation error (DXR-RE) as coefficients of variation were calculated, to verify reliability and reproducibility of this radiogeometric technique to assess in particular minor disease-related changes in the metacarpal bone mass. The reproducibility of the DXR measurements was also investigated using different cast materials (mull, elastic, and plastic).

Results: There were no significant changes in absolute values of DXR-BMD observed between 0 to [Formula: see text] angulation. The relative DXR-RE ranged between 0 % (degree 1) and 0.70 % (degrees 15 and 19) for DXR-BMD. Regarding the different cast materials, DXR-BMD revealed a coefficient of variation with 0.41 % (mull cast) and 0.21 % (elastic cast). For the plastic cast, the DXR technique was not able to perform an analysis of DXR-BMD.

Conclusion: The study revealed no significant influence of metacarpal rotation on the measurements of metacarpal bone mineral density as estimated by DXR. DXR measurements are not optimal when cast material is used. DXR can accurately quantify periarticular cortical bone mass. This is significant especially for rheumatoid arthritis and related conditions where X-ray imaging of arthritic hands with varying degrees of deformity is performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-014-1076-yDOI Listing
May 2015

Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: Does mammography provide additional clinical benefits or can some radiation exposure be avoided?

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014 Jul 2;146(2):371-81. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Clinic of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany,

The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with mammography (MG) and combined CESM + MG in terms of detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers in order to assess the potential to reduce radiation exposure. A total of 118 patients underwent MG and CESM and had final histological results. CESM was performed as a bilateral examination starting 2 min after injection of iodinated contrast medium. Three independent blinded radiologists read the CESM, MG, and CESM + MG images with an interval of at least 4 weeks to avoid case memorization. Sensitivity and size measurement correlation and differences were calculated, average glandular dose (AGD) levels were compared, and breast densities were reported. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests were performed. A total of 107 imaging pairs were available for analysis. Densities were ACR1: 2, ACR2: 45, ACR3: 42, and ACR4: 18. Mean AGD was 1.89 mGy for CESM alone, 1.78 mGy for MG, and 3.67 mGy for the combination. In very dense breasts, AGD of CESM was significantly lower than MG. Sensitivity across readers was 77.9 % for MG alone, 94.7 % for CESM, and 95 % for CESM + MG. Average tumor size measurement error compared to postsurgical pathology was -0.6 mm for MG, +0.6 mm for CESM, and +4.5 mm for CESM + MG (p < 0.001 for CESM + MG vs. both modalities). CESM alone has the same sensitivity and better size assessment as CESM + MG and was significantly better than MG with only 6.2 % increase in AGD. The combination of CESM + MG led to systematic size overestimation. When a CESM examination is planned, additional MG can be avoided, with the possibility of saving up to 61 % of radiation dose, especially in patients with dense breasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-014-3023-6DOI Listing
July 2014

Comparison of gadoteric acid and gadobutrol for detection as well as morphologic and dynamic characterization of lesions on breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

Invest Radiol 2014 Jul;49(7):474-84

From the *Department of Radiology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin; †Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Clinic Gera, Gera; ‡Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Joseph Stift, Bremen; §Imaging Science Institute, Berlin; and ∥Department of Internal Medicine III, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Objective: In contrast to conventional breast imaging techniques, one major diagnostic benefit of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the simultaneous acquisition of morphologic and dynamic enhancement characteristics, which are based on angiogenesis and therefore provide insights into tumor pathophysiology. The aim of this investigation was to intraindividually compare 2 macrocyclic MRI contrast agents, with low risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in the morphologic and dynamic characterization of histologically verified mass breast lesions, analyzed by blinded human evaluation and a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) technique.

Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. In this prospective, single-center study, 45 women with 51 histopathologically verified (41 malignant, 10 benign) mass lesions underwent 2 identical examinations at 1.5 T (mean time interval, 2.1 days) with 0.1-mmol kg doses of gadoteric acid and gadobutrol. All magnetic resonance images were visually evaluated by 2 experienced, blinded breast radiologists in consensus and by an automatic CAD system, whereas the morphologic and dynamic characterization as well as the final human classification of lesions were performed based on the categories of the Breast imaging reporting and data system MRI atlas. Lesions were also classified by defining their probability of malignancy (morpho-dynamic index; 0%-100%) by the CAD system. Imaging results were correlated with histopathology as gold standard.

Results: The CAD system coded 49 of 51 lesions with gadoteric acid and gadobutrol (detection rate, 96.1%); initial signal increase was significantly higher for gadobutrol than for gadoteric acid for all and the malignant coded lesions (P < 0.05). Gadoteric acid resulted in more postinitial washout curves and fewer continuous increases of all and the malignant lesions compared with gadobutrol (CAD hot spot regions, P < 0.05). Morphologically, the margins of the malignancies were different between the 2 agents, whereas gadobutrol demonstrated more spiculated and fewer smooth margins (P < 0.05). Lesion classifications by the human observers and by the morpho-dynamic index compared with the histopathologic results did not significantly differ between gadoteric acid and gadobutrol.

Conclusions: Macrocyclic contrast media can be reliably used for breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. However, gadoteric acid and gadobutrol differed in some dynamic and morphologic characterization of histologically verified breast lesions in an intraindividual, comparison. Besides the standardization of technical parameters and imaging evaluation of breast MRI, the standardization of the applied contrast medium seems to be important to receive best comparable MRI interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000039DOI Listing
July 2014

Response to neoadjuvant treatment of invasive ductal breast carcinomas including outcome evaluation: MRI analysis by an automatic CAD system in comparison to visual evaluation.

Acta Oncol 2014 Jun 3;53(6):759-68. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Clinic Gera , Gera , Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate imaging-based response to standardized neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) regimen by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (DCE-MRM), whereas MR images were analyzed by an automatic computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system in comparison to visual evaluation. MRI findings were correlated with histopathologic response to NACT and also with the occurrence of metastases in a follow-up analysis.

Patients And Methods: Fifty-four patients with invasive ductal breast carcinomas received two identical MRI examinations (before and after NACT; 1.5T, contrast medium gadoteric acid). Pre-therapeutic images were compared with post-therapeutic examinations by CAD and two blinded human observers, considering morphologic and dynamic MRI parameters as well as tumor size measurements. Imaging-assessed response to NACT was compared with histopathologically verified response. All clinical, histopathologic, and DCE-MRM parameters were correlated with the occurrence of distant metastases.

Results: Initial and post-initial dynamic parameters significantly changed between pre- and post-therapeutic DCE-MRM. Visually evaluated DCE-MRM revealed sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 91.7%, and diagnostic accuracy of 87.0% in evaluating the response to NACT compared to histopathology. CAD analysis led to more false-negative findings (37.0%) compared to visual evaluation (11.1%), resulting in sensitivity of 52.4%, specificity of 100.0%, and diagnostic accuracy of 63.0%. The following dynamic MRI parameters showed significant associations to occurring metastases: Post-initial curve type before NACT (entire lesions, calculated by CAD) and post-initial curve type of the most enhancing tumor parts after NACT (calculated by CAD and manually).

Conclusions: In the accurate evaluation of response to neoadjuvant treatment, CAD systems can provide useful additional information due to the high specificity; however, they cannot replace visual imaging evaluation. Besides traditional prognostic factors, contrast medium-induced dynamic MRI parameters reveal significant associations to patient outcome, i.e. occurrence of distant metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2013.852688DOI Listing
June 2014

Visualisation of structural damage as a surrogate marker of radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Apr 11;73(4):e24. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital-Friedrich Schiller University Jena, , Jena, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204786DOI Listing
April 2014

Outcome study of real-time MR-guided cervical periradicular injection therapy in an open 1.0 Tesla MRI system.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2014 Jun 18;37(3):756-62. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Department of Radiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany,

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy, safety, and efficacy of cervical nerve root injection therapy using magnetic resonance guidance in an open 1.0 T MRI system.

Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, a total of 21 patients (9 men, 12 women; mean age 47.1 ± 11.1 years) underwent MR-guided cervical periradicular injection for cervical radicular pain in an open 1.0 T system. An interactive proton density-weighted turbo spin echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used for real-time guidance of the MR-compatible 20-gauge injection needle. Clinical outcome was evaluated on a verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS) before injection therapy (baseline) and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months during follow-up.

Results: All procedures were technically successful and there were no major complications. The mean preinterventional VNRS score was 7.42 and exhibited a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.001) at all follow-up time points: 3.86 ± 1.53 at 1 week, 3.21 ± 2.19 at 1 month, 2.58 ± 2.54 at 3 months, and 2.76 ± 2.63 at 6 months. At 6 months, 14.3 % of the patients reported complete resolution of radicular pain and 38.1 % each had either significant (4-8 VNRS score points) or mild (1-3 VNRS score points) relief of pain; 9.5 % experienced no pain relief.

Conclusion: Magnetic resonance fluoroscopy-guided periradicular cervical spine injection is an accurate, safe, and efficacious treatment option for patients with cervical radicular pain. The technique may be a promising alternative to fluoroscopy- or CT-guided injections of the cervical spine, especially in young patients and in patients requiring repeat injections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-013-0738-4DOI Listing
June 2014

Detection and classification of different liver lesions: comparison of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI versus multiphasic spiral CT in a clinical single centre investigation.

Eur J Radiol 2013 Nov 7;82(11):1860-9. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Clinic Gera, Str. des Friedens 122, 07548 Gera, Germany.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficacy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vs. multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection and classification of focal liver lesions, differentiated also for lesion entity and size; a separate analysis of pre- and postcontrast images as well as T2-weighted MRI sequences of focal and exclusively solid lesions was integrated.

Methods: Twenty-nine patients with 130 focal liver lesions underwent MDCT (64-detector-row; contrast medium iopromide; native, arterial, portalvenous, venous phase) and MRI (1.5-T; dynamic and tissue-specific phase 20 min after application of Gd-EOB-DTPA). Hepatic lesions were verified against a standard of reference (SOR). CT and MR images were independently analysed by four blinded radiologists on an ordinal 6-point-scale, determining lesion classification and diagnostic confidence.

Results: Among 130 lesions, 68 were classified as malignant and 62 as benign by SOR. The detection of malignant and benign lesions differed significantly between combined and postcontrast MRI vs. MDCT; overall detection rate was 91.5% for combined MRI and 80.4% for combined MDCT (p<0.05). Considering all four readers together, combined MDCT achieved sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 79.0%, and diagnostic accuracy of 72.3%; combined MRI reached superior diagnostic efficacy: sensitivity 86.8%, specificity 94.4%, accuracy 90.4% (p<0.05). Differentiated for lesion size, in particular lesions <20mm revealed diagnostic benefit by MRI. Postcontrast MRI also achieved higher overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compared to postcontrast MDCT for focal and exclusively solid liver lesions (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Combined and postcontrast Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI provided significantly higher overall detection rate and diagnostic accuracy, including low inter-observer variability, compared to MDCT in a single centre study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.06.013DOI Listing
November 2013

Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment of a new scoring method.

Arthritis Res Ther 2013 Feb 13;15(1):R27. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach for the quantification of finger joint space narrowing and joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focusing on the peripheral hand articulations.

Methods: A total of 280 patients with verified RA underwent computerized semi-automated measurements of joint space distance at the finger articulations based on radiographs. The Z-Score, which can differentiate between joint space alterations caused by RA versus age/gender-related changes, was calculated as a comparative parameter. The severity of joint space narrowing was also quantified by the Sharp Score. Sensitivity and specificity of the Z-Score (based on joint space widths differentiated for each peripheral finger joint) were evaluated to reveal the potential for the occurrence of erosions. Additionally, the potential of the Z-Score regarding the differentiation of therapeutic effects on joint space widths in patients under a therapy of methotrexate versus leflunomide was performed.

