Publications by authors named "Diane Leong"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A plasmablast biomarker for nonresponse to antibody therapy to CD20 in rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Sep;3(101):101ra92

Department of Immunology Biomarker Discovery, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

An important goal for personalized health care is the identification of biomarkers that predict the likelihood of treatment responses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that quantitative mRNA assays for B lineage cells in blood could serve as baseline predictors of therapeutic response to B cell depletion therapy in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In samples from the REFLEX trial of rituximab in inadequate responders to antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-α, a 25% subgroup of treated subjects with elevated baseline mRNA levels of IgJ, a marker for antibody-secreting plasmablasts, showed reduced clinical response rates. There were no significant efficacy differences in the placebo arm subjects stratified by this marker. Prospective testing of the IgJ biomarker in the DANCER and SERENE rituximab clinical trial cohorts and the SCRIPT ocrelizumab cohort confirmed the utility of this marker to predict nonresponse to anti-CD20 therapy. A combination mRNA biomarker, IgJhiFCRL5lo, showed improved test performance over IgJhi alone. This study demonstrates that baseline blood levels of molecular markers for late-stage B lineage plasmablasts identify a ~20% subgroup of active RA subjects who are unlikely to gain substantial clinical benefit from anti-CD20 B cell depletion therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3002432DOI Listing
September 2011

A polymorphism in the protease-like domain of apolipoprotein(a) is associated with severe coronary artery disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007 Sep 14;27(9):2030-6. Epub 2007 Jun 14.

Celera, 1401 Harbor Bay Parkway, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with severe coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods And Results: We used 3 case-control studies of white subjects whose severity of CAD was assessed by angiography. The first 2 studies were used to generate hypotheses that were then tested in the third study. We tested 12,077 putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Study 1 (781 cases, 603 controls) and identified 302 SNPs nominally associated with severe CAD. Testing these 302 SNPs in Study 2 (471 cases, 298 controls), we found 5 (in LPA, CALM1, HAP1, AP3B1, and ABCG2) were nominally associated with severe CAD and had the same risk alleles in both studies. We then tested these 5 SNPs in Study 3 (554 cases, 373 controls). We found 1 SNP that was associated with severe CAD: LPA I4399M (rs3798220). LPA encodes apolipoprotein(a), a component of lipoprotein(a). I4399M is located in the protease-like domain of apolipoprotein(a). Compared with noncarriers, carriers of the 4399M risk allele (2.7% of controls) had an adjusted odds ratio for severe CAD of 3.14 (confidence interval 1.51 to 6.56), and had 5-fold higher median plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P=0.003).

Conclusions: The LPA I4399M SNP is associated with severe CAD and plasma lipoprotein(a) levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.141291DOI Listing
September 2007

A 7 gene signature identifies the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Hepatology 2007 Aug;46(2):297-306

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

Unlabelled: Clinical factors such as age, gender, alcohol use, and age-at-infection influence the progression to cirrhosis but cannot accurately predict the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to develop a predictive signature for cirrhosis in Caucasian patients. All patients had well-characterized liver histology and clinical factors; DNA was extracted from whole blood for genotyping. We validated all significant markers from a genome scan in the training cohort, and selected 361 markers for the signature building. Using a "machine learning" approach, a signature consisting of markers most predictive for cirrhosis risk in Caucasian patients was developed in the training set (N = 420). The Cirrhosis Risk Score (CRS) was calculated to estimate the risk of developing cirrhosis for each patient. The CRS performance was then tested in an independently enrolled validation cohort of 154 Caucasian patients. A CRS signature consisting of 7 markers was developed for Caucasian patients. The area-under-the-ROC curves (AUC) of the CRS was 0.75 in the training cohort. In the validation cohort, AUC was only 0.53 for clinical factors, increased to 0.73 for CRS, and 0.76 when CRS and clinical factors were combined. A low CRS cutoff of <0.50 to identify low-risk patients would misclassify only 10.3% of high-risk patients, while a high cutoff of >0.70 to identify high-risk patients would misclassify 22.3% of low-risk patients.

