Publications by authors named "Diana M Brainard"

117 Publications

Evaluation of hepatitis C treatment-as-prevention within Australian prisons (SToP-C): a prospective cohort study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 7;6(7):533-546. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Limited empirical evidence exists for the effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment-as-prevention. The Surveillance and Treatment of Prisoners with hepatitis C (SToP-C) study aimed to assess the effect of HCV treatment-as-prevention in the prison setting.

Methods: SToP-C was a prospective study, including a before-and-after analysis, within a cohort of people incarcerated in two maximum-security prisons (male) and two medium-security prisons (one male, one female) in New South Wales, Australia. All prison inmates aged at least 18 years were eligible for enrolment. After HCV testing, participants were monitored for risk behaviours and HCV infection, among three sub-populations: uninfected (HCV antibody-negative); previously infected (HCV antibody-positive, HCV RNA-negative); and infected (HCV antibody and HCV RNA-positive). Uninfected participants were followed up every 3-6 months to detect HCV primary infection and previously infected participants were followed up every 3-6 months to detect re-infection. Participants with HCV infection were assessed for treatment, initially standard-of-care treatment (administered by prison health services) from 2014 to mid-2017, then direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment scale-up from mid-2017 onwards (12 weeks of sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir, administered through SToP-C). Participants were followed up until study closure in November, 2019. The primary study outcome was HCV incidence before and after DAA treatment scale-up among participants at risk of HCV primary infection or re-infection. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02064049.

Findings: Between Oct 30, 2014, and Sept 30, 2019, 3691 participants were enrolled in the SToP-C study. 719 (19%) participants had detectable HCV RNA, 2240 (61%) were at risk of primary HCV infection, and 725 (20%) were at risk of re-infection at baseline. DAA treatment was initiated in 349 (70%) of 499 eligible participants during the treatment scale-up period. The HCV incidence analysis comprised 1643 participants at risk of HCV infection or re-infection during longitudinal follow-up (median age 33 years [IQR 27-42]; 1350 [82%] male). 487 (30%) of 1643 participants reported injecting drugs in prison. HCV incidence decreased from 8·31 per 100 person-years in the pre-treatment scale-up period to 4·35 per 100 person-years in the post-treatment scale-up period (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0·52 [95% CI 0·36-0·78]; p=0·0007). The incidence of primary infection decreased from 6·64 per 100 person-years in the pre-treatment scale-up period to 2·85 per 100 person-years in the post-treatment scale-up period (IRR 0·43 [95% CI 0·25-0·74]; p=0·0019), whereas the incidence of re-infection decreased from 12·36 per 100 person-years to 7·27 per 100 person-years (0·59 [0·35-1·00]; p=0·050). Among participants reporting injecting drugs during their current imprisonment, the incidence of primary infection decreased from 39·08 per 100 person-years in the pre-treatment scale-up period to 14·03 per 100 person-years in the post-treatment scale-up period (IRR 0·36 [95% CI 0·16-0·80]; p=0·0091), and the incidence of re-infection decreased from 15·26 per 100 person-years to 9·34 per 100 person-years (0·61 [0·34-1·09]; p=0·093). The adjusted analysis (adjusted for age, Indigenous Australian ethnicity, duration of stay in prison, previous imprisonment, injecting drug use status, and prison site) indicated a significant reduction in the risk of HCV infection between the pre-DAA treatment scale-up and post-DAA treatment scale-up periods (adjusted hazard ratio 0·50 [95% CI 0·33-0·76]; p=0·0014).

Interpretation: DAA treatment scale-up was associated with reduced HCV incidence in prison, indicative of a beneficial effect of HCV treatment-as-prevention in this setting. These findings support broad DAA treatment scale-up within incarcerated populations.

Funding: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Project Grant and Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00077-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Compassionate Use of Remdesivir in Children With Severe COVID-19.

Pediatrics 2021 05;147(5)

Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Remdesivir shortens time to recovery in adults with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its efficacy and safety in children are unknown. We describe outcomes in children with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir.

Methods: Seventy-seven hospitalized patients <18 years old with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection received remdesivir through a compassionate-use program between March 21 and April 22, 2020. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200 mg on day 1 and 100 mg daily subsequently for children ≥40 kg and 5 mg/kg on day 1 and 2.5 mg/kg daily subsequently for children <40 kg, given intravenously). Clinical data through 28 days of follow-up were collected.

Results: Median age was 14 years (interquartile range 7-16, range <2 months to 17 years). Seventy-nine percent of patients had ≥1 comorbid condition. At baseline, 90% of children required supplemental oxygen and 51% required invasive ventilation. By day 28 of follow-up, 88% of patients had a decreased oxygen-support requirement, 83% recovered, and 73% were discharged. Among children requiring invasive ventilation at baseline, 90% were extubated, 80% recovered, and 67% were discharged. There were 4 deaths, of which 3 were attributed to COVID-19. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to COVID-19 or comorbid conditions. Laboratory abnormalities, including elevations in transaminase levels, were common; 61% were grades 1 or 2.

Conclusions: Among 77 children treated with remdesivir for severe COVID-19, most recovered and the rate of serious adverse events was low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-047803DOI Listing
May 2021

Vesatolimod, a Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonist, Induces Immune Activation in Virally Suppressed Adults Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun;72(11):e815-e824

Gilead Sciences Inc., Foster City, California, USA.