Results: The Z-Scores of finger articulations in patients with RA were generally decreased. Metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP) joint articulations showed a continuous significant decline of -1.65±0.30 standard deviations dependent on the Sharp Score. The proximal-interphalangeal joints also revealed a significant reduction of the Z-Score (-0.96±0.31 standard deviations). The sensitivity and specificity of MCP joint space distance for the detection of erosions were 85.4% versus 55.2%. The Sharp Score for joint space narrowing was not able to detect different treatments, whereas an accentuated stabilization of joint space narrowing could be identified for the Z-Score of the MCP joints in patients treated with leflunomide and methotrexate.

Conclusion: The Z-Scoring method based on computer-aided analysis of joint space widths was able to reliably quantify severity-dependent joint space narrowing in RA patients. In the future, calculation of a Z-Score based on gender-specific and age-specific reference data shows the potential for a surrogate marker of RA progression that comprehends the early identification of patients with RA, and in particular those with erosive course of the disease, enabling a timely therapeutic strategy for cartilage protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar4163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3672701PMC
February 2013

Correlation of contrast agent kinetics between iodinated contrast-enhanced spectral tomosynthesis and gadolinium-enhanced MRI of breast lesions.

Eur Radiol 2013 Jun 10;23(6):1528-36. Epub 2013 Jan 10.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13553 Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: Assessment of contrast agent kinetics in contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) with gadolinium-containing contrast agents offers the opportunity to predict breast lesion malignancy. The goal of our study was to determine if similar patterns exist for spectral contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT) using an iodinated contrast agent.

Methods: The protocol of our prospective study was approved by the relevant institutional review board and the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. All patients provided written informed consent. We included 21 women with a mean age of 62.4 years. All underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy of a suspect breast lesion, spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. For every breast lesion, contrast agent kinetics was assessed by signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Statistical comparison used Cohen's kappa and Spearman's rho test.

Results: Spearman's rho of 0.49 showed significant (P = 0.036) correlation regarding the contrast agent kinetics in signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Cohen's kappa indicated moderate agreement (kappa = 0.438).

Conclusion: There is a statistically significant correlation between contrast agent kinetics in the signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Observing intralesional contrast agent kinetics in spectral CE-DBT may aid evaluation of malignant breast lesions.

Key Points: • Contrast agent kinetics can be assessed using spectral digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). • Contrast agent kinetics patterns in spectral DBT are similar to those in contrast-enhanced MRI. • Multiple contrast enhancement for spectral DBT gives additional diagnostic information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-012-2742-5DOI Listing
June 2013

The usefulness of computer-aided joint space analysis in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Joint Bone Spine 2013 Jul 12;80(4):380-5. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena, Germany.

Objective: Computer-aided joint space analysis (CAJSA) is a newly developed technique for the measurement of radiogeometrically detectable joint space widths of the metacarpal-phalangeal (JSD-MCP) and proximal-interphalangeal articulations (JSD-PIP). The aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of these CAJSA measurements in the assessment of established RA.

Methods: Four hundred and fifty-eight participants (248 healthy subjects, 210 RA patients) underwent computerized semi-automated measurements of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP articulations (CAJSA, Radiogrammetry Kit, Version 1.3.6) based on digitally performed radiographs. The Sharp joint space narrowing score was also performed to determine RA-related joint space narrowing.