Conclusion: CRS is a better predictor than clinical factors in differentiating high-risk versus low-risk for cirrhosis in Caucasian CHC patients. Prospective studies should be conducted to further validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.21695DOI Listing
August 2007

A large-scale genetic association study confirms IL12B and leads to the identification of IL23R as psoriasis-risk genes.

Am J Hum Genet 2007 Feb 21;80(2):273-90. Epub 2006 Dec 21.

Celera, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

We performed a multitiered, case-control association study of psoriasis in three independent sample sets of white North American individuals (1,446 cases and 1,432 controls) with 25,215 genecentric single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and found a highly significant association with an IL12B 3'-untranslated-region SNP (rs3212227), confirming the results of a small Japanese study. This SNP was significant in all three sample sets (odds ratio [OR](common) 0.64, combined P [Pcomb]=7.85x10(-10)). A Monte Carlo simulation to address multiple testing suggests that this association is not a type I error. The coding regions of IL12B were resequenced in 96 individuals with psoriasis, and 30 additional IL12B-region SNPs were genotyped. Haplotypes were estimated, and genotype-conditioned analyses identified a second risk allele (rs6887695) located approximately 60 kb upstream of the IL12B coding region that exhibited association with psoriasis after adjustment for rs3212227. Together, these two SNPs mark a common IL12B risk haplotype (OR(common) 1.40, Pcomb=8.11x10(-9)) and a less frequent protective haplotype (OR(common) 0.58, Pcomb=5.65x10(-12)), which were statistically significant in all three studies. Since IL12B encodes the common IL-12p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, we individually genotyped 17 SNPs in the genes encoding the other chains of these cytokines (IL12A and IL23A) and their receptors (IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R). Haplotype analyses identified two IL23R missense SNPs that together mark a common psoriasis-associated haplotype in all three studies (OR(common) 1.44, Pcomb=3.13x10(-6)). Individuals homozygous for both the IL12B and the IL23R predisposing haplotypes have an increased risk of disease (OR(common) 1.66, Pcomb=1.33x10(-8)). These data, and the previous observation that administration of an antibody specific for the IL-12p40 subunit to patients with psoriasis is highly efficacious, suggest that these genes play a fundamental role in psoriasis pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/511051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1785338PMC
February 2007

Asp92Asn polymorphism in the myeloid IgA Fc receptor is associated with myocardial infarction in two disparate populations: CARE and WOSCOPS.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006 Dec 28;26(12):2763-8. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Celera Inc, 1401 Harbor Bay Parkway, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

Objective: Statins reduce inflammation and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Because the myeloid IgA Fc receptor encoded by FCAR mediates inflammation, we hypothesized that the FCAR Asp92Asn polymorphism is associated with risk of MI and that this risk would be modified by pravastatin.

Methods And Results: In the placebo arm of the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) study, male carriers of the 92Asn allele had an adjusted hazard ratio for incident MI of 1.68 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.57); relative risk reduction by pravastatin was 69% in carriers and 12% in noncarriers (P(interaction)=0.007). In the placebo arm of the all-male West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), carriers had an adjusted odds ratio for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) of 1.46 (90% CI 1.05 to 2.03); for pravastatin compared with placebo treatment, the adjusted odds ratios were 0.55 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.93) in carriers and 0.65 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.83) in noncarriers (P(interaction)=0.55).

Conclusions: Carriers of 92Asn had increased risk of MI in CARE and increased odds of CHD in WOSCOPS. Pravastatin significantly reduced risk in carriers in both CARE and WOSCOPS. A genotype by treatment interaction was observed in CARE but not in WOSCOPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000247248.76409.8bDOI Listing
December 2006

Identification of two gene variants associated with risk of advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Gastroenterology 2006 May 6;130(6):1679-87. Epub 2006 Mar 6.

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, California, USA.