Background: Treatment with vesatolimod, an investigational, oral, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, leads to sustained viral remission in some non-human primates when combined with anti-envelope antibodies or therapeutic vaccines. We report results of a Phase Ib study evaluating safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of vesatolimod in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1.

Methods: In this double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, participants on antiretroviral therapy with screening plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <50 copies/mL were randomized (6:2) to receive 6-10 doses of vesatolimod (1-12 mg) or matching placebo orally every other week in sequential dose-escalation cohorts. The primary study objectives included establishing the safety and virologic effects of vesatolimod (change from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic/immunologic activity were assessed as secondary objectives.

Results: A total of 48 individuals were randomly assigned to vesatolimod (n = 36) or placebo (n = 12). Vesatolimod was generally well tolerated, with no study drug-related serious adverse events or adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation. There were no statistically significant changes from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA in the vesatolimod groups, compared to placebo.Vesatolimod plasma exposures increased dose proportionally; consistent responses in cytokines, interferon-stimulated gene expression, and lymphocyte activation were observed with increasing dose levels above 4 mg. Peak elevations 24 hours after receipt of a 6 mg dose were >3.9-fold higher for interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC) when compared to baseline values.

Conclusions: Vesatolimod was well tolerated at doses ranging from 1 to 12 mg. Immune stimulation was observed at doses above 4 mg, providing rationale for future combination trials in people living with HIV.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02858401.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1534DOI Listing
June 2021

Compassionate Use of Remdesivir in Pregnant Women with Severe Covid-19.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States.

Background: Remdesivir is efficacious for severe COVID-19 in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir.

Methods: Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200mg on Day 1, followed by 100mg for Days 2-10, given intravenously).

Results: Nineteen of 86 women delivered before their first dose and were reclassified as immediate "postpartum" (median postpartum day=1; range 0-3). At baseline, 40% of pregnant women (median gestational age 28 weeks) required invasive ventilation, in contrast to 95% of postpartum women (median gestational age at delivery 30 weeks). By Day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Among pregnant women, 93% of those on mechanical ventilation were extubated, 93% recovered, and 90% were discharged. Among postpartum women, 89% were extubated, 89% recovered, and 84% were discharged. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to pregnancy and underlying disease; most laboratory abnormalities were Grades 1 or 2. There was one maternal death attributed to underlying disease and no neonatal deaths.

Conclusions: Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797739PMC
October 2020

Effect of Remdesivir vs Standard Care on Clinical Status at 11 Days in Patients With Moderate COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 09;324(11):1048-1057

Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Remdesivir demonstrated clinical benefit in a placebo-controlled trial in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its effect in patients with moderate disease is unknown.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of 5 or 10 days of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care on clinical status on day 11 after initiation of treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and room-air oxygen saturation >94%) enrolled from March 15 through April 18, 2020, at 105 hospitals in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The date of final follow-up was May 20, 2020.

Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir (n = 197), a 5-day course of remdesivir (n = 199), or standard care (n = 200). Remdesivir was dosed intravenously at 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg/d.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was clinical status on day 11 on a 7-point ordinal scale ranging from death (category 1) to discharged (category 7). Differences between remdesivir treatment groups and standard care were calculated using proportional odds models and expressed as odds ratios. An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates difference in clinical status distribution toward category 7 for the remdesivir group vs the standard care group.

Results: Among 596 patients who were randomized, 584 began the study and received remdesivir or continued standard care (median age, 57 [interquartile range, 46-66] years; 227 [39%] women; 56% had cardiovascular disease, 42% hypertension, and 40% diabetes), and 533 (91%) completed the trial. Median length of treatment was 5 days for patients in the 5-day remdesivir group and 6 days for patients in the 10-day remdesivir group. On day 11, patients in the 5-day remdesivir group had statistically significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution than those receiving standard care (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P = .02). The clinical status distribution on day 11 between the 10-day remdesivir and standard care groups was not significantly different (P = .18 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). By day 28, 9 patients had died: 2 (1%) in the 5-day remdesivir group, 3 (2%) in the 10-day remdesivir group, and 4 (2%) in the standard care group. Nausea (10% vs 3%), hypokalemia (6% vs 2%), and headache (5% vs 3%) were more frequent among remdesivir-treated patients compared with standard care.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with moderate COVID-19, those randomized to a 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care at 11 days after initiation of treatment. Patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care, but the difference was of uncertain clinical importance.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04292730.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.16349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442954PMC
September 2020

Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide vs emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (DISCOVER): primary results from a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, active-controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet 2020 07;396(10246):239-254

Department of Adult and Family Medicine, Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Tenofovir alafenamide shows high antiviral efficacy and improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate when used for HIV treatment. Here, we report primary results from a blinded phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide versus emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention.