Results: The significant severity-dependent reduction for JSD-MCP was -44.0% and for JSD-PIP, -25.94% between Sharp scores 0 and 3. The sensitivity and specificity of JSD-MCP (total) was 88.1% versus 77.8%, respectively (AUC = 0.920; P < 0.001). Furthermore, JSD-PIP (total) revealed a lower sensitivity and specificity with 61.4% and 88.7% (AUC = 0.878; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The CAJSA method presented a reliable assessment of disease-related joint space narrowing in patients suffering from RA with excellent sensitivity and specificity. By providing quantitative data, other scoring methods could be significantly improved, and thereby the accuracy of the diagnosis and a better therapeutic evaluation could be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2012.10.022DOI Listing
July 2013

Comparison between amputation-induced demineralization and age-related bone loss using digital X-ray radiogrammetry.

J Clin Densitom 2012 Apr-Jun;15(2):135-45

Department of Radiology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin, Germany.

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) is a computer-assisted automatic osteodensitometric tool. This study was performed to compare DXR measurements between bone changes following amputation trauma and age-related bone loss. Thirty-five men, who had undergone finger amputations, received a baseline examination and 2--3 serial measurements. As a second group, 215 males older than 70yr were enrolled. All patients obtained standardized hand radiographs. The following DXR parameters evaluating metacarpals were considered: cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD), cortical thickness (DXR-CT), metacarpal index (DXR-MCI), outer bone diameter (width; DXR-W), and inner medullary diameter (DXR-MD). In the amputation group, the DXR parameters showed an accentuated initial decrease between first and second measurements (DRX-BMD--12.7%, DXR-CT--14.2%, DXR-W--8.6%, DXR-MCI--6.1%; p<0.001) followed by a less pronounced reduction between second and third radiographs (DRX-BMD--0.5%, DXR-CT--1.5%, DXR-W--0.1%, DXR-MCI--1.3%). DXR-MD revealed a reduction of--3.6% (p<0.05) between first and second estimates and a non-significant increase (+1.1%) between second and third measurements. When compared with the second and third estimates in the amputation group, men older than 70yr presented lower DXR-BMD, DXR-CT, and DXR-MCI values (p<0.001), but larger metacarpal outer and inner bone diameters (DXR-W and DXR-MD; p<0.001). DXR-MD of the elderly men group was also more extended when compared with the baseline measurements of the amputation cohort (p<0.001). The early accentuated cortical bone loss and particularly the pronounced decrease of the outer bone width seem to be characteristic for amputation-induced osteoporosis, suggesting that this might be a distinct secondary osteoporosis entity. When compared with amputation-associated osteoporosis, where the bone loss occurs to a higher extent in the outer bone diameter than in the medullary cavity, the age-related bone changes lead more to an increase of the medullary diameter than of the outer bone width.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2011.08.006DOI Listing
August 2012

Detection and classification of contrast-enhancing masses by a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnosis system for breast MRI.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2012 May 13;35(5):1077-88. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

Department of Radiology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) method for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which considered dynamic as well as morphologic parameters and linked those to descriptions laid down in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI atlas.

Materials And Methods: MR images of 108 patients with 141 histologically proven mass-like lesions (88 malignant, 53 benign) were included. The CAD system automatically performed the following processing steps: 3D nonrigid motion correction, detection of lesions by a segmentation algorithm, extraction of multiple dynamic and morphologic parameters, and classification of lesions. As one final result, the lesions were categorized by defining their probability of malignancy; this so-called morpho-dynamic index (MDI) ranged from 0%-100%. The results of the CAD system were correlated with histopathologic findings.

Results: The CAD system had a high detection rate of the histologically proven lesions, missing only two malignancies of invasive multifocal carcinomas and four benign lesions (three fibroadenomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia). The 86 detected malignant lesions showed a mean MDI of 86.1% (± 15.4%); the mean MDI of the 49 coded benign lesions was 41.8% (± 22.0%; P < 0.001). Based on receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of the CAD system was 93.5%. Using an appropriate cutoff value (MDI 50%), sensitivity was 96.5% combined with specificity of 75.5%.

Conclusion: The fully automatic CAD technique seems to reliably distinguish between benign and malignant mass-like breast tumors. Observer-independent CAD may be a promising additional tool for the interpretation of breast MRI in the clinical routine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23516DOI Listing
May 2012
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