Background & Aims: Previously identified clinical risk factors such as sex, alcohol consumption, and age at infection do not accurately predict which patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) will develop advanced fibrosis (bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis). The aim of this study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can predict the risk of advanced fibrosis in patients with CHC.

Methods: A total of 916 subjects with CHC was enrolled from 2 centers. A gene-centric disease association study of 24,832 putative functional, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed. Of the 1609 SNPs that were significantly associated (P
Results: A missense SNP in the DEAD box polypeptide 5 (DDX5) gene was significantly associated with an increased risk of advanced fibrosis in both the UCSF and the VCU cohorts (OR, 1.8 and 2.2, respectively). Two diplotype groups, carrying the haplotypes composed of the DDX5 SNP and 2 neighboring POLG2 SNPs were also significantly associated with an increased risk of advanced fibrosis and had comparable or better risk estimates. In addition, a missense SNP in the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) gene was associated with a decreased risk of advanced fibrosis in both the UCSF and the VCU cohorts (OR, 0.3 and 0.6, respectively).

Conclusions: Subjects with CHC carrying DDX5 minor allele or DDX5-POLG2 haplotypes are at an increased risk of developing advanced fibrosis, whereas those carrying the CPT1A minor allele are at a decreased risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2006.02.032DOI Listing
May 2006

Identification of four gene variants associated with myocardial infarction.

Am J Hum Genet 2005 Oct 26;77(4):596-605. Epub 2005 Aug 26.

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

Family history is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). However, known gene variants associated with MI cannot fully explain the genetic component of MI risk. We hypothesized that a gene-centric association study that was not limited to candidate genes could identify novel genetic associations with MI. We studied 11,053 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6,891 genes, focusing on SNPs that could influence gene function to increase the likelihood of identifying disease-causing gene variants. To minimize false-positive associations generated by multiple testing, two studies were used to identify a limited number of nominally associated SNPs; a third study tested the hypotheses that these SNPs are associated with MI. In the initial study (of 340 cases and 346 controls), 637 SNPs were associated with MI (P<.05); these were evaluated in a second study (of 445 cases and 606 controls), and 31 of the 637 SNPs were associated with MI (P<.05) and had the same risk allele as in the first study. For each of these 31 SNPs, we tested the hypothesis that it is associated with MI, using a third study (of 560 cases and 891 controls). We found that four of these gene variants were associated with MI (P<.05; false-discovery rate <10%) and had the same risk allele as in the first two studies. These gene variants encode the cytoskeletal protein palladin (KIAA0992 [odds ratio (OR) 1.40]), a tyrosine kinase (ROS1 [OR 1.75]), and two G protein-coupled receptors (TAS2R50 [OR 1.58] and OR13G1 [OR 1.40]); all ORs are for carriers of two versus zero risk alleles. These findings could lead to a better understanding of MI pathophysiology and improved patient risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/491674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1275608PMC
October 2005

PTPN22 genetic variation: evidence for multiple variants associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

Am J Hum Genet 2005 Oct 10;77(4):567-81. Epub 2005 Aug 10.

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

The minor allele of the R620W missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) in the hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase gene, PTPN22, has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These genetic data, combined with biochemical evidence that this SNP affects PTPN22 function, suggest that this phosphatase is a key regulator of autoimmunity. To determine whether other genetic variants in PTPN22 contribute to the development of RA, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in 48 white North American patients with RA and identified 15 previously unreported SNPs, including 2 coding SNPs in the catalytic domain. We then genotyped 37 SNPs in or near PTPN22 in 475 patients with RA and 475 individually matched controls (sample set 1) and selected a subset of markers for replication in an additional 661 patients with RA and 1,322 individually matched controls (sample set 2). Analyses of these results predict 10 common (frequency >1%) PTPN22 haplotypes in white North Americans. The sole haplotype found to carry the previously identified W620 risk allele was strongly associated with disease in both sample sets, whereas another haplotype, identical at all other SNPs but carrying the R620 allele, showed no association. R620W, however, does not fully explain the association between PTPN22 and RA, since significant differences between cases and controls persisted in both sample sets after the haplotype data were stratified by R620W. Additional analyses identified two SNPs on a single common haplotype that are associated with RA independent of R620W, suggesting that R620W and at least one additional variant in the PTPN22 gene region influence RA susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/468189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1275606PMC
October 2005

Association of late-onset Alzheimer's disease with genetic variation in multiple members of the GAPD gene family.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Nov 26;101(44):15688-93. Epub 2004 Oct 26.