Methods: This study is an ongoing, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, active-controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done at 94 community, public health, and hospital-associated clinics located in regions of Europe and North America, where there is a high incidence of HIV or prevalence of people living with HIV, or both. We enrolled adult cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men, both with a high risk of acquiring HIV on the basis of their self-reported sexual behaviour in the past 12 weeks or their recent history (within 24 weeks of enrolment) of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Participants with current or previous use of PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were not excluded. We used a computer-generated random allocation sequence to randomly assign (1:1) participants to receive either emtricitabine (200 mg) and tenofovir alafenamide (25 mg) tablets daily, with matched placebo tablets (emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group), or emtricitabine (200 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) tablets daily, with matched placebo tablets (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group). As such, all participants were given two tablets. The trial sponsor, investigators, participants, and the study staff who provided the study drugs, assessed the outcomes, and collected the data were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy outcome was incident HIV infection, which was assessed when all participants had completed 48 weeks of follow-up and half of all participants had completed 96 weeks of follow-up. This full analysis set included all randomly assigned participants who had received at least one dose of the assigned study drug and had at least one post-baseline HIV test. Non-inferiority of emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was established if the upper bound of the 95·003% CI of the HIV incidence rate ratio (IRR) was less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1·62. We prespecified six secondary bone mineral density and renal biomarker safety endpoints to evaluate using the safety analysis set. This analysis set included all randomly assigned participants who had received at least one dose of the assigned study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02842086, and is no longer recruiting.

Findings: Between Sept 13, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 5387 (92%) of 5857 participants were randomly assigned and received emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (n=2694) or emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (n=2693). At the time of the primary efficacy analysis (ie, when all participants had completed 48 weeks and 50% had completed 96 weeks) emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention, as the upper limit of the 95% CI of the IRR, was less than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1·62 (IRR 0·47 [95% CI 0·19-1·15]). After 8756 person-years of follow-up, 22 participants were diagnosed with HIV, seven participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group (0·16 infections per 100 person-years [95% CI 0·06-0·33]), and 15 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (0·34 infections per 100 person-years [0·19-0·56]). Both regimens were well tolerated, with a low number of participants reporting adverse events that led to discontinuation of the study drug (36 [1%] of 2694 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide group vs 49 [2%] of 2693 participants in the emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group). Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide was superior to emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in all six prespecified bone mineral density and renal biomarker safety endpoints.

Interpretation: Daily emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide shows non-inferior efficacy to daily emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention, and the number of adverse events for both regimens was low. Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide had more favourable effects on bone mineral density and biomarkers of renal safety than emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31065-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Remdesivir for Severe COVID-19 versus a Cohort Receiving Standard of Care.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 24. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Gilead Sciences, Stockley Park, Uxbridge, UK.

Background: We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe COVID-19 using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard-of-care.

Methods: GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation 94% or lower on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard-of-care. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with recovery on day 14, dichotomized from a 7-point clinical status ordinal scale. A key secondary endpoint was mortality.

Results: After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 2.03: 95% confidence interval 1.34-3.08, p<0.001). At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.68, p=0.001).

Conclusions: In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454434PMC
July 2020

Switching to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in virologically suppressed adults with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 15. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, US.

Background: Bictegravir/emtricitabine/and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF) is guideline-recommended treatment for HIV-1. We evaluated whether people receiving dolutegravir (DTG) plus F/TAF or F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with viral suppression can switch to B/F/TAF without compromising safety or efficacy, regardless of pre-existing NRTI resistance.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, active-controlled, noninferiority trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03110380), we enrolled virologically suppressed adults for ≥6 months before screening (with documented/suspected NRTI resistance) or ≥3 months before screening (with no documented/suspected NRTI resistance) on DTG plus either F/TDF or F/TAF. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to switch to B/F/TAF or DTG+F/TAF once daily for 48 weeks, each with matching placebo. The primary endpoint was proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL at week 48 (Snapshot algorithm); the pre-specified noninferiority margin was 4%.

Findings: 567 adults were randomized; 565 were treated (284 B/F/TAF, 281 DTG+F/TAF). At week 48, B/F/TAF was noninferior to DTG+F/TAF, as 0.4% (1/284) vs 1.1% (3/281) (difference -0.7%, 95.001% CI: -2.8% to 1.0%) had HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL. There were no significant differences in efficacy among participants with suspected or confirmed prior NRTI resistance (n=138). No participant had treatment-emergent drug resistance. Median weight change from baseline at week 48 was +1.3 kg (B/F/TAF) vs +1.1 kg (DTG+F/TAF) (p=0.46). Weight change differed by baseline NRTIs +2.2 kg (F/TDF) and +0.6 kg (F/TAF) (p<0.001), with no differences between B/F/TAF and DTG+F/TAF.

Interpretation: The single-tablet regimen B/F/TAF is a safe, effective option for people virologically suppressed on DTG plus either F/TDF or F/TAF, including in individuals with pre-existing resistance to NRTIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa988DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical targeting of HIV capsid protein with a long-acting small molecule.

Nature 2020 08 1;584(7822):614-618. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Oral antiretroviral agents provide life-saving treatments for millions of people living with HIV, and can prevent new infections via pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, some people living with HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced have limited or no treatment options, owing to multidrug resistance. In addition, suboptimal adherence to oral daily regimens can negatively affect the outcome of treatment-which contributes to virologic failure, resistance generation and viral transmission-as well as of pre-exposure prophylaxis, leading to new infections. Long-acting agents from new antiretroviral classes can provide much-needed treatment options for people living with HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced, and additionally can improve adherence. Here we describe GS-6207, a small molecule that disrupts the functions of HIV capsid protein and is amenable to long-acting therapy owing to its high potency, low in vivo systemic clearance and slow release kinetics from the subcutaneous injection site. Drawing on X-ray crystallographic information, we designed GS-6207 to bind tightly at a conserved interface between capsid protein monomers, where it interferes with capsid-protein-mediated interactions between proteins that are essential for multiple phases of the viral replication cycle. GS-6207 exhibits antiviral activity at picomolar concentrations against all subtypes of HIV-1 that we tested, and shows high synergy and no cross-resistance with approved antiretroviral drugs. In phase-1 clinical studies, monotherapy with a single subcutaneous dose of GS-6207 (450 mg) resulted in a mean log-transformed reduction of plasma viral load of 2.2 after 9 days, and showed sustained plasma exposure at antivirally active concentrations for more than 6 months. These results provide clinical validation for therapies that target the functions of HIV capsid protein, and demonstrate the potential of GS-6207 as a long-acting agent to treat or prevent infection with HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2443-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188729PMC
August 2020

Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin and sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in patients with genotype 1 or 3 hepatitis C virus and severe renal impairment: a multicentre, phase 2b, non-randomised, open-label study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 10 10;5(10):918-926. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Auckland Clinical Studies, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: There is a medical need for highly effective, safe, and well tolerated treatments for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with severe renal impairment. We investigated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir with ribavirin or ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir in a prospective study of patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault ≤30 mL/min) who were not on dialysis.

Methods: This phase 2b, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre study in the USA and New Zealand investigated three sequentially enrolled cohorts of patients. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals and clinical research centres and were included if they had genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection, a creatinine clearance less than or equal to 30 mL/min, and were not on dialysis. In cohorts 1 and 2, patients received sofosbuvir (200 mg in cohort 1 and 400 mg in cohort 2) plus ribavirin 200 mg once per day for 24 weeks. In cohort 3, 18 patients received ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir (90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir) once per day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and pharmacokinetic data were also collected. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01958281, and is completed.

Findings: This study was done between Oct 7, 2013, and Oct 29, 2017. In the sofosbuvir plus ribavirin cohorts, 32 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled and assessed for efficacy and safety (ten patients in each cohort). In the ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir cohort, 33 patients were screened, of whom 18 were enrolled and assessed for treatment efficacy and safety. Four (40%, 95% CI 12-74) of ten patients in cohort 1 and six (60%, 26-88) of ten patients in cohort 2 achieved SVR12. All 18 (100%, 82-100) patients in cohort 3 achieved SVR12. Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity. The most commonly reported adverse events overall were headache (eight [21%] of 38 patients), anaemia (seven [18%] of 38 patients), and fatigue (six [16%] of 38 patients). Eight patients had serious adverse events, none of which were treatment related. There were no treatment-related cardiac events or clinically significant changes in echocardiographic parameters or creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault.

Interpretation: In this phase 2b study, ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease who were not on dialysis.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30417-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Fixed-dose combination bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus dolutegravir-containing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: week 144 results from two randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3, non-inferiority trials.

Lancet HIV 2020 06;7(6):e389-e400

Department of HIV Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: In the primary week-48 analyses of two phase 3 studies, coformulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to a dolutegravir-containing regimen in treatment-naive people with HIV. We report week-144 efficacy and safety results from these studies.

Methods: We did two double-blind, active-controlled studies (now in open-label extension phase). Study 1 randomly assigned (1:1) HLA-B*5701-negative adults without hepatitis B virus co-infection to receive coformulated bictegravir 50 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg, or coformulated dolutegravir 50 mg, abacavir 600 mg, and lamivudine 300 mg once daily. Study 2 randomly assigned (1:1) adults to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, or dolutegravir 50 mg given with coformulated emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg. We previously reported non-inferiority at the primary endpoint. Here, we report the week-144 secondary outcome of proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at week 144, by US Food and Drug Administration Snapshot algorithm, analysed in the same manner. These studies were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02607930 and NCT02607956.

Findings: 629 participants were randomly assigned and treated in study 1 (314 to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, and 315 to dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine) and 645 in study 2 (327 to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, 325 to dolutegravir, emtricitabine, tenofovir alafenamide). At week 144, bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to both dolutegravir-containing regimens for efficacy. In study 1, 256 (82%) of 314 participants had plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and 265 (84%) of 315 in the dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine group (difference -2·6%, 95% CI -8·5 to 3·4). In study 2, 262 (82%) of 320 participants had plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and 273 (84%) of 325 in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group (difference -1·9%, -7·8 to 3·9). In both studies, no participant had treatment-emergent resistance to study drugs up to week 144. All treatment regimens were well tolerated with additional exposure. Adverse events that led to study drug discontinuation were reported for no participants in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group versus five (2%) of 315 in the dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine group (study 1), and six (2%) of 320 in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus six (2%) of 325 in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group (study 2). In study 1, statistically significant differences were observed in median changes from baseline in fasting total cholesterol (14 mg/dL vs 10 mg/dL; p=0·034), direct LDL (21 mg/dL vs 14 mg/dL; p=0·004), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (-0·1 vs -0·3; p=0·007) at week 144; no differences were observed between groups in study 2. Weight gain was seen across all treatment groups in both studies, with no differences in median changes from baseline in weight at week 144 for either study.

Interpretation: These long-term data support the use of bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide as a safe, well tolerated, and durable treatment for people with HIV, with no emergent resistance.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30099-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2020 11 27;383(19):1827-1837. Epub 2020 May 27.

From the Swedish Center for Research and Innovation, Swedish Medical Center, and the University of Washington, Seattle (J.D.G.), and Providence Regional Medical Center, Everett (G.D.) - both in Washington; the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (D.C.B.L.); the Chinese University of Hong Kong-Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (D.S.H.); New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (K.M. Marks); Malattie Infettive Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia-Università di Pavia, Pavia (R.B.), and Università di Milano, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco Infectious Diseases Unit, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Milan (M.G.) - both in Italy; Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid (R.M.), and Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.M.); Technical University of Munich, School of Medicine, University Hospital rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany (C.D.S.); Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea (M.-Y.A.); ID Care, Hillsborough, and Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Somerset, Somerville - both in New Jersey (R.G.N.); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (Y.-S.C.); Gilead Sciences, Foster City (D.S., R.H.H., A.O.O., H.C., C.B., X.W., A.G., D.M.B.), Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles (W.J.T.), and Stanford University, Palo Alto (A.S.) - all in California; University of Chicago, Chicago (K.M. Mullane); Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (F.M.M.); and Miriam Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.T.T.).

Background: Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).

Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air, and radiologic evidence of pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. The primary end point was clinical status on day 14, assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale.

Results: In total, 397 patients underwent randomization and began treatment (200 patients for 5 days and 197 for 10 days). The median duration of treatment was 5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 5) in the 5-day group and 9 days (interquartile range, 5 to 10) in the 10-day group. At baseline, patients randomly assigned to the 10-day group had significantly worse clinical status than those assigned to the 5-day group (P = 0.02). By day 14, a clinical improvement of 2 points or more on the ordinal scale occurred in 64% of patients in the 5-day group and in 54% in the 10-day group. After adjustment for baseline clinical status, patients in the 10-day group had a distribution in clinical status at day 14 that was similar to that among patients in the 5-day group (P = 0.14). The most common adverse events were nausea (9% of patients), worsening respiratory failure (8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase level (7%), and constipation (7%).

Conclusions: In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir. With no placebo control, however, the magnitude of benefit cannot be determined. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; GS-US-540-5773 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04292899.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2015301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377062PMC
November 2020

Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2020 06 10;382(24):2327-2336. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).

Background: Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day.

Results: Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). Of the 53 patients whose data were analyzed, 22 were in the United States, 22 in Europe or Canada, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation and 4 (8%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged, and 7 patients (13%) died; mortality was 18% (6 of 34) among patients receiving invasive ventilation and 5% (1 of 19) among those not receiving invasive ventilation.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169476PMC
June 2020

Gender Parity in Clinical PrEP Trials.

N Engl J Med 2019 12;381(26):2585

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1915473DOI Listing
December 2019

Weight Gain Following Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Risk Factors in Randomized Comparative Clinical Trials.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 09;71(6):1379-1389

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) often leads to weight gain. While some of this weight gain may be an appropriate return-to-health effect, excessive increases in weight may lead to obesity. We sought to explore factors associated with weight gain in several randomized comparative clinical trials of ART initiation.

Methods: We performed a pooled analysis of weight gain in 8 randomized controlled clinical trials of treatment-naive people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiating ART between 2003 and 2015, comprising >5000 participants and 10 000 person-years of follow-up. We used multivariate modeling to explore relationships between demographic factors, HIV disease characteristics, and ART components and weight change following ART initiation.

Results: Weight gain was greater in more recent trials and with the use of newer ART regimens. Pooled analysis revealed baseline demographic factors associated with weight gain including lower CD4 cell count, higher HIV type 1 RNA, no injection drug use, female sex, and black race. Integrase strand transfer inhibitor use was associated with more weight gain than were protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), with dolutegravir and bictegravir associated with more weight gain than elvitegravir/cobicistat. Among the NNRTIs, rilpivirine was associated with more weight gain than efavirenz. Among nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir alafenamide was associated with more weight gain than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, abacavir, or zidovudine.

Conclusions: Weight gain is ubiquitous in clinical trials of ART initiation and is multifactorial in nature, with demographic factors, HIV-related factors, and the composition of ART regimens as contributors. The mechanisms by which certain ART agents differentially contribute to weight gain are unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486849PMC
September 2020

Adaptation of hepatitis C virus to interferon lambda polymorphism across multiple viral genotypes.

Elife 2019 09 3;8. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Genetic polymorphism in the interferon lambda (IFN-λ) region is associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to interferon-based treatment. Here, we evaluate associations between IFN-λ polymorphism and HCV variation in 8729 patients (Europeans 77%, Asians 13%, Africans 8%) infected with various viral genotypes, predominantly 1a (41%), 1b (22%) and 3a (21%). We searched for associations between rs12979860 genotype and variants in the NS3, NS4A, NS5A and NS5B HCV proteins. We report multiple associations in all tested proteins, including in the interferon-sensitivity determining region of NS5A. We also assessed the combined impact of human and HCV variation on pretreatment viral load and report amino acids associated with both IFN-λ polymorphism and HCV load across multiple viral genotypes. By demonstrating that IFN-λ variation leaves a large footprint on the viral proteome, we provide evidence of pervasive viral adaptation to innate immune pressure during chronic HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.42542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721370PMC
September 2019

Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin Therapy for Children Aged 3 to <12 Years With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 or 3 Infection.

Hepatology 2020 01 13;71(1):31-43. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Helios Medical Center, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany.