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

Although several genes have been implicated in the development of the early-onset autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the genetics of late-onset AD (LOAD) is complex. Loci on several chromosomes have been linked to the disease, but so far only the apolipoprotein E gene has been consistently shown to be a risk factor. We have performed a large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association study, across the region of linkage on chromosome 12, in multiple case-control series totaling 1,089 LOAD patients and 1,196 control subjects and report association with SNPs in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene. Subsequent analysis of GAPD paralogs on other chromosomes demonstrated association with two other paralogs. A significant association between LOAD and a compound genotype of the three GAPD genes was observed in all three sample sets. Individually, these SNPs make differential contributions to disease risk in each of the casecontrol series, suggesting that variants in functionally similar genes may account for series-to-series heterogeneity of disease risk. Our observations raise the possibility that GAPD genes are AD risk factors, a hypothesis that is consistent with the role of GAPD in neuronal apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403535101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524264PMC
November 2004

Association of ABCA1 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease is not observed in a case-control study.

Neurosci Lett 2004 Aug;366(3):268-71

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

Genetic association of ABCA1 or the ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) has recently been proposed for a haplotype comprised of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We have genotyped these and other ABCA1 SNPs in a LOAD case-control series of 796 individuals (419 cases versus 377 controls) collected at Washington University. While our sample series is larger and thus presumably has greater power than any of the series used to implicate ABCA1, we were unable to replicate the published association, using either single markers or multiple marker haplotypes. Further, we did not observe significant and replicated association of other ABCA1 SNPs we examined with the disease, thus these ABCA1 variants do not appear to influence the risk of LOAD in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2004.05.047DOI Listing
August 2004

A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

Am J Hum Genet 2004 Aug 18;75(2):330-7. Epub 2004 Jun 18.

Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease, affecting approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide, with an estimated heritability of 60%. To identify genes involved in RA susceptibility, we investigated the association between putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RA among white individuals by use of a case-control study design; a second sample was tested for replication. Here we report the association of RA susceptibility with the minor allele of a missense SNP in PTPN22 (discovery-study allelic P=6.6 x 10(-4); replication-study allelic P=5.6 x 10(-8)), which encodes a hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase also known as "Lyp." We show that the risk allele, which is present in approximately 17% of white individuals from the general population and in approximately 28% of white individuals with RA, disrupts the P1 proline-rich motif that is important for interaction with Csk, potentially altering these proteins' normal function as negative regulators of T-cell activation. The minor allele of this SNP recently was implicated in type 1 diabetes, suggesting that the variant phosphatase may increase overall reactivity of the immune system and may heighten an individual carrier's risk for autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/422827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1216068PMC
August 2004

Pharmacogenetic analysis of adverse drug effect reveals genetic variant for susceptibility to liver toxicity.

Pharmacogenomics J 2002 ;2(5):327-34

F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

A retrospective pharmacogenetic study was conducted to identify possible genetic susceptibility factors in patients in whom the administration of the anti-Parkinson drug, tolcapone (TASMAR), was associated with hepatic toxicity. We studied 135 cases of patients with elevated liver transaminase levels (ELT) of >/=1.5 times above the upper limit of normal, in comparison with matched controls that had also received the drug but had not experienced ELT. DNA samples were genotyped for 30 previously described or newly characterized bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), representing 12 candidate genes selected based on the known metabolic pathways involved in the tolcapone elimination. SNPs located within the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A gene complex, which codes for the enzymes involved in the main elimination pathway of the drug, were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of tolcapone-associated ELTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.tpj.6500123DOI Listing
May 2003