Currently, the only approved hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for children aged <12 years is pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. In an open-label study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks in children aged 3 to <12 years chronically infected with genotype 2 or for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 3. Patients aged 3 to <6 years weighing <17 kg received sofosbuvir 150 mg, and patients aged 3 to <6 years weighing ≥17 kg and all patients aged 6 to <12 years received sofosbuvir 200 mg once daily. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling conducted in each age group confirmed the appropriateness of sofosbuvir doses. For all patients, ribavirin dosing was determined by baseline weight (up to 1,400 mg/day, two divided doses). The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12). Fifty-four patients were enrolled (41 aged 6 to <12 years and 13 aged 3 to <6 years). Most were treatment naïve (98%) and infected perinatally (94%). All but one patient achieved SVR12 (53/54, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 90%-100%). The patient who did not achieve SVR12 was a 4-year-old who discontinued treatment after 3 days because of "abnormal drug taste." The most commonly reported adverse events in patients aged 6 to <12 years were vomiting (32%) and headache (29%), and those in patients aged 3 to <6 years were vomiting (46%) and diarrhea (39%). One 3-year-old patient had a serious adverse event of accidental ribavirin overdose requiring hospitalization for monitoring; this patient completed treatment and achieved SVR12. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin was well tolerated and highly effective in children aged 3 to <12 years with chronic HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004103PMC
January 2020

Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir for 12 Weeks in Children 3 to <6 Years Old With Chronic Hepatitis C.

Hepatology 2020 02 19;71(2):422-430. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH.

For children under 12 years of age who have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, there are currently no approved treatments with direct-acting antiviral agents. We therefore evaluated the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in HCV-infected children aged 3 to <6 years. In an open-label study, patients 3 to <6 years old chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 (n = 33) or 4 (n = 1) received weight-based doses of combined ledipasvir-sofosbuvir as granules (33.75 mg/150 mg for weights <17 kg or 45 mg/200 mg for weights ≥17 kg) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12). For the first 14 patients, intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was done on day 10 of treatment. All patients had been infected through perinatal transmission and were treatment naïve. No patients had known cirrhosis. Ten patients (29%) weighed <17 kg. SVR12 was achieved in 97% of patients (33 of 34); the patient who did not achieve SVR12 was 3 years old and discontinued treatment after 5 days because of an adverse event "abnormal drug taste." The most common adverse events were vomiting (24% of patients), cough (21%), and pyrexia (21%). No patients experienced a serious adverse event. Intensive pharmacokinetic analysis of 13 patients for whom data were evaluable confirmed that the doses selected were appropriate. Conclusion: Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir was well tolerated and highly effective in children 3 to <6 years old with chronic HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028138PMC
February 2020

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for 8 Weeks to Treat Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute HCV in HIV-1 Infected Individuals.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 07;69(3):514-522

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Background: Current guidelines for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections provide varying recommendations for the optimal treatment of acute HCV infections. There are limited data from small cohort studies to provide guidance on the best approach to treatment of this important patient population.

Methods: Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute HCV in HIV-1 Infected Individuals is an open-label, 2-cohort, Phase 1 clinical trial in which the second cohort assessed the safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for the treatment of acute HCV infections in participants with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infections. This final analysis of the second cohort had a planned accrual of 27 participants, based on non-inferiority criteria, compared to the study-defined, historical, sustained virologic response (SVR) of 60% with pegylated-interferon/ribavirin.

Results: We enrolled 27 men (9 Hispanic; 11 White, non-Hispanic; 5 Black, non-Hispanic; 2 Asian or Pacific Islander; median age 46 years). Most (96%) had HCV genotype-1 infection and 59% had the favorable interleukin 28B CC genotype. The median baseline HCV RNA load was 6.17 log10 IU/mL (interquartile range 4.51 - 6.55). All participants (100%) achieved the primary outcome of a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the date of the last dose of study treatment (90% confidence interval 90-100%), achieving non-inferiority versus the 60% historic benchmark. No treatment discontinuations occurred.

Conclusions: This multicenter clinical trial, investigating 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for acute HCV infections in men with HIV infections, reports a 100% SVR. This study provides the rationale for larger studies of shortened courses of direct-acting antiviral therapies in persons with HIV infections, including those with high baseline HCV RNA loads.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02128217.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637278PMC
July 2019

Deferred treatment with a fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 4 and 6 infection.

J Viral Hepat 2019 10 4;26(10):1229-1232. Epub 2019 Aug 4.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3, deferred treatment study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir among patients randomized to the placebo group in the ASTRAL-1 study. Patients received sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (400/100 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). The primary safety endpoint was any adverse events (AEs) leading to the permanent discontinuation of study drug. Overall, 108/111 (97%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-99%) achieved SVR12, and only one patient had virological failure. SVR12 was achieved by 61/63 (97%, 95%CI, 89%-100%) genotype 1 patients, 20/20 (100%; 95%CI, 83%-100%) with genotype 2, 19/19 (100%; 95%CI, 82%-100%) with genotype 4 and 8/9 (89%; 95% CI, 52%-100%) with genotype 6. All (19/19; 95%CI, 82-100) patients with cirrhosis and all (31/31, 95%CI, 89-100) with prior treatment experience achieved SVR12. The safety profile during treatment was similar to that observed in patients receiving placebo treatment. The most common AEs were headache, fatigue and nausea. One patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to an AE of gallbladder carcinoma, which was not considered related to treatment. Of five reported serious AEs, none were considered related to study drug. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks was effective and well tolerated among untreated and previously treated patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 4 or 6 infection, including those with compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02346721).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13159DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparison of the efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in Chinese patients with genotype 3a or 3b HCV infection.

J Med Virol 2019 07 3;91(7):1313-1318. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory for Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Disease, Beijing, China.

Background And Aim: Genotype 3b hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents approximately 50% of patients with genotype 3 in China. We compared the efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ribavirin (RBV) in Chinese patients with genotype 3a and 3b HCV.

Methods: The analyzed data are from a phase 3, open-label study of SOF plus RBV for 24 weeks conducted in China. The primary endpoint for the trial was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12).

Results: Of 126 patients included in this analysis, 58 (46%) had genotype 3a and 68 (54%) had genotype 3b. Both the subtypes were similar in age, sex, body mass index, IL28B, and baseline HCV RNA. However, more treatment-experienced and cirrhotic patients were in the genotype 3b group. All 100% of patients with genotype 3a (95% confidence interval [CI], 94-100), and 91% (95% CI, 82-97) of patients with genotype 3b achieved SVR12 (P = 0.030). For treatment-experienced patients with genotype 3b, the SVR12 rate was 73% (95% CI, 39-94) and 88% (95% CI, 64-99) among patients with and without cirrhosis (P = 1.00), respectively.

Conclusion: SOF plus RBV for 24 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection resulted in high rates of SVR. However, the SVR12 rate among patients with genotype 3b was lower than that observed in patients with genotype 3a infection, particularly among treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25454DOI Listing
July 2019

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir single-tablet regimen administered for 12 weeks in a phase 3 study with minimal monitoring in India.

Hepatol Int 2019 Mar 21;13(2):173-179. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Background And Aims: In clinical studies, sofosbuvir-velpatasvir has demonstrated high cure rates and favorable tolerability in patients chronically infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) of any genotype. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir administered with minimal medical monitoring to patients in India.

Methods: At 16 sites in India, 129 adult patients with chronic HCV infection of any genotype initiated 12 weeks of once-daily sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (400-100 mg). Patients with compensated cirrhosis or prior treatment experience could be included in the study. Study drug was dispensed monthly, but there were no on-treatment study assessments. The primary efficacy endpoint was rate of sustained virologic response (HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL) 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12), which was compared to a pre-specified performance goal of 85%.

Results: The majority of patients had HCV genotype 3 infection (70%), followed by HCV genotype 1 (22%). The SVR12 rate was 93% (120/129; 95% CI, 87% to 97%) (p = 0.009 compared with the 85% performance goal). Of the nine patients who did not achieve SVR12, 1 experienced virologic failure, 2 relapsed after treatment, 1 withdrew consent after treatment, and 5 were lost to follow-up (1 during and 4 after treatment). Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir was well-tolerated, and no patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache (3% of patients), upper abdominal pain (2%), and pyrexia (2%).

Conclusions: In this study conducted at multiple sites in India, sofosbuvir-velpatasvir administered without genotype restriction or on-treatment safety assessments was well-tolerated and highly effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-019-09927-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418070PMC
March 2019

Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir for patients with HCV who previously received a Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir-containing regimen: Results from a retreatment study.

J Viral Hepat 2019 06 27;26(6):770-773. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

This study evaluated 12-week retreatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who did not achieve sustained virologic response after previous treatment with a sofosbuvir- and velpatasvir-containing regimen. All 31 patients maintained a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the last sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849811PMC
June 2019

Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir for Treatment of Recurrent Hepatitis C Virus Infection After Liver Transplantation.

Hepatol Commun 2018 Dec 14;2(12):1446-1450. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Organ Transplant and Liver Center Swedish Medical Center Seattle WA.

There are limited data on direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment options for previously treated patients with recurrent genotype 3 (GT3) hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir (SOF/VEL/VOX) is currently approved for treatment of HCV in patients with prior treatment with DAAs. We report the first published experience using SOF/VEL/VOX after liver transplantation for a DAA-experienced patient with severe hepatitis due to early recurrent GT3 HCV. The patient was treated with SOF/VEL/VOX that was extended to a total duration of 16 weeks and was intensified with ribavirin (RBV) starting at week 8 due to persistent viremia during treatment. Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12) after treatment completion was achieved. SOF/VEL/VOX was well tolerated, and immediate drug-drug interaction (DDI) with tacrolimus (TAC) was not evident. Due to improvement in liver metabolic function with increasing TAC clearance, TAC dose adjustment was required throughout the treatment course. SOF/VEL/VOX can be considered for treatment of recurrent HCV after transplantation. Further study is needed to establish safety and efficacy and define treatment duration in difficult-to-treat populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287482PMC
December 2018

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Asia: a single-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 02 14;4(2):127-134. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Treatment with combined sofosbuvir and velpatasvir has resulted in high sustained virological response rates in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with genotypes 1-6 in clinical trials and real-world settings, but its efficacy and safety has not been assessed in Asia, a region with diverse HCV genotypes.

Methods: In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 38 sites across China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia, who were chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1-6, and were HCV treatment-naive or treatment-experienced, either without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients self-administered a combined sofosbuvir (400 mg) and velpatasvir (100 mg) tablet once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response, defined as HCV RNA less than 15 IU/mL at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12), assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of adverse events leading to premature discontinuation of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02671500, and is completed.

Findings: Between April 14, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 375 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 374 completed the full treatment course and one discontinued treatment. Overall, 362 (97% [95% CI 94-98]) of 375 patients achieved SVR12. Among 42 patients with HCV genotype 3b, all of whom had baseline resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, 25 (89% [95% CI 72-98]) of 28 patients without cirrhosis and seven (50% [23-77]) of 14 patients with cirrhosis achieved SVR12. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (36 [10%] patients) and headache (18 [5%] patients). There were no discontinuations due to adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in three (1%) patients, none of which was judged to be related to sofosbuvir-velpatasvir treatment.

Interpretation: Consistent with data from other phase 3 studies, single-tablet sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks is an efficacious and safe treatment for Asian patients with chronic HCV infection, but might have lower efficacy in those infected with HCV genotype 3b and with cirrhosis.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30343-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for the treatment of HCV: excellent results from a phase-3, open-label study in Russia and Sweden.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2019 Feb 30;51(2):131-139. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

o 15 Department of Internaö Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases , Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge , Stockholm , Sweden.

Background: In both Russia and Sweden, the dominant hepatitis C virus (HCV) is genotype 1, but around one-third of patients have genotype 3 infection. For such countries, HCV genotype testing is recommended prior to therapy. An effective pangenotypic therapy may potentially eliminate the need for genotyping. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in patients from Russia and Sweden.

Methods: In an open-label, single-arm phase-3 study, patients could have HCV genotype 1-6 infection and were treatment-naïve or interferon treatment-experienced. All patients received sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, once daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12).

Results: Of 122 patients screened, 119 were enrolled and treated. Overall, half (50%) were male, 18% had cirrhosis, and 24% had failed prior interferon-based therapy. In total, 66% of patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 (59% 1b and 7% 1a), 6% with genotype 2, and 29% with genotype 3. The overall SVR12 rate was 99% (118/119, 95% confidence interval 95-100%). One treatment-experienced patient infected with HCV genotype 3 experienced virologic relapse after completing treatment. The most common adverse events were headache (16%) and fatigue (7%). Serious adverse events were observed in four patients, but none were related to treatment. No patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events.

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir as a pangenotypic treatment for 12 weeks was highly effective in patients from Russia and Sweden infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was safe and well-tolerated. Clinical trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02722837.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2018.1535186DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir with or without ribavirin in HCV-infected Japanese patients with decompensated cirrhosis: an open-label phase 3 trial.

J Gastroenterol 2019 Jan 10;54(1):87-95. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Musashino Red Cross Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In Japan, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with decompensated cirrhosis currently have no treatment options. In this Phase 3 study, we evaluated sofosbuvir-velpatasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks in patients with any HCV genotype and decompensated cirrhosis [Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) class B or C] in Japan.

Methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive sofosbuvir-velpatasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks. Randomization was stratified by CPT class and genotype. Sustained virologic response 12 weeks following completion of treatment (SVR12) was the primary efficacy endpoint.

Results: Of the 102 patients enrolled, 57% were treatment naive, 78% and 20% had genotype 1 and 2 HCV infection, respectively, and 77% and 20% had CPT class B and C cirrhosis, respectively, at baseline. Overall, 61% of patients were female and the mean age was 66 years (range 41-83). SVR12 rates were 92% (47/51) in each group. Among patients who achieved SVR12, 26% had improved CPT class from baseline to posttreatment week 12. Most adverse events (AEs) were consistent with clinical sequelae of advanced liver disease or known toxicities of ribavirin. Four patients (8%) who received sofosbuvir-velpatasvir and seven (14%) who received sofosbuvir-velpatasvir plus ribavirin experienced a serious AE. The 3 deaths (bacterial sepsis, gastric varices hemorrhage, hepatocellular carcinoma) were attributed to liver disease progression.

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks provides a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for Japanese patients with HCV and decompensated cirrhosis. Ribavirin did not improve efficacy but increased toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-018-1503-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314981PMC
January 2019

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of the Direct-acting Hepatitis C Antiviral Sofosbuvir in HealthyChineseSubjects.

Clin Ther 2018 09 2;40(9):1556-1566. Epub 2018 Sep 2.

Phase I Clinical Trial Unit, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of sofosbuvir and its metabolites after a single dose of sofosbuvir 400mg and once daily dosing of sofosbuvir 400mg for 7days in healthy Chinese subjects.

Methods: This Phase I, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study enrolled 14 Chinese subjects aged 18 to 45years with an approximately even distribution of healthy male (n = 9) and nonpregnant, nonlactating female subjects (n = 5). Subjects received a single oral dose of sofosbuvir 400mg (one tablet) (morning, fasted conditions; single-dose treatment). After a 3-day washout, subjects received oral sofosbuvir 400mg (one tablet) (morning, fasted) for 7days (multiple dose treatment).

Findings: No significant accumulation of sofosbuvir, GS-566500, or GS-331007 was observed. Steady state of the major metabolite GS-331007 was achieved after 4days of consecutive dosing with sofosbuvir 400mg once daily. Sofosbuvir was generally well tolerated.

Implications: Overall, this study supports the further evaluation of sofosbuvir 400mg in the Chinese population. The pharmacokinetic properties of sofosbuvir, GS-556500, and GS-311007 were found to be broadly similar in healthy Chinese subjects compared with non-Chinese subjects in previous sofosbuvir studies. ChinaDrugTrials.org.cn identifier: CTR20150249.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2018.07.018DOI Listing
September 